TEAS: Test of Essential Academic Skills

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1

absolute value

distance between a number and zero on the number line

2

acid

any compound with a hydrogen ion activity greater than water (pH<7)

3

acid solutions

solutions that have a pH scale value less than 7

4

activation energy

energy necessary for a chemical reaction to occur

5

active verb

verb that shows an action performed by the subject of the sentence

6

active voice

state of a sentence that contains an active verb

7

adaption

increase from generation to generation of alleles of genes that allows a species to survive in their environment

8

addition principle

rule that makes it possible to move terms from one side of an equation to the other by adding opposites to each expression

9

adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

cellular fuel; produced in the mitochondria

10

adjective

descriptive word that modifies nouns or pronouns

11

adverb

word modifying a verb, adjective, or other adverb indicating when, how, where, why, or how much

12

alkane

hydrocarbon with only single bonds (CnH2n+2)

13

alkene

hydrocarbon with one double bond (CnH2n)

14

alkyne

hydrocarbon with one triple bond (CnH2n-2)

15

alleles

two or more different forms of a certain gene

16

alveoli

structure in the lungs that permits the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide to occur

17

amino acid

building blocks of proteins

18

anatomical position

a standard position in which the body is facing forward, the feet are parallel to each other, and the arms are at the sides with the palms facing forward

19

anatomy

study of the structure of various organs and body systems

20

anion

atom or molecule with a negative charge

21

antecedent

noun that a pronoun refers back to (replace)

22

anterior

toward the front of the body or body structure (opposite of posterior)

23

antibody

protein produced by a B cell in response to an antigen

24

antigen

a foreign protein, such as a pathogen, that stimulates antibody production

25

apostrophe

punctuation mark (')used to indicate possessiveness or the omission of letters or numbers

26

Arabic numerals

written numbers that use a combination of the whole numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9

27

arteries

blood vessels that transport blood away from the heart to the capillaries

28

article

word that is used to limit a noun, either indefinite - a, an - or definite - the

29

atom

smallest part of an element that still retains all the original properties of the element

30

atomic mass

number of protons and neutrons within the nucleus of an atom; the average mass of all of the known isotopes of an element

31

atomic number

number of protons in the nucleus of the chemical element; the number of protons that defines a specific atom

32

attributive tag

part of a sentence that indicates who said a direct quote

33

audience

person or persons who will be reading a piece of writing

34

author's intent

underlying reason why the author wrote the text

35

autonomic nervous system

branch of the peripheral nervous system that controls automatic body functions like heartbeat and digestion

36

autotroph

organism that is able to produce its own food

37

axon

part of the nerve cell that carries impulses away from the cell body and connects on neuron with another neuron over a synapse

38

B cell

type of lymphocyte that produces antibodies in response to antigens; responsible for humoral immunity

39

bar graph

graph used to compare the frequency of an event; frequencies are displayed as vertical or horizontal, non-touching bars; data is usually noncontinuous

40

base

any compound with a hydrogen ion activity less than water (pH>7)

41

basic solutions

solutions that have a pH scale value greater than 7

42

biases

opinions or beliefs that affects a person's ability to make fair, unclouded judgments or decisions

43

binomial

polynomial that has two terms

44

binomial nomenclature

two-word naming system that includes the universally accepted genus and species of each organism; developed by Carolus Linnaeus

45

bronchial tubes

small respiratory passages that connect the trachea to the lungs

46

calories

Joules

47

capillaries

tiny blood vessels that transport blood between arteries and veins within the body

48

catalyst

substance that controls the rate of a chemical reaction

49

cation

atom or molecule with a positive charge

50

cause-effect text structure

first presents an action, and then describes the effects that result (or may result) from that action

51

cell

basic unit of all life

52

cell wall

outside, rigid layer that helps separate the inside and outside of both prokaryotic and plant cells

53

cellular respiration

process in which glucose is used to produce adenosine triphosphate

54

Celsius

metric temperature scale defined (at standard pressure) by the meeting point of ice (0 degree Celsius) and the boiling point (100 degrees Celsius) of liquid water

