renal calculi can cause excruciating pain when they do not pass freely through the urinary system. in which renal structure or structures do renal calculi get stuck and cause this excruciating pain?
which part of the nephron receives fluid from the glomerular capsular space?
proximal convoluted tubule
which fluid compartment contains the greatest fluid volume (where is most of the body's water located)?
intracellular fluid (ICF)
what is the source of the yellow pigment urochrome?
after a brain injury, George developed diabetes insipidis. what specific part of georges brain was damaged?
posterior pituitary gland
if someone has a disease in which the kidneys do not filter blood effectively, what renal structure is being affected by the disease?
what statement describes the effect of aldosterone?
it stimulates sodium reabsorption
what is urochrome (also know as urobilin)?
a pigment normally found in urine
what part of the kidney attaches to the ureter?
what area at the base of the urinary bladder is outlined by three openings?
what happens when the external urethral sphincter is voluntary relaxed at the same time that the pelvic splanchnic nerves are active?
which of these is a nitrogenous waste associated with muscle tissue?
what is the primary action of antidiuretic hormone?
it causes kidney-collecting ducts to reabsorb more water
which of these is NOT normally found in urine?
what part of a nephron is responsible for reabsorbing 65% of filtrate including nutrients (including all glucose) and most of the water?
proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
what is one reason urinary tract infections are more common in females?
the female urethra is only 1.5 inches long
what is the mechanism of aldosterone?
it causes sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion
which blood vessels are found in the renal columns?
interlobar artery and vein
which of these must you consciously relax for micturition to occur?
external urethral sphincter
which bones provide some protection for the kidneys?
11th and 12th ribs
which part of the nephron is involved in filtration?
what is the main effect of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)?
reduces water content of urine
which vessels absorb the solutes and water from the nephron?
what causes the internal urethral sphincter to open?
pressure from the contracting bladder
Muhammad is a 72-year-old man who has problems with urinary retention. after an examination, Muhammad's doctor explains that he has hyperplasia of his prostate gland that is restricting urine flow. which urinary structure is being affected by Muhammad's hyperplastic prostate gland?
which is the nitrogenous waste produced by the liver and poorly reabsorbed by the kidney?
which of the following conditions might contribute to an increased probability of having an ectopic pregnancy?
decreased number of cilia in the uterine tubes
which portion of the penis is removed during circumcision?
in males, which of the following includes the correct target and results of LH stimulation?
interstitial cells : androgen secretions
what part of the female system is the usual site of fertilization of the ovulated oocyte?
uterine (fallopian) tube
which part of the following is considered a role of primary sex organs?
production of sex hormones
what determines the sex of a child?
the Y chromosome
a low secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the normal male adult would cause ______.
decreased testosterone secretion
sperm is produced in the ______.
oocytes complete meiosis II before they are fertilized.
which of these male accessory ducts transports both sperm cells and urine?
which layer of the uterus is the site for implantation of a fertilized egg?
stratum functionalis of the endometrium
during what phase of the female's uterine cycle is the uterine lining shed?
if an untrained person induces an abortion and severely punctures the posterior vaginal wall, there is a potential risk of the puncture would extending onward into the wall of the _____.
although effective in treating erectile dysfunction, Viagra has the side effect of reducing systemic blood pressure by causing _____.
relaxation of muscle tissue in arteries
viable sperm production is optimal below the body's core tempurature
which of the following cells is released during ovulation?
what is the function of meiosis?
to produce cells with double the chromosome number of the original spermatogonium or oogonium
which of the following is the final product of spermiogenesis?
the _____ is shed during each menstruation and is then regenerated by the _____.
stratum functionalis; stratum basalis
the number of chromosomes in a human gamete is _____; this is referred to as a _____ chromosome number.
which of the following is an effect of estrogen in females?
which layer of the uterus is made of smooth muscle?
which of the choices below is NOT a function of testosterone?
stimulates mammary gland development
why does only one egg, rather than four eggs, develop during oogenesis, given that spermatogenesis results in four sperm formed from one stem cell?
the unequal cytoplasmic division that results in one egg and three polar bodies ensures that a fertilized egg has ample nutrients for its journey to the uterus
which structure(s) of the female's external genitalia has/have erectile tissue?
what is the product of spermatogenesis?
formation of haploid sperm
which of the following is FALSE regarding the vagina of an adult female?
the pH of the adult vagina is alkaline
what part(s) of the breast produce(s) milk?