Chapter 27: The Reproductive System

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Histology slides, models, and Mastering A & P questions
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Sperm Slide

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Testis slide

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Testis Slide

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Testis Slide

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Seminiferous Slide

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Ovary Slide

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Primary Follicle Slide

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Primary Follicle

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Secondary Follicle slide

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Follicle Slide

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Corpus Luteum of Ovary

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Layers of the Uterus

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Uterus Slide

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Perimetrium layer of Uterus

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Myometrium layer of the uterus

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Myometrium layer of the Uterus

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Endometrium layer of the Uterus

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Mammary gland

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Lactiferous Ducts of mammary gland

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Secretory Alveoli of Mammary gland

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Male structures

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Male structures

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Uterus

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Ovary structures and follicles

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Female structures

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Female Structures

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What part of the female duct system is the usual site of fertilization of the ovulated oocyte?

uterine (fallopian) tube (oviduct)

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T/F: Gametes are produced in meiosis

TRUE

29

Meiosis starts with a single diploid cell and produces ___.

4 haploid cells

30

During PROPHASE I of meiosis ___.

homologous chromosomes stick together in pairs.

31

What is the correct order of Meiosis?

Prophase I

Metaphase I

Anaphase I

Telophase I

Cytokinesis

Meiosis II

32

During meiosis, segments of nonsister chromatids can trade places. This recombination of maternal and paternal genetic material is a key feature of meiosis. During what phase of meiosis does recombination occu

Prophase I

33

The constancy of the chromosome number from one generation to the next is maintained through ________.

Meiosis

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Which of the following cells is returned to the basal lamina to continue the pool of dividing germ cells?

Type A daughter cell or spermatogonium

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Which hormone promotes the formation of secondary sex characteristics such as the appearance of pubic, axillary, and facial hair, enhanced hair growth on the chest, and a deepening voice?

Testosterone

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Homologous Chromosomes

37

Although effective in treating erectile dysfunction, Viagra has the side effect of reducing systemic blood pressure by causing ______.

relaxation of muscle tissue in arteries

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During what phase of the female's uterine (menstrual) cycle is the uterine lining shed?

Menstrual Phase

39

Which of the following will occur after ovulation?

A) The corpus luteum prepares to become a corpus albicans.

B) The endometrium enters its secretory phase.

C) The secretion of anterior pituitary gonadotropins is enhanced.

D) The corpus luteum secretes estrogen only.

B) The endometrium enters its secretory phase.

40

During the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle ________.

A) LH reaches its highest levels

B) the Graafian follicle forms

C) progesterone levels are at their highest

D) estrogen reaches its highest levels

C) progesterone levels are at their highest

41

Which of the following organs is NOT a part of the HPG axis?

A) posterior pituitary gland

B) anterior pituitary gland

C) testis

D) hypothalamus

A) posterior pituitary gland

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Phases of Meiosis

43

All of the following statements referring to the uterine cycle are true except ________.

A) FSH and LH directly promote development of the uterine endometrium

B) estrogen is secreted by the developing follicle in the follicular phase of the cycle

C) a decrease in the levels of ovarian hormones signals menstruation

D) the corpus luteum is formed from the ruptured follicle after ovulation

A) FSH and LH directly promote development of the uterine endometrium

44

Which of the following is an INCORRECT matching of female reproductive structures with their functions?

A) uterus/the womb (area of development of the fetus)

B) ovarian follicle/ovum (egg) production

C) uterine tube/transport unfertilized ovum to uterus for removal from the body

D) vagina/birth canal

C) uterine tube/transport unfertilized ovum to uterus for removal from the body

45

What event occurs during the proliferative phase?

A) stratum functionalis is shed

B) menstruation

C) ovulation

D) enrichment of the blood supply and glandular secretions prepare for reception of an embryo

C) Ovulation

46

Why does only one egg, rather than four eggs, develop during oogenesis, given that spermatogenesis results in four sperm formed from one stem cell?

A) Only one egg can be fertilized at a time.

B) The egg does not go through the meiotic division processes that the sperm undergo.

C) The unequal cytoplasmic division that results in one egg and three polar bodies ensures that a fertilized egg has ample nutrients for its journey to the uterus.

D) Actually, gametogenesis (oogenesis in the female and spermatogenesis in the male) produces four eggs and four sperm.

C) The unequal cytoplasmic division that results in one egg and three polar bodies ensures that a fertilized egg has ample nutrients for its journey to the uterus

47

If embryonic testes do not produce testosterone, a genetic male develops female external genitalia. However, if embryonic testes properly produce testosterone, but a genetic male nevertheless develops female external genitalia, the cause could be ______.

A) a mutation in the gene that codes for development of the paramesonephric ducts

B) a mutation in the gene that codes for the testosterone receptor

C) hyposecretion of MIF

D) hypersecretion of MIF

B) a mutation in the gene that codes for the testosterone receptor

48

Which hormone is absolutely necessary for ovulation to occur?