55

central nervous system

branch of the nervous system that includes the brain and spinal cord

56

centrosome

microtubules organizing center that helps to form and organize the mitotic spindle during mitosis

57

charge

positive or negative distribution within an object

58

Charles Darwin

evolutionary biologist who studied life on the Galapagos Islands in the 1800s and wrote "On the Origin Species", in which he explained adaption and natural selection

59

chemical bonding

chemical attraction of atoms due to their electron arrangement

60

chemical reaction

dynamic event that alters the chemical makeup of a molecule; a process that chemically transforms a set of substances into another set

61

chemotaxis

release of chemicals by damaged cells that attract white blood cells

62

chlorophyll

green pigment in plants

63

chloroplast

organelle that contains chlorophyll and is found in plants; used to carry out photosynthesis

64

chromatid

one of a pair of newly duplicated chromosomes that are still attached to one another; a pair of matching "sister" chromatids make up the duplicated chromosome

65

chromosomes

condensed, single, very long strands of DNA double helix located in the nucleus of a cell and containing hundreds of genes

66

chyme

mixtures of food, chemicals, and enzymes in the stomach

67

cilia

tiny hairs in the bronchial tubes that keep the airway clear by removing unwanted matter from the lungs

68

circle graph

divided into sectors representing the frequency of an event; sectors total 100%

69

circulatory system

transportation highway for the entire body (also known as the cardiovascular system)

70

clause

group of words that are related and contain both a subject and a property conjugated verb

71

codon

group of three nucleotides on RNA or DNA that encodes for a single, specific amino acid

72

coefficient

numerical part of a term

73

colon

punctuation mark (;) used to indicate that there is information to follow

74

comma

punctuation mark (,) used to indicate a break or pause within a sentence

75

comparison-contrast text structure

presents two different cases, usually with the intent of making the reader consider the differences (or similarities) between the two cases

76

compass-rose

symbol that indicates the cardinal directions (north, south, east, and west) as they relate to the map

77

complex sentence

sentence that contains an independent clause and a dependent clause

78

compound sentence

two (or more) independent clauses joined together with a coordinating conjunction

79

connective tissue

connects different structures of the body; includes bones, cartilage, adipose tissue (fats), and blood vessels

80

constant

quantity that does not change; it's what students refer to as "numbers" such as 8, -3, 1/2, 1/4, 0.45, etc

81

context

text surrounding a word, phrase, or passage

82

context clues

words surrounding an unfamiliar word that can help a reader discern the meaning of the unfamiliar word

83

coordinating conjunctions

words that join two or more words, phrases, or clauses so that each conjoined element is equal; in English, there are only seven, and they may be remembered using the actonym FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so)

84

covalent

sharing of electrons between atoms

85

cristae

series of folds formed by the inner membrane of a mitochondrion

86

critical reading

reading style where the reader carefully analyzes the text, judging its credibility and the author's intentions, rather than simply accepting the material as fact

87

crude birth rate

number of childbirth per 1,000 people per year

88

crude death rate

number of deaths per 1,000 people per year

89

crystalline order

atoms arranged in a high ordered state

90

cumulative sentence

contains an independent clause followed by a parallel string of modifiers; modifiers may be adjectives; prepositional phrases, or dependent clauses

91

cytokines

chemical messengers that are released by damaged tissues

92

cytokinesis

division and separation of the cytoplasm from one cell into two new cells; is accomplished by pinching off of the cell membrane to form two cells while simultaneously synthesizing an additional membrane to help in the process; begin in late anaphase and completes in telophase

93

cytoplasm

rich protein fluid with gel-like consistency that houses organelles

94

deductions

items that are subtracted from a beginning salary (i.e., state taxes, federal taxes, health insurance, and retirement contributions)

95

deductive reasoning

method whereby conclusions follow from a general principle

96

deep

away from or below the body surface (opposite of superficial)

97

degree

exponent or sum of exponents of the variable(s) of a term

98

dendrites

branched extensions of the neuron that receive impulses (electric messages) from other neurons and stimuli

99

denominator

b in the fraction a/b

100

density

ratio of mass per volume for a substance

101

dependent clause

group of words containing a subject with a properly conjugated verb that is made dependent or incomplete because of the addition of a subordinating conjunction

