Principles of Risk Management and Insurance: Principles of Risk Management and Insurance - Chapter 6 Flashcards

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The primary function of an actuary is to

  1. A) adjust claims.
  2. B) determine premium rates.
  3. C) negotiate reinsurance treaties.
  4. D) invest insurance company assets.

Answer: B


Insurers obtain data that can be used to determine rates from

  1. A) pricing pools.
  2. B) insurance advisory organizations.
  3. C) banks.
  4. D) reciprocal exchanges.

Answer: B


Which of the following statements about underwriting policy is (are) true?

  1. A company must establish an underwriting policy consistent with company objectives.
  2. Underwriting policy is usually subjective and allows the underwriter considerable flexibility with respect to lines written and forms used.
  3. A) I only
  4. B) II only
  5. C) both I and II
  6. D) neither I nor II

Answer: A


Which of the following statements about underwriting standards is (are) true?

  1. One purpose of underwriting standards is to reduce adverse selection against the insurer.
  2. Equitable rates should be charged so that each group of policyowners pays its own way in terms of losses and expenses.
  3. A) I only
  4. B) II only
  5. C) both I and II
  6. D) neither I nor II

Answer: C


The underwriting process begins with the

  1. A) agent.
  2. B) desk underwriter.
  3. C) inspection report.
  4. D) actuary.

Answer: A


Common sources of underwriting information for life and health insurance include all of the following EXCEPT

  1. A) the application.
  2. B) a physical examination.
  3. C) the Medical Information Bureau.
  4. D) the applicant's income tax return.

Answer: D


If an underwriter suspects moral hazard, the underwriter may ask an outside firm to investigate the applicant and make a detailed report to the insurer. This report is called a(n)

  1. A) inspection report.
  2. B) application.
  3. C) M.I.B. report.
  4. D) agent's report.

Answer: A


One source of life and health insurance underwriting information is an organization that life and health insurance companies can join. As a member, life and health insurance companies report health impairments of applicants, and this information is shared with member companies. Although the information is shared, the underwriting decision of the member company is not disclosed. What is this organization called?

  1. A) Fair Isaac Corporation (FICO)
  2. B) Medical Information Bureau (MIB)
  3. C) National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC)
  4. D) National Association of Mutual Insurance Companies (NAMIC)

Answer: B


Factors that may result in more restrictive underwriting decisions include which of the following?

  1. Inadequate rates.
  2. The unavailability of reinsurance at favorable terms.
  3. A) I only
  4. B) II only
  5. C) both I and II
  6. D) neither I nor II

Answer: C


Which of the following is a function of the marketing department of an insurance company?

  1. A) to settle claims after a loss has been reported
  2. B) to determine the cost of products the insurer sells
  3. C) to make final underwriting decisions
  4. D) to identify production goals

Answer: D


Which of the following statements about claim settlement is (are) true?

  1. The fair payment of claims requires an insurer to adopt a very liberal claims policy.
  2. To prevent lawsuits, an insurer should provide no personal assistance to a claimant other than that which is required by contractual obligations.
  3. A) I only
  4. B) II only
  5. C) both I and II
  6. D) neither I nor II

Answer: D


Which of the following statements about claims settlement is true?

  1. A) Agents are never authorized to settle claims.
  2. B) Independent adjustors may be used in a geographic area where the volume of business is too low for an insurer to have its own adjustors.
  3. C) A public adjustor is a salaried employee who works for one insurer.
  4. D) A staff claims representative is hired by a policyholder to represent him or her if the policyholder does not agree with the claim settlement offered by the insurer.

Answer: B


Morgan was hired by an insurance company after she graduated from college. Upon completion of a training program, Morgan was assigned to a territory where she adjusts claims of the insurer’s policyowners. Morgan is a(n)

  1. A) public adjustor.
  2. B) staff claims representative.
  3. C) agent.
  4. D) independent adjustor.

Answer: B


All of the following statements about the settlement of a claim are true EXCEPT

  1. A) The insurance policy usually has a provision specifying how a notice of loss is to be made to the insurance company.
  2. B) One step in the investigation of a claim is to determine whether the policy was in force when the loss occurred.
  3. C) The adjustor must file the proof of loss, which is a sworn statement supporting his or her decision regarding a claim.
  4. D) A policy provision may determine how disputes over claim settlements are resolved.

Answer: C


Which of the following statements about reinsurance is true?