A) FSH

B) estrogen

C) LH

D) progesterone

C) LH (luteinizing hormone)

49

What is the function of the blood testis barrier?

A) to provide only select nutrients to the developing sperm

B) to filter out male sex hormones

C) to ensure that semen only contains sperm and seminal fluid

D) to prevent activation of the immune system of the male against the developing sperm

D) to prevent activation of the immune system of the male against the developing sperm

50

Which of the following occurs during spermiogenesis?

A) spermatids are produced

B) sustentacular cells are produced

C) sperm are produced

D) spermatogonia are produced

C) sperm are produced

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Sperm

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Which of the following cells is released during ovulation?

A) ovum

B) secondary oocyte

C) oogonium

D) primary oocyte

B) Secondary oocyte

53
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How many functional gametes are produced by oogenesis?

A) one functional gamete

B) two functional gametes

C) three functional gametes

D) four functional gametes

A) one functional gamete

54

Which of the choices below is not a part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis?

A) interstitial endocrine cells

B) anterior pituitary gland

C) thalamus

D) hypothalamus

C) thalamus

55

A surge in __________ directly triggers ovulation.

luteinizing hormone (LH)

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During meiosis, what does crossover promote?

A) Crossover promotes a reduction in the number of cells produced.

B) Crossover promotes the production of genetically identical gametes.

C) Crossover promotes a reduction in the number of chromosomes.

D) Crossover promotes increased genetic variability among gametes.

D) Crossover promotes increased genetic variability among gametes.

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Uterus structures

58

Which of the following glands are responsible for about 70% of the volume of semen?

The seminal glands

59

In cervical cancer, which cancer cells that cover the cervical tip are most likely to be abnormal?

A) columnar epithelial cells

B) squamous epithelial cells

C) cuboidal epithelial cells

D) transitional epithelial cells

B) squamous epithelial cells

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What is the pigmented ring of skin situated slightly below the center of each breast?

Areola

61

A varicocele may hinder blood flow through the pampiniform venous plexus; the reduced venous drainage and the resulting elevated testicular temperature may be caused by ______.

A) defective venous valves in the testis

B) elevated systemic arterial blood pressure

C) elevated core body temperature

D) reduced testicular arterial blood flow

A) defective venous valves in the testes

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Which male accessory ducts transports both sperm and urine?

Urethra

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Male accessory ducts

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The primary function of the uterus is to ________.

receive, retain and nourish a fertilized ovum

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Meiosis

66
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Why CAN'T polar bodies be fertilized?

A) Polar bodies have too few chromosomes.

B) Polar bodies can be fertilized, resulting in the formation of fraternal twins.

C) Polar bodies are diploid.

D) Polar bodies lack nutrient-containing cytoplasm.

D) polar bodies lack nutrient-containing cytoplasm

67

Which of these statements about sexually transmitted infections is false?

A) Chlamydia is caused by bacteria that can often be asymptomatic or bring on a wide variety of symptoms.

B) Syphilis is caused by a virus that may lead to death if untreated.

C) Genital herpes is caused by a virus that may cause intermittent lesions.

D) Gonorrhea is caused by a bacterium that can bring on painful discharges in males.

B) Syphilis is caused by a virus that may lead to death if untreated.

68

Nondisjunction may occur due to ______.

A) failure of sister chromatids to separate properly during anaphase II

B) failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during anaphase I

C) failure of centromeres to split apart properly during meiosis II

D) All of the listed responses are correct.

D) All listed responses are correct.

69
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Which of the following is housed within the spermatic cord?

A) rete testis

B) epididymis

C) testicular arteries and veins

D) seminiferous tubules

C) testicular arteries and veins

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Male structures

71

Which is not a part of the proliferative phase of the female menstrual cycle?

A) development of endometrial cells

B) vesicular follicle growth

C) late in this phase, cervical mucus becomes thin and crystalline

D) corpus luteum

D) corpus luteum

72

Which cells produce androgens such as testosterone?

A) spermatogenic cells

B) interstitial endocrine (Leydig) cells

C) sustentocytes (Sertoli cells)

D) myoid cells

B) interstitial endocrine (Leydig) cells

73

Human egg and sperm are similar in that ___.

they have the same number of chromosomes.

74

The __________, a layer of the endometrium, is shed during each menstruation and is then regenerated by the _________

Stratum functionalis

Stratum basalis

75

During vasectomy, what accessory duct is cut as a form of birth control?

Ductus (vas) Deferens

76

T/F: Viable sperm production is optimal at the body's core temperature.

FALSE

77

Which of the choices below is not a function of testosterone?

A) stimulates protein synthesis

B) stimulates mammary gland development

C) stimulates the male pattern of development

D) contributes to male sexual behavior and spermatogenesis

B) stimulates mammary gland development

78

The most important risk for testicular cancer in young males is ________.

undescended testes

79

Why doesn't semen enter the urinary bladder during ejaculation?