102

dependent variable

depends on another variable

103

description

passage of text that describes or characterizes a person, thing, or idea

104

diapedesis

process of white blood cells squeezing through the capillary slits in response to cytokines

105

diaphragm

dome-shaped muscle located immediately below the lungs that stimulates inhalation and exhalation by contraction and relaxing

106

diatomic molecule

molecule consisting of two atoms

107

digestion

mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods

108

digestive system

manufactures enzymes that break down food so that nutrients can be easily passed into the blood for use through the body; consists of all the organs from the mouth to the anus involved in the ingestion, breakdown, and processing of food

109

diploid cell

containing two sets of chromosomes

110

direct dialogue (or direct discourse)

writing that reflects someone's exact words, often with an attributive tag, using quotation marks

111

direct object

noun or pronoun that receives the action of the verb and answers the question whom or what

112

distal

away from the origin of the body part or point of attachment (opposite of proximal)

113

distance scale

information in the legend that tells the reader how to interpret distances on the map

114

distributive property

property that removes prenthesis in an expression, such as a(x+y)=ax+ay

115

dividend

quantity to be divided

116

divisor

quantity by which another quantity is dividend

117

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

a molecule that exists as a double-stranded helix made from sugars, phosphates, and nitrogenous bases

118

dorsal body cavity

contains the cranial cavity and spinal column

119

duodenum

first section of the small intestine

120

effectors

glands and muscles that are innervated and extend away from the spinal cord

121

electrolysis

use of electric current to drive the breakdown of a molecule

122

electromagnetic waves

waves of radiation that are characterized by electric and magnetic fields; waves are members of a spectrum, a continuum of wavelengths raising from very short (trillionth of a meter) to very long (kilometers) that are divided into bands of wavelengths, ordered from short to long in the order of gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwave, and radio waves; visible part of the spectrum can be further subdivided by color bands from short to long in the order of violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange, and red

123

electronegativity

ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself

124

electrons

negatively charged subatomic particles found in various orbits around the nucleus

125

element

substance that cannot be decomposed by ordinary chemical means; each chemical element is characterized by the number of protons in the nucleus (e.g., all atoms of hydrogen have 1 proton, and atoms of oxygen have 8 protons)

126

ellipsis

punctuation mark (...) used to indicate a pause or omission of material

127

embryo

early development of an animal or a plant after fertilization

128

emigration

act of an individual moving out of one region or country to live in another

129

endocrine system

controls body functions; glands in this system secrete hormones that travel through the blood to organs throughout the body to regulate processes such as growth and metabolism

130

endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

tubular transport network with the cell that appears as a stack of flattened membranous sacs

131

enzyme

protein catalyst; chemical that changes the rate of a chemical reaction in living tissue without itself being chemically altered; a chemical that breaks down proteins, carbohydrates, and fats into nutrients that can be absorbed through the wall of the intestine into the bloodstream

132

epithelial tissue

provides covering (such as skin tissue) or produces secretion (such as glandular tissue); commonly exists in sheets and does not have its own blood supply

133

equation

mathematical sentence in which two expressions are set equal to each other

134

estimate

approximate value

135

etymology

history of a given word; a word's origin

136

eukarya

organism that contains cellular organelles; organisms that has cells that contain nuclei (protists, plants. fungi and animals)

137

excision repair

mechanism that inspects the DNA for damage and attempts to repair it

138

expiration

act of exhailing carbon dioxide from the body

139

exponents

number written as a superscript that is used to denote the number of times a number should be multiplied by itself

140

expository writing

introduces a topic or provides background information for later remarks

141

expression

one or more terms consisting of any combination of constants and/or variables

142

fact

information based on real, provable events or situations

143

fertility rate

average number of children a woman will have during her childbearing years (from the ages of 15 to 44)

144

first-person point of view

perspective in which the narrator is the one speaking, evidenced by the use of the first-person pronoun I or we

145

flagella

long, whip-like structure used for cellular movement in certain prokaryotic cells