  1. A) A reinsurer may not purchase reinsurance.
  2. B) The reinsurer is the first insurer that provides claims services to the insured after a loss occurs.
  3. C) The amount of insurance transferred to a reinsurer is called the net retention.
  4. D) The insurer transferring business to a reinsurer is called the ceding company.

Answer: D


All of the following are reasons for a primary insurer to use reinsurance EXCEPT

  1. A) to increase the unearned premium reserve.
  2. B) to increase underwriting capacity.
  3. C) to protect against catastrophic losses.
  4. D) to stabilize profits.

Answer: A


The unearned premium reserve of an insurer is

  1. A) an asset representing the investments made with premium income.
  2. B) a liability representing the unearned portion of gross premiums on outstanding policies.
  3. C) a liability representing claims that have been filed, but not yet paid.
  4. D) the portion of the insurer's net worth belonging to policyowners.

Answer: B


A reinsurance contract that is entered into on a case-by-case basis after an application for insurance is received by a primary insurer is called

  1. A) a reinsurance pool.
  2. B) automatic treaty reinsurance.
  3. C) retrocession.
  4. D) facultative reinsurance.

Answer: D


Which of the following statements about treaty reinsurance is true?

  1. A) The reinsurer is required to underwrite each individual applicant that is reinsured.
  2. B) The reinsurer must accept all business that falls within the scope of the treaty.
  3. C) The ceding insurer can choose which business falling within the scope of the treaty it wishes to reinsure.
  4. D) It protects the reinsurer by requiring the ceding insurer to charge adequate premiums.

Answer: B


Which of the following statements about treaty reinsurance is true?

  1. A) Under a surplus-share treaty, 100 percent of the ceding insurer's liability must be transferred to the reinsurer.
  2. B) Using a quota-share treaty increases the ceding insurer's unearned premium reserve.
  3. C) Under an excess-of-loss treaty, the reinsurer pays losses in full only if they are less than the ceding insurer's retention limit.
  4. D) Using a reinsurance pool provides financial capacity to write large amounts of insurance.

Answer: D


Delta Insurance Company has a surplus-share treaty with Eversafe Reinsurance. Delta has a retention limit of $200,000, and nine lines of insurance are ceded to Eversafe. How much will Eversafe pay if a $1,600,000 building insured by Delta suffers an $800,000 loss?

  1. A) $600,000
  2. B) $700,000
  3. C) $720,000
  4. D) $800,000

Answer: B


Huge Insurance Company is a property insurer that is interested in protecting itself against cumulative losses that exceed $200 million during the year. This protection can best be obtained using a(n)

  1. A) quota-share reinsurance treaty.
  2. B) surplus-share reinsurance treaty.
  3. C) excess-of-loss reinsurance treaty.
  4. D) reinsurance pool.

Answer: C


All of the following statements about life insurance company investments are true EXCEPT

  1. A) Funds for these investments are derived primarily from premium income, investment earnings, and maturing investments that must be reinvested.
  2. B) Income from these investments reduces the cost of insurance.
  3. C) A primary objective in making these investments is safety of principal.
  4. D) The majority of these investments are short-term investments.

Answer: D


Which of the following statements about the investments of property and liability insurers is (are) true?

  1. Income from investments is important in offsetting any unfavorable underwriting experience.
  2. Because premium income is continually being received, the investment objective of liquidity is of little importance.
  3. A) I only
  4. B) II only
  5. C) both I and II
  6. D) neither I nor II

Answer: A


Functions of an insurance company's legal department include which of the following?

  1. Lobbying for legislation favorable to the insurance industry.
  2. Drafting policy provisions.
  3. A) I only
  4. B) II only
  5. C) both I and II
  6. D) neither I nor II

Answer: C


Jan is employed by an insurance company. She reviews applications to determine whether her company should insure the applicant. If insurable, Jan assigns the applicant to a rating category based on the applicant's degree of risk. Jan is a(n)

  1. A) underwriter.
  2. B) actuary.
  3. C) loss control engineer.
  4. D) claims adjustor.

Answer: A


Mark has been an underwriter for 20 years. An application he recently reviewed looked odd to him. The building value in the application seemed far too high, and Mark suspected the applicant might be planning to destroy the property after it is insured. Mark hired an outside firm to investigate the applicant and to prepare a report about the applicant. This report is called a(n)

  1. A) agent's report.
  2. B) binder.
  3. C) physical inspection.
  4. D) inspection report.

Answer: D


Antonio is a claims adjustor for LMN Insurance Company. After the insurer is notified that there has been a loss, Antonio meets with the insured. The first step in the claims process that Antonio should follow is to

  1. A) determine the amount of the loss.
  2. B) attempt to deny the claim regardless of whether he believes the claim is covered.
  3. C) verify that a covered loss has occurred.
  4. D) delay paying the claim if the claim is covered.