The smooth muscle sphincter at the base of the urinary bladder closes.

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The __________ connects the uterus to the vagina.

Cervix

81

The ability of a male to ejaculate is due to the action of ________.

A) parasympathetic nerves

B) the dartos muscle

C) the bulbospongiosus muscles

D) luteinizing hormone

C) the bulbospongiosus muscles

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External Female Structures

External Female Structures

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Which structure of the female's external genitalia has erectile tissue like the penis?

The clitoris

84

Mitosis

One division consisting of prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase.

Produces cells for growth and tissue repiar

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Meiosis

Produces Haploid Cells

Occurs in 2 stages

Forms Tetrads

Produces 4 daughter cells

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Genetic variation of individual chromosomes occurs during __________.

Prophase I

87

T/F: The ovaries are situated in the peritoneal cavity flanking the uterus.

TRUE

88

Which of the following female structures is homologous to the male scrotum?

A) clitoris

B) vagina

C) labia majora

D) labia minora

C) labia majora

89

A low secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the normal male adult would cause ________.

A) shrinkage of the anterior pituitary gland

B) decreased testosterone secretion

C) increased spermatogenesis

D) excessive beard growth

B) decreased testosterone secretion

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Structures of the male testes

Structures of the male testes

91

Which of the following results from spermiogenesis?

A) spermatogonium or Type A daughter cell

B) Secondary spermatocyte

C) Spermatid

D) Sperm

D) Sperm

92

Why does meiosis involve 2 nuclear divisions rather than one, as in mitosis?

Meiosis reduces the chromosome number by half.

93

Select the correct statement about the hormonal events of the ovarian cycle.

A) The follicle begins to secrete progesterone in response to estrogen stimulation.

B) The LH surge stimulates further development of the secondary oocyte.

C) Rising levels of estrogen start follicle development.

D) High estrogen levels result in a surge of LH release.

D) High estrogen levels result in a surge of LH release.

94

A 38-year-old male is upset about his low sperm count and visits a "practitioner" who commonly advertises his miracle cures of sterility. The practitioner is a quack who treats conditions of low sperm count with megadoses of testosterone. The patient experiences a huge surge in libido. Would this treatment result in a higher or lower sperm count, and why?

Lower sperm count. High levels of testosterone inhibit the release of GnRH, inhibiting FSH release, resulting in direct inhibition of spermatogenesis.

95

Which of the following statements is true concerning the mammary glands of both males and females?

A) All lumps identified in breast tissue are malignant.

B) The only time hormones target breast tissue is during pregnancy and lactation.

C) Both sexes are equally prone to breast cancer.

D) The mammary glands are modified sweat glands that are actually part of the integumentary system.

D) The mammary glands are modified sweat glands that are actually part of the integumentary system.

96

Which of the following is an effect of estrogen in females?

A) Promotes oogenesis

B) Promotes water loss (diuresis)

C) Promotes lactation

D) Suppresses the effect of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

A) Promotes Oogenesis

97

What is the product of spermatogenesis?

A) capacitation of the spermatozoa

B) development of the male reproductive organs

C) formation of semen

D) formation of haploid spermatozoa

D) Formation of haploid spermatozoa

98

What are the two fatty, hair-covered skin folds that run posteriorly from the mons pubis?

A) greater vestibular glands

B) labia minora

C) labia majora

D) clitoris

C) labia majora

99

T/F: Oocytes only complete meiosis II if they are fertilized.

TRUE

100

Which of the following is NOT a sexually transmitted bacterial disease?

A) Chlamydia

B) Genital Herpes

C) Gonorrhea

D) Syphilis

B) Genital Herpes

101

Genital Warts

Human Papillomavirus

102

Syphilis

Treponema Pallidum

103

Gonorrhea

Urethritis in males

104

Genital Herpes

Human Herpes Virus Type 2

105

Chlamydia

Organism responsible for up to half of the diagnosed cases of pelvic inflammatory disease

106

The mammary glands belong to which system?

The Integumentary System

107

Enzymes that allow sperm to penetrate the egg are located in the __________ of the sperm cell.

A) mitochondria

B) midpiece

C) acrosome

D) tail

C) acrosome

108

Effects of estrogen include ________.

A) eepening of the voice

B) increased oiliness of the skin

C) growth of the larynx

D) growth of the breasts at puberty

D) growth of the breasts at puberty

109

The ability of sperm cells to move along the ductus deferens is due to ________.

peristaltic contractions

110

Which of the following statements about the female reproductive process is not true?

A) Fertilization usually occurs in the uterine tubes.

B) The monthly discharge of the uterus (menses) is initiated by the decrease in secretion of female hormones.

C) Ovulation usually occurs 14 days after the beginning of menses.

D) Rebuilding the endometrium is under the control of prolactin.

D) Rebuilding the endometrium is under the control of prolactin

111

Fertilization usually occurs in the ___.

Uterine Tubes