146

FOIL

acronym that represents the order in which two binomials can be multiplied; stands for first, outer, inner, last

147

frontal section

cut made along a longitudinal plane that divides the body into front and back regions; coronal section

148

gametes

cells of reproduction

149

ganglia

collection of nerve cell bodies

150

gendered language

specifies male or female gender using words such as he or she; neuter gender words like it do not specify male or female gender, but are rare in English

151

gene

portion of DNA on a chromosome that provides information for an organism's characteristics; genetic blueprint for the formation of proteins that make up the machinery of the cell

152

genome

complete set of DNA for an individual; contains all genes

153

genotype

organism's underlying genetic makeup or code

154

germ cells

reproductive cells that give rise to sperm and ovum

155

globular protein

protein that is roughly spherical in shape

156

Golgi apparatus

structure involved in packaging and transporting proteins in the cell

157

greatest common factor

greatest number that will divide evenly into two or more numbers

158

haploid cell

one set of chromosomes

159

headings

titles that preface a section of text; advertise the subject of the text below, making it easier to skim or search form a particular topic; give the text structure

160

heart

organ that rhythmically contracts and pumps blood throughout the body

161

heat

flow of energy due to a difference in temperature

162

heat of vaporization

amount of heat necessary to cause a phase transition between a liquid and a gas

163

heterotroph

organism that cannot produce its own food

164

heterozygous

having received different alleles for a particular trait from each parent

165

histogram

graph used to compare the frequency of an event; frequencies are displayed as vertical, touching bars, and data is usually continuos

166

historical context

time and place in which a text was written; style and content of a text are part of its historical context

167

homeotasis

a stable stat in which all the needs of a body are met and all of the organ systems working properly together

168

homologous

similiar in size and function

169

homozygous

having received the same allele for a particular trait from both parents

170

hydrocarbon

compound whose structure is entirely composed of hydrogen and carbon atoms

171

hyphen

punctuation mark (-) used to connect parts of a word or to join separate words together

172

hypothesis

possible explanation formulated to answer questions that are being investigated; involves making predictions that follow from the initial statement of a problem

173

immigration

act of an individual moving into a region or country to live

174

immune system

tissues, cells, and organs that work together to fight off illness and disease

175

improper fraction

fraction whose numerator is greater than its denominator

176

incomplete dominance

dominant and recessive genotypes interact to produce an intermediate phenotype

177

independent clause

clause that has a complete meaning

178

independent variable

does not depend on another variable; affects the dependent variable

179

index

listing of important names, ideas, and topics from the publication, along with page numbers (or links to those items); traditionally appears at the end of the publication

180

indirect dialogue (for indirect discourse)

writing that reflects the idea of someone else's words but does not quote them directly

181

inductive reasoning

arriving at general principles from specific facts

182

inequality

mathematical sentence in which one expression may not be equal to another expression

183

inference

logical conclusion or next step; inferred conclusion not actually written in the text, but deduced by the reader, based on information that is in the text

184

inferior

toward the lower end of the body or body structure (opposite of superior)

185

inspiration

act of breathing in oxygenated air

186

integumentary system

protects internal tissue from injury, waterproofs the body, and helps regulate body temperature; serves as a barrier to pathogens; consists of the skin, mucous membranes, hair, and nails

187

interferon

protein that inhibits the reproduction of a vein

188

intermediate

between the medial and lateral aspects of the body or body structures

189

interphase

process that occurs prior to mitosis; occurs when the cell must duplicate its DNA, increase the amount of organelles and cytoplasm, and synthesize protein in preparation for cell division; three stages of interphase are Gap 1 (G1), Synthesis (S), and Gap 2 (G2)

190

ion

positively or negatively charged atom

191

ionic

electrical attraction between ions of opposite charges

192

irrational number

any real number that cannot be written as a fraction

193

isotope

atoms with the same number of protons but differing numbers of neutrons

194

Joule

a common metric unit of energy (1 calorie=4.2 Joules)

195

Kelvin

metric temperature scale defined by an absolute zero reference point (0 Kelvin= -273 degrees Celsius, the temperature at which molecular motion ceases)

