Exam 4

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The Nervous System
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1

the neuron cannot respond to a second stimulus, no matter how strong

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absolute refractory period

2

the interior of the cell becomes less negative due to an influx of sodium ions

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depolarrization

3

the specific period during which potassium ions diffuse out of the neuron due to a change in membrane permeability

repolarizaztion

4

also called a nerve impulse transmitted by axons

action potential

5

an exceptionally strong stimulus can trigger a response

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relative refractory period

6

area where nerve impulse in generated

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trigger zone

7

receives stimulus

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receptive region

8
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plasma membrane exhibits voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels

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conducting region

9
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plasma membrane exhibits voltage-gated Ca2+ channels

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secretory region

10
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axon terminals release neurotransmitters

secretory zone

11

plasma membrane exhibits chemically gated ion channels

secretory region

12

the all-or-none phenomenon as applied to nerve conduction states that the whole nerve cell must be stimulated for conduction to take place

false

13

reflexes are rapid, automatic responses to stimuli

true

14

efferent nerve fibers may be located in ganglia lying outside the central nervous system

true

15

cell bodies of sensory neurons may be located in ganglia lying outside the central nervous system

true

16

myelination of the nerve fibers in the central nervous system in the job of the oligodendrocytes

true

17

strong stimuli cause the amplitude of action potentials generated to increase

false

18

the oligodendrocytes can myelinate several axons

true

19

in myelinated axons the voltage-regulated sodium channels are concentrated at the nodes of Ranviver

true

20

large-diameter nerve fibers conduct impulse much faster than small diameter fibers

true

21

a stimulus traveling toward a synapse appears to open calcium ion channels at the presynaptic end, which in turn promotes fusion of synaptic vesicles to the axonal membrane

true

22

what are ciliated CNS neuroglia that play an active role in moving the cerebrospinal fluid called?

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ependymal cells

23

which is NOT a special characteristic of neurons?

conduct impulse

extreme longevity

mitotic

exceptionally high metabolic rate

mitotic

24

saltatory conduction is made possible by_____

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the myosin sheath

25

an inhibitory postnynaptic potential (IPSP) is associated with _____

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hyperpolarization

26
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Schwann cells are functionally similar to _____

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oligodendrocytes

27

which is NOT true for graded potentials?

short lived

can form on receptor ending

increase amplitude as move away from stimulus point

increase amplitude as move away from stimulus point

28

second nerve impulse CANNOT be generated until

membrane potential has been reestablished

29

interior surface of a cell membrane of a resting (nonconducting) neuron differ from the external environment? the inferior is ____

negatively charged and contains less sodium

30

if a motor neuron in the body were stimulated by an electrode placed about midpoint along the length of axon

the impulse would spread bidirectionally

31

major relay station for sensory information ascending to primary sensory area of the cerebral cortex. contains many nuclei

thalamus

32

brain area that associates experiences necessary for the production of abstract ideas, and conscience

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prefrontal area

33
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axon from this area form major pyramidal tract

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primary motor cortex

34

this area is maintain the main visceral control of the body

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hypothalamus

35

the stage when vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature) each their lowest normal levels

stage 4

36

indicated by movement of the eyes under lids, dreaming occurs

REM

37

theta and beta waved begin to appear

stage 3

38

easy to awake; EEG

show alpha wages; may even deny asleep

39

typified by sleep spindle

stage 2

40

begin bout 90 min after onset of sleep

REM

41

necessary for emotional health; may contribute neutral "debugging"

REM

42

gateway to the cerebrum

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thalamus

43

motor command center

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cerebellum

44

survival center

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brain stem

45

executive suite

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cerebrum

46

visceral command center

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hypothalamus

47

NREM sleep normally exhibits 4 distinct stages, which appear to alternate

true

48
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petit mal seizures found in children generally go away with age

true

49

specific motor and sensory functions are localized in specific area called domains, whereas memory and language overlapping domains

false

50
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flat EEG is good indication of deep sleep

true

51

corpora quadrigemina and superior colliculi are auditory reflex center

true

52

cell body of somatic motor neurons of spinal nerve are located in the ventral horn of the spinal cord

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true

53
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meningitis is the most accurate term for inflammation of neurons

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true

54

adult spinal cord ends between L1 and L2

true

55

cerebrospinal fluid circulates within the ventricles of the brain and in the subarachnoid space

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true

56

the term fainting and syncope described the same thing

true

57

1st obvious sign that the nervous system is forming in the embryo is the thickening of the surface ectoderm to form the neural plate

true

58

the left cerebral hemisphere is usually dominant

true

59

the limbic system acts as your emotional, or effective, brain

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true

60

disturbance of posture, muscle tremors at rest, and uncontrolled muscle contraction are all symptoms of damage to the basal nuclei

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true

61

most of the ascending pathways to and from the brain cross over from one side of the body to other.

true

62
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one functional center found within the medulla oblongata is a respiratory center involved in the control of the rate and depth of breathing

true

63

embryonic damage to the mesencephalon could result in improper formation of the midbrain

true

64

the arbor vitae refers to

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cerebellar white matter

65

brain stem consists of the_____

midbrain, medulla, and pons

66

primary auditory cortex is located in the ____

temporal lope

67

what cells line the vetricles of the brain?

