urinary reproductive system Flashcards


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created 7 years ago by Isabella_Marie_Beltran
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1

renal calculi can cause excruciating pain when they do not pass freely through the urinary system. in which renal structure or structures do renal calculi get stuck and cause this excruciating pain?

ureters

2

which part of the nephron receives fluid from the glomerular capsular space?

proximal convoluted tubule

3

which fluid compartment contains the greatest fluid volume (where is most of the body's water located)?

intracellular fluid (ICF)

4

what is the source of the yellow pigment urochrome?

hemoglobin

5

after a brain injury, George developed diabetes insipidis. what specific part of georges brain was damaged?

posterior pituitary gland

6

if someone has a disease in which the kidneys do not filter blood effectively, what renal structure is being affected by the disease?

glomerulus

7

what statement describes the effect of aldosterone?

it stimulates sodium reabsorption

8

what is urochrome (also know as urobilin)?

a pigment normally found in urine

9

what part of the kidney attaches to the ureter?

renal pelvis

10

what area at the base of the urinary bladder is outlined by three openings?

trigone

11

what happens when the external urethral sphincter is voluntary relaxed at the same time that the pelvic splanchnic nerves are active?

micturition

12

which of these is a nitrogenous waste associated with muscle tissue?

creatine

13

what is the primary action of antidiuretic hormone?

it causes kidney-collecting ducts to reabsorb more water

14

which of these is NOT normally found in urine?

glucose

15

what part of a nephron is responsible for reabsorbing 65% of filtrate including nutrients (including all glucose) and most of the water?

proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)

16

what is one reason urinary tract infections are more common in females?

the female urethra is only 1.5 inches long

17

what is the mechanism of aldosterone?

it causes sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion

18

which blood vessels are found in the renal columns?

interlobar artery and vein

19

which of these must you consciously relax for micturition to occur?

external urethral sphincter

20

which bones provide some protection for the kidneys?

11th and 12th ribs

21

which part of the nephron is involved in filtration?

glomerular capsule

22

what is the main effect of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)?

reduces water content of urine

23

which vessels absorb the solutes and water from the nephron?

peritubular capillaries

24

what causes the internal urethral sphincter to open?

pressure from the contracting bladder

25

Muhammad is a 72-year-old man who has problems with urinary retention. after an examination, Muhammad's doctor explains that he has hyperplasia of his prostate gland that is restricting urine flow. which urinary structure is being affected by Muhammad's hyperplastic prostate gland?

urinary bladder

26

which is the nitrogenous waste produced by the liver and poorly reabsorbed by the kidney?

urea

27

which of the following conditions might contribute to an increased probability of having an ectopic pregnancy?

decreased number of cilia in the uterine tubes

28

which portion of the penis is removed during circumcision?

prepuce (foreskin)

29

in males, which of the following includes the correct target and results of LH stimulation?

interstitial cells : androgen secretions

30

what part of the female system is the usual site of fertilization of the ovulated oocyte?

uterine (fallopian) tube

31

which part of the following is considered a role of primary sex organs?

production of sex hormones

32

what determines the sex of a child?

the Y chromosome

33

a low secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the normal male adult would cause ______.

decreased testosterone secretion

34

sperm is produced in the ______.

seminiferous tubules

35

oocytes complete meiosis II before they are fertilized.

false

36

which of these male accessory ducts transports both sperm cells and urine?

urethra

37

which layer of the uterus is the site for implantation of a fertilized egg?

stratum functionalis of the endometrium

38

during what phase of the female's uterine cycle is the uterine lining shed?

menstrual phase

39

if an untrained person induces an abortion and severely punctures the posterior vaginal wall, there is a potential risk of the puncture would extending onward into the wall of the _____.

rectum

40

although effective in treating erectile dysfunction, Viagra has the side effect of reducing systemic blood pressure by causing _____.

relaxation of muscle tissue in arteries

41

viable sperm production is optimal below the body's core tempurature

true

42

which of the following cells is released during ovulation?

secondary oocyte

43

what is the function of meiosis?

to produce cells with double the chromosome number of the original spermatogonium or oogonium

44

which of the following is the final product of spermiogenesis?

spermatozoa

45

the _____ is shed during each menstruation and is then regenerated by the _____.

stratum functionalis; stratum basalis

46

the number of chromosomes in a human gamete is _____; this is referred to as a _____ chromosome number.

23; haploid

47

which of the following is an effect of estrogen in females?

promotes oogenesis

48

which layer of the uterus is made of smooth muscle?

myometrium

49

which of the choices below is NOT a function of testosterone?

stimulates mammary gland development

50

why does only one egg, rather than four eggs, develop during oogenesis, given that spermatogenesis results in four sperm formed from one stem cell?

the unequal cytoplasmic division that results in one egg and three polar bodies ensures that a fertilized egg has ample nutrients for its journey to the uterus

51

which structure(s) of the female's external genitalia has/have erectile tissue?

clitoris

52

what is the product of spermatogenesis?

formation of haploid sperm

53

which of the following is FALSE regarding the vagina of an adult female?

the pH of the adult vagina is alkaline

54

what part(s) of the breast produce(s) milk?

alveoli