196

kinetic energy

the energy of motion

197

latent heat

heat per mass needed for a phase change at a constant temperature

198

lateral

toward the outer sides of the body or body structure (opposite of medial)

199

Law of Conversation of Energy

If a system is closed, the total amount of energy in the system does not change; however, energy can be changed from one form to another

200

least common denominator (LCD)

smallest common multiple of the denominators; the LCD of two fractions is the least number that both denominators divide into evenly

201

legend

small portion of a map devoted to explaining the symbols and notations used in the main portion of the map

202

leukocytes

white blood cells

203

Lewis structure

symbolic representation of covalent bonding between atoms

204

light-year

distance that light will travel within 1 year

205

like terms

terms that have the same variable and the same exponent associated with that variable

206

line graph

shows change over time; compares the relationship between two or more quantities

207

logical conclusion

well-reasoned idea that stems from the information in the text, not from the reader's personal ideas or biases

208

loose sentence

see cumulative sentence

209

lungs

paired organs that take in oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide

210

lymphatic system

supports the immune system by housing and transporting white blood cells to and from lymph nodes; returns fluid that has leaked from the cardiovascular system back into the blood vessels; consists of the lymph nodes, the vessels that carry lymph, the spleen, the thymus, and the tonsils

211

lyse

Latin word for break; used in biology and chemistry to mean rupture or destruction of the cell membrane, a cell membrane, a cell structure ,or a molecule

212

lysosome

organelle containing digestive enzymes capable of disposing of cellular debris and worn cellular parts

213

main idea

specific message of a writing

214

mass

quantity of matter within an object

215

mass number

total number of protons and neutrons found within the nucleus of an atom matter anything that takes up space and has mass

216

medial

toward the middle of the body or body structure (opposite of lateral)

217

meiosis

process by which gametes reduce their DNA content

218

metabolic pathways

chemical reactions within a cell

219

metabolism

chemical reaction in living organisms used to maintain life

220

metalloids

elements that may accept or donate electrons readily; possess a mixture of metallic and nonmetallic properties

221

metals

elements that readily donate electrons and are good conductors of electricity; donate highly conductive electrons to their environment

222

metaphase plate

disc extending across the nuclear area on which the chromosomes are found at metaphase just prior to separation of the chromosomes during mitosis

223

microtubules

cellular tracks that form the mitotic spindle during mitosis

224

mircovilli

microscopic projections of tissues that make up the villi

225

midsagittal section

sagittal section made the median of the body

226

mismatch repair

mechanism that scans over the DNA to find any mismatches of nitrogenous bases

227

mitochondrion

powerhouse of the cell

228

mitosis

process of cell duplication in which two daughter cells receive exactly the same nuclear material as the original cell

229

mixed number

number that represents the sum of a whole number and a proper fraction

230

molecule

group of chemically bonded atoms that posses characteristics independent of the atoms themselves

231

monomial

polynomial that has only one term

232

multiplication principle

rule that states that the equality of an equation does not change if both sides of an equation are multiplied by the same nonzero number

233

muscle tissue

dedicated to producing movement; three types include skeletal, cardiac, and smooth

234

muscular system

consists of skeletal muscles, tendon that connect muscles to bones, and ligaments that attach bones together to form joints

235

mutagen

substance that induces mutations

236

mutation

permanent change in DNA sequence

237

narrative writing

relates a chain of events or tells a story

238

natural selection

process in which individuals of a species carrying certain mutations are better able to survive and reproduce in their natural environment than other members of the species (survival of the fittest)

239

nervous system

serves as the body's control system; consists of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves

240

nervous tissue

structure for the brain, spinal cord, and nerves; made up of neurons that send electrical impulses throughout the body

241

neurons

specialized cells that make up the nervous system and transmit electrical impulses

242

neutron

neutral subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom

243

nitrogenous base

molecule found in DNA and RNA that encodes the genetic information in cells

244

nominalization

changing a verb, adverb, or adjective to a noun

245

nonrestrictive clause

group of words that contains a subject and a properly conjugated verb but does not contain information that is necessary to interpreting the meaning of the sentence