Answer: C


Beverly lives in a sparsely populated area in northern Idaho. Some insurance companies marketing coverage in northern Idaho cannot afford to have full-time adjustors there. Several insurers hire Beverly to adjust claims for their insureds. Beverly charges the insurers a fee for each claim that she settles. Beverly is a(n)

  1. A) public adjustor.
  2. B) adjustment bureau.
  3. C) independent adjustor.
  4. D) company adjustor.

Answer: C


New Liability Insurance Company began operations last year and has been very successful. The company's ability to grow is being restricted by an accounting rule that requires insurers to realize acquisition expenses immediately, while not realizing premiums received as income until some time has passed. Reinsurance is often used in such cases for which of the following purposes?

  1. A) to stabilize profitability
  2. B) to reduce the unearned premium reserve
  3. C) to provide protection against catastrophic losses
  4. D) to withdraw from a line of business or territory

Answer: B


Liability Insurance Company (LIC) was approached by a regional airline to see if LIC would write the airline's liability coverage. LIC agreed to write the coverage and entered into an agreement with a reinsurer. Under the agreement, LIC retains 25 percent of the premium and pays 25 percent of the losses, and the reinsurer receives 75 percent of the premium and pays 75 percent of the losses. This reinsurance arrangement is best described as

  1. A) excess-of-loss reinsurance.
  2. B) surplus-share reinsurance.
  3. C) quota-share reinsurance.
  4. D) pool reinsurance.

Answer: C


Ross studied engineering in college. After graduation, he went to work for an insurance company. Ross visits properties insured by his company. He conducts inspections and makes recommendations about alarm systems, sprinkler systems, and building construction. In what functional area does Ross work?

  1. A) underwriting
  2. B) loss control
  3. C) information systems
  4. D) claims adjusting

Answer: B


Amy heads the legal staff of a large property and liability insurance company. Amy's staff is likely involved in which of the following activities?

  1. A) reviewing investment options for the insurer's assets
  2. B) reviewing language and policy provisions in insurance contracts
  3. C) calculating premiums to be charged for the insurer's products
  4. D) reviewing applications to determine if the company should insure the risk

Answer: B


Sue double-majored in mathematics and statistics in college. She also enrolled in a number of finance courses. After graduation, she was hired by Econodeath Insurance Company. Her job is to calculate premium rates for life insurance coverages. Sue is a(n)

  1. A) actuary.
  2. B) underwriter.
  3. C) claims adjustor.
  4. D) producer.

Answer: A


Easy Pay Insurance Company may require insureds who suffer a loss to submit a sworn statement to substantiate that a loss occurred and to describe the conditions under which the loss occurred. This sworn statement is called a(n)

  1. A) binder.
  2. B) proof of loss.
  3. C) inspection report.
  4. D) notice of loss.

Answer: B


All of the following are methods that a property and liability insurance company can use to protect against catastrophic losses EXCEPT

  1. A) sale of catastrophe bonds.
  2. B) purchase of common stock.
  3. C) purchase of excess-of-loss reinsurance.
  4. D) quota share reinsurance with a low retention percentage.

Answer: B


Which of the following statements is (are) true with respect to catastrophe bonds?

  1. The bonds are issued by the U.S. Government.
  2. The bonds have relatively high interest (coupon) rates.
  3. A) I only
  4. B) II only
  5. C) both I and II
  6. D) neither I nor II

Answer: B


Pac-Coast Insurance (PCI) concentrates its underwriting activities in California. The company is concerned that if a catastrophic earthquake occurs, it might threaten the solvency of the company. To address this risk, PCI issued some debt securities. If a catastrophic earthquake occurs, PCI does not have to repay the full amount borrowed or pay interest. The securities PCI issued are called

  1. A) catastrophe futures contracts.
  2. B) interest rate swaps.
  3. C) catastrophe bonds.
  4. D) contingent options contracts.

Answer: C


The process of transferring risk to the capital markets through the use of financial instruments such as bonds, futures contracts, and options is known as

  1. A) consolidation of risk.
  2. B) avoidance of risk.
  3. C) securitization of risk.
  4. D) compartmentalization of risk.

Answer: C


Which of the following statements is (are) true about life insurance company investments?