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ependymal cells

68

subarachnoid space lies between what two layers of meninges?

arachnoid and pia

69

vital centers for the control of heart rate, respiration and blood pressure are located in the _____

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medullla

70

cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the spinal nerves are located in _____

dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord

71

which fissure separates the cererbral hemipheres?

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longitudinal fissure

72

a shallow groove on the surface of the cortex is called ___

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sulcus

73

the white matter of the spinal cord contains ____

myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers

74

an individual accidentally transected the spinal cord between T1 and L1

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paeaplegia

75

Broca's area

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is considered a motor speech area

76

tests both uper and lower motor pathways. the sole of the foot is stimulated with a dull in strument

plantar

77

consists of an ipsilateral withdrawal reflexes and a contralateral extensor reflex, importantmaintaining balance

crossed-extensor

78

produce a rapid withdrawal of the body part form a painful stimulus; ipsilateral

flexor

79

prevents muscle overstretching and maintains muscle tone

stretch

80

produces muscle relaxation and lengthening in response to tension; the contracting muscle relaxes as its antagonist activated

golgi tendon

81

obturator and femoral nerves branch from this plexus

lumbar plexus

82

striking the "funny bone" (ulnar nerve) may cause injury to a nerve of this plexus

branchial pelxus

83

trauma to a nerve of this plexus may cause wrist drop

branchial plexus

84

a fall or improper administration of an injection to the buttocks may injure a nerve of this flexus

sacral plexus

85

the phrenic nerve branches from this plexus

golgi tendon

86

TRUE OR FALSE

there are 41 pairs of spinal nerve

false

87

TRUE OR FALSE

the glossopharyngeal nerve is the only cranial nerve that contains sensory fibers

false

88

TRUE OR FALSE

the musculocutaneous nerve is the major nerve of the brachial plexus

true

89

TRUE OR FALSE

the second cranial nerve forms a chaisma at the base of the brain for partial crossover of the neutral fibers

true

90

TRUE OR FALSE

the only cranial nerve form to extend beyond the head and neck region are the vagus nerves

true

91

TRUE OR FALSE

the dorsal ramus consists only of motor fiber bringing information to theh spinal cord

false

92

TRUE OR FALSE

dermatomes are skin segments that relate to sensory innervation to the spinal nerves

true

93

TRUE OR FALSE

b/c the Autonomic Nervous System is visceral motor system, afferent pathways are of no importance and actually are rarely found

false

94

TRUE OR FALSE

splanchnic nerves are mixed motor and sensory nerves

false

95

TRUE OR FALSE

most disorders of the autonomic system reflect abnormalities of smooth muscle control

true

96

TRUE OR FALSE

the adrenal medulla is considered a "misplaced" sympathetic ganglion by some

true

97

TRUE OR FALSE

most blood vessels are innervated by the sympathetic division alone

true

98

TRUE OR FALSE

the structures that specifically exhibit vasomotor tone are mostly under sympathetic control

true

99

TRUE OR FALSE

b/c parasympathetic fibers never run in spinal nerves, rami communicates are associated only with the sympathetic division

true

100

TRUE OR FALSE

cranial nerves III, VII, and IX supply the entire parasympathetic innervation of the head; however, only the preganglionic fibers lie within these 3 pair of cranial nerves

true

101

NOT an exteroceptor ?

tough

pressure

pain

temperature

baroreceptor

baroreceptor

102

spinal nerves exiting the cord from the level of L4 to S4 form the ______

sacral plexus

103

inborn or intrinsic reflexes are ______

involuntary, yet may be modified by learned behavior

104

a drug that might be used specifically to reduce heart rate in cardiac patients could be _____

a beta-blocker

105

over 90% of all parasympathetic fibers are derived from cranial nerve number _____

X

106

the "resting and digesting" division of the autonomic nervous system is the _______

parasympathetic division

107

which is NOT a result of parasympathetic stimulation?

salivation

dilation of pupils

increased peristalsis of the digestive viscera

elimination of urine

dilation of pupils

108

sympathetic responses generally are widespread b/c _____

NE and epinephrine are secreted into blood as partof the sympathetic response

109

autonomic ganglia contain _____

the cell bodies of motor neurons

110

which if the following is NOT a plexus of the vagus nerve?

cardiac

pulmonary

celiac

esophageal

celiac