246

nonrestrictive phrase

group of words that does not contain both a subject and a verb and does not contain information that is necessary to interpreting the meaning of the sentence

247

noun

a word for a person, place, or thing

248

nucleic acid

chain of nucleotides

249

nucleoid

condensed DNA of a cell

250

nucleolus

small body within the nucleus that functions to produce ribosomes that are then moved to the cytoplasm to make cell proteins

251

nucleotide

molecule that consists of a pentose, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base

252

nucleus

central region of an atom; large organelle that is the control center of the entire cell

253

numerator

a in the fraction

254

object of the preposition

noun, pronoun, phrase, or clause to which the preposition refers

255

opinion

belief based on personal judgment, rather no indisputable facts

256

orbital shell

arrangement of electrons within a specific region around the nucleus

257

ordered pair

denotes the x-coordinate (position of a point along the horizontal axis) and y-coordinate (position of the point along the vertical axis) on a graph, written (x,y)

258

organ

two or more tissue types that work together to perform a specific function

259

organelle

tiny organ

260

organic chemistry

study of the structure and properties of carbon compounds

261

organism

living body made up of several organ systems

262

oxidation

electron donation by a chemical group that leaves that group with one less electron and a more positive charge

263

paragraph

group of sentences that forms a cohesive whole due to a similar topic or theme

264

parasympathetic nerve

branch of the autonomic nervous system that is active when a person is eating or at rest

265

parentheses

punctuation marks () used to indicate interjectory, explanatory, or qualifying material; parentheses always come in pairs

266

passive verb

comprised of be plus a past participle that shifts the action of a sentence from the subject to the oject

267

passive voice

state of a sentence that contains a passive verb

268

pathogen

any disease-causing agent

269

pentose

type of sugar

270

percent

ratio whose denominator is 100; per 100

271

perforin

pore-forming protein

272

periodic sentence

independent clause is delayed until the end of the sentence and is often preceded by parallel strings of modifiers

273

peripheral nervous system

branch of the nervous system that extends outside of the central nervous system and consists of the cranial and spinal nerves

274

peristalsis

rhythmic contractions of the stomach and intestines that propel food toward the colon and anus

275

peroxisome

organelle used to rid the body of toxic components

276

persuasive writing

writing intended to change the reader's mind or form the reader's opinion on a particular topic

277

pH

measure of hydrogen ion concentration within a solution; the scale used to measure the strength of acidic solutions; pH= -log (hydrogen ion concentration)

278

pH indicator

chemical detector of hydrogen ions to visually determined acidity (color change)

279

phagocytosis

engulfing of pathogens by white blood cells

280

phase transition

alteration of the physical state of a substance between a solid, liquid, and gas

281

phenotype

physical expression of genetic traits

282

phosphate group

molecule in the backbone of DNA and RNA that links adjoining bases together

283

photosynthesis

process carried out by green plants, green algae, and certain bacteria, in which the energy from sunlight is trapped by chlorophyll and used for synthesis of glucose

284

phrase

group of words that are related bu do not contai a verb and a subject together

285

physical bonding

physical connection between atoms (or molecules) that does not alter the chemical nature of the atoms (or molecules)

286

physiology

study of the function of the various organs and body system

287

pie chart

see circle graph

288

plasmids

small circular portions of DNA not associated with the nucleoid

289

point of view

perspective from which an author writers

290

polar molecule

possesses both positive and negative regions

291

polynomial

term or combination of terms

292

possessive pronoun

used to indicate ownership

293

posterior

toward the back of the body or body structure (opposite of anterior)

294

potential energy

stored energy

295

prefix

group of letters added to the beginning of a word that modifies or extends the word's meaning

296

preposition

words such as by, at, to, and from that give additional information, usually in relationship to something else

297

primary source

firsthand record of events, theories, opinions, or actions; either published or unpublished documents, recordings, or artifacts that are contemporary to the events, people, or information that is at tissue

298

problem-solution text structure

prevents a problem or question, and then responds with a solution or answer

299

products

substances formed as the result of chemical reactions

300

prokaryote

single-celled organism lacking defined cellular organelles or a nucleus

301

pronoun

word that replaces a noun

302

proper fraction

fraction whose numerator is less than its denominator

303

proportion

two ratios that are set equal to each other

304

protein

compound composed of a large number of amino acids joined in a particular type of chemical bond called a peptide bond