  1. The majority of life insurance company general account assets are invested in bonds.
  2. The majority of life insurance company separate account assets are invested in stocks.
  3. A) I only
  4. B) II only
  5. C) both I and II
  6. D) neither I nor II

Answer: C


One method through which reinsurance is provided is through an organization of insurers that underwrites insurance on a joint basis. Through the organization, financial capacity is available for large commercial risks. This reinsurance arrangement is a(n)

  1. A) quota-share treaty.
  2. B) surplus-share treaty.
  3. C) excess-of-loss treaty.

D) reinsurance pool

Answer: D


Most insurance companies require their marketing representatives to submit an evaluation of the prospective insured. This important source of underwriting information is called the

  1. A) application.
  2. B) agent's report.
  3. C) inspection report.
  4. D) physical inspection.

Answer: B


Catastrophe bonds are made available to institutional investors in the capital markets through an entity that is specially created for that purpose. This is entity is called a

  1. A) risk retention group.
  2. B) fraternal insurance company.
  3. C) captive insurance company.
  4. D) special purpose reinsurance vehicle.

Answer: D


Which of the following statements is true regarding the information systems functional area of an insurance company?

  1. Computers and information systems are able to perform some tasks that previously were performed directly by employees.
  2. Information systems can speed the processing of policies by insurers.
  3. A) I only
  4. B) II only
  5. C) both I and II
  6. D) neither I nor II

Answer: C


The price per unit of insurance is called the

  1. A) premium.
  2. B) loss adjustment expense.
  3. C) rate.
  4. D) loss reserve.

Answer: C


When a fraternal insurer began operations, it asked each member, regardless of age, to pay $20 per month to the fraternal's group life insurance plan. In exchange, each member received the same amount of life insurance. Soon younger members of the group began to drop out when they realized their premiums were subsidizing a group with a higher chance of loss. Which important underwriting principle was violated in this case?

  1. A) An underwriting profit should be attained.
  2. B) Moral hazard should be avoided.
  3. C) Insureds should be selected according to underwriting standards.
  4. D) There should be equity among policyholders.

Answer: D


ABC Insurance Company entered into a reinsurance agreement with XYZ Reinsurance. Under the contract, XYZ Re has no liability unless ABC's loss ratio exceeds 85 percent for the year. XYZ Re agreed to pay all losses in excess of the 85 percent loss ratio. ABC Insurance Company is using reinsurance to

  1. A) stabilize profits.
  2. B) reduce the unearned premium reserve.
  3. C) provide large risk capacity.
  4. D) retire from a line or territory.

Answer: A


Granite Insurance Company entered into a treaty reinsurance agreement with Rock Solid Reinsurance (RSR). Granite's retention limit is $400,000 and RSR agreed to provide reinsurance for up to $2.0 million. If Granite writes an $800,000 policy, RSR is responsible for 50 percent of the losses. If Granite insures a $1.6 million risk, RSR is responsible for 25 percent of any losses. What type of reinsurance arrangement did Granite enter into with RSR?

  1. A) facultative reinsurance
  2. B) surplus share reinsurance
  3. C) quota share reinsurance
  4. D) excess of loss reinsurance

Answer: B


State insurance regulators require LMN Life Insurance Company to maintain a separate account. The assets in the separate account would support the liabilities for which of the following products?

  1. A) term life insurance
  2. B) whole life insurance
  3. C) fixed annuity
  4. D) variable life insurance

Answer: D


Gwen is in charge of accounting at Integrity Insurance Company. Integrity is a publicly-traded insurer. In describing her job, Gwen said, "There aren't too many businesses where you are required to keep two sets of books." Gwen's comment most likely refers to her company

  1. A) preparing accounting statements using statutory and GAAP accounting.
  2. B) preparing one set of records for the insurer's managers and another set for the policyholders.
  3. C) preparing one set of books using dishonest values and another set using current market values.
  4. D) preparing one set of accounting statements considering investment income and another set of accounting statements not considering investment income.

Answer: A


In a reinsurance transaction, the ceding commission is paid by

  1. A) the insured to the ceding company.
  2. B) the reinsurer to the ceding company.
  3. C) the ceding company to the insured.
  4. D) the ceding company to the reinsurer.

Answer: B


A highly specialized technician who provides local agents in the field with technical help and assistance with marketing problems is called a(n)

  1. A) general agent.
  2. B) actuary.
  3. C) Certified Financial Planner.
  4. D) special agent.

Answer: D