305

proton

positively charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom

306

proximal

close to the origin of the body part or point of attachment (opposite of distal)

307

Punnett square

graphical way to show all possible combinations of alleles given the two parents' genotypes

308

purine

nitrogenous base with two rings (adenine and guanine)

309

purpose of a passage

main reason or intent for writing a particular piece

310

pyloric sphincter

muscle that separates the stomach from the duodenum and slowly releases chyme from the stomach into the small intestine (duodenum)

311

pyrimidine

nitrogenous base with one ring (thymine, cytosine, uracil)

312

quantitative

relating to numbers

313

quotation marks

punctuation marks (" ") used to indicate the exact phrasing of material or to show dialogue; always come in parts

314

quotient

c in the equation = c

315

rate of charge

speed at which something changes

316

ratio

relationship between two quantities

317

rational number

any real number that can be written as a fraction

318

reactants

substances consumed or altered in a chemical reaction

319

real number

any number on the number line

320

reciprocal

the multiplicative inverse of a number; the reciprocal of a/b is b/a

321

reduction

electron acceptance by a chemical that produces a more negative charge on the group

322

reflex

automatic response to a stimulus that occurs when neurons transmit a message to the spinal cord, which in turn sends a message back to the muscles to react before the message is transmitted to the brain

323

reproductive system

main purpose is to produce offspring; hours hormones that encourage or suppress activities within the body (e.g., libido and aggression)and influences the development of masculine or feminine body characteristics; consists of the testes and penis or the ovaries, vagina, and breasts

324

respiratory system

organ system that provides for air exchange by supporting tissues with oxygenated blood and removing carbon dioxide

325

ribosome

organelle responsible for synthesizing protein within the cell from amino acids

326

RNA (ribonucleic acid)

single-stranded molecule made from sugar, phosphates, and nitrogenous bases; required for the transfer and translation of the DNA code within a cell

327

Roman numerals

written numbers that use a combination of M, D, C, L, X, V, and I

328

root word

a word in its simplest form before any affixes are attached

329

sagittal section

cut made along a longitudinal plane that divides the body into right and left parts

330

salt

neutral product of an anion and a cation

331

saturated hydrocarbon

chemical structure composed entirely of single bonds

332

scale

any standard instrument of measurement that has marking at established intervals

333

second-person point of view

perspective in which the writer directly addresses the reader using the pronoun you

334

secretion

process of moving proteins outside of the cell

335

semicolon

punctuation mark (;) used to indicate division between equal elements in a sentence

336

sensory neurons

neurons that carry messages from sense organs to the brain and spinal cord

337

sensory-somatic nervous system

part of the peripheral nervous system that consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves, 31 pairs of spinal nerves. and associated ganglia; controls voluntary actions of the body

338

sequence

ordered list of thoughts or ideas

339

simple sentence

contains only one independent clause and no dependent clauses

340

simplified fraction

has no common factors between the numerator and the denominator except for the number 1 (a reduced fraction)

341

skeletal system

supports and protects the body and its organs; supplies a framework that, when used in conjunction with the muscles, creates movement; serves as storage for minerals, such as calcium and phosphorus; consists of bones, cartilage, ligaments, and joints

342

specific heat

energy required to raise one unit of mass in a substance by 1 degree Celcius

343

stem cells

can divide and remain undifferentiated; gives rise to a variety of more-specialized cells

344

stereotypes

oversimplified opinions about an entire group of people or things that do not account for individual differences

345

stimulus

change in the environment that triggers a physical response

346

subheadings

headings that appear below other headings; appear in a smaller typeface than headings, so that they may easily be distinguished; single heading may have many subheadings, and these subheadings may have their own subheadings

347

subject

noun or pronoun that performs the action of the verb in a sentence; if a sentence contains a verb of being or a linking verb such as be, feel, become, or look, the subject of the sentence is the noun or pronoun being described

348

subordinating conjunction

word that joins two or more clauses and makes the clause that contains it dependent on another clause, and therefore of slightly less importance; there are many subordinating conjunctions, but some common ones are because, though, although, while, if, and as if

349

substrate

molecule acted upon by an enzyme

350

suffix

group of letters added to the end of a word that modifies or extends the word's meaning

351

summary sentence

recaps the essential point(s) of a paragraph, or of a larger work, such as an essay; gives the reader the take-away message for the paragraph, or for the larger work

352

superficial

toward or at the body surface (opposite of deep)

353

superior

toward the upper end of the body or body structure (opposite of inferior)

354

support

examples and details that explain the topic of a paragraph; follows the topic sentence

355

supporting details

details that explain the main idea

356

sympathetic nerve

branch of the autonomic nervous system that is activated when a person is excited or scared

357

synapse

fluid-filled gap that connects the axon of one nerve cell with the cell body of another

358

T cell

lymphocyte that is responsible for cellular immunity

359

table of contents

listing of a publication's chapters, sections, or other organizational units; includes page numbers

360

take-home pay

money received after deductions are subtracted from the beginning salary

361

taxonomy

classification of organisms into universally accepted taxons; names reflect the organism's evolutionary heritage

362

technical writing

writing that passes along specific information or knowledge in a formal or standardized way

363

term

constant, variable, or product of a constant and variable

364

text features

formatting that serves a consistent purpose in a document; add meaning to the text that they modify, change the text's meaning, or add structure and clarity to the document

365

text structure

way of organizing text to better present thoughts or ideas; includes sequence, problem-solution, comparison-contrast, description, and cause-effect

366

themes

subjects that a written work frequently touches upon

367

third-person point of view

perspective in which the narrator is distanced from the story and tells it as an outsider; third-person pronouns such as he, she, or they

368

tissue

collection of cells in an organism that have a similar function and structure

369

topic

general subject matter covered by a writing

370

topic sentence

generally at or near the beginning of a paragraph; gives the topic or point of the paragraph and often explains that topic in relation in relation to the overall theme of the writing

371

trachea

airway that connects the larynx to the bronchial tubes; also known as the windpipe

372

transcription

process of cells copying the instruction from the DNA into the RNA

373

transition

smooth movement from one idea to the next, from one sentence to the next, or from one paragraph to the next; transition words may include additionally, finally, similarity, next, however, and furthermore

374

translation

process of protein reduction from messenger RNA

375

transverse section

cut made along a horizontal plane that divides the body into upper and lower regions; cross section

376

triple-point

temperature and pressure at which a substance will coexist as a solid, liquid, and gas

377

unsaturated hydrocarbons

a chemical molecule containing at least one double or triple bond

378

urinary system

helps maintain the water and electrolyte balance within the body; regulates the acid-base balance of the blood; removes all nitrogen-containing wastes from the body

379

vaccine

inactivated form of a pathogen that stimulates the body to produce antibodies for future protection

380

vacuole

basic storage unit of a cell that can hold verious compounds

381

valence electrons

electrons in the outermost shell of an atom

382

variable

unknown quantity in an expression or equation

383

veins

blood vessels that transport unoxygenated blood from the capillaries back to the heart

384

ventral body cavity

contains all the structures within the chest and abdomen; the diaphragm divides the ventral cavity into the thoracic cavity (superior to the diaphragm); below the diaphragm are the abdominal and pelvic cavities

385

verb

word that shows an action or state of being

386

verbal

word that is sometimes used as a verb but currently being used as another part of speech

387

vesicles

small membrane-bound sacs within the cytoplasm used to transport proteins or other substances in and out of a cell

388

villi

finger-like projections in the mucosa of the small intestine lining; produce a pleated appearance; each villus is supplied with blood and has lymphatic vessels for absorption

389

whole numbers

nonzero, positive integer (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, etc.)

390

word structure

way in which the parts of a word are arranged together

391

work

result of any change in energy

392

zygote

a one-celled organism resulting from the fertilization of an egg

393

density (g/ml)=

mas / volume (grams / milliliters)

394

volume (ml)=

length x width x height