General Biology I - Exam I Review
If 14C-labeled (radioactive) uracil is added to the growth medium of cells, what macromolecules will be labeled?
D) both DNA and RNA
What chemical group is the most likely to be responsible for an organic molecule behaving as a base (to reduce H+ in the solution)?
An organism has been isolated from decomposing organic matter. This organism has a cell wall but no chloroplasts. How would you classify this organism?
A) domain Bacteria, kingdom Prokaryota
B) domain Archaea, kingdom Bacteria
C) domain Eukarya, kingdom Plantae
D) domain Eukarya, kingdom Protista
E) domain Eukarya, kingdom Fungi
If one strand of a DNA molecule has the sequence of bases 5'ATTGCA3', the other complementary strand would have the sequence _________.
The advantage of light microscopy over electron microscopy is that
A) light microscopy provides for higher magnification than electron microscopy.
B) light microscopy provides for higher resolving power than electron microscopy.
C) light microscopy allows one to view dynamic processes in living cells.
D) light microscopy provides higher contrast than electron microscopy.
E) specimen preparation for light microscopy does not produce artifacts.
Which if the following produces and modifies polysaccharides that will be secreted?
D) Golgi apparatus
Which of the following is not a monomer/polymer pairing?
B) amino acid/protien
C) Triglyceride/phospolipid bilayer
Amino acids are acids because they always posses which functional group?
Humans can digest starch but not cellulose because
A) the monomer of starch is glucose, while the monomer of cellulose is galactose.
B) humans have enzymes that can hydrolyze the beta (β) glycosidic linkages of starch but not the alpha (α) glycosidic linkages of cellulose.
C) humans have enzymes that can hydrolyze the alpha (α) glycosidic linkages of starch but not the beta (β) glycosidic linkages of cellulose.
D) humans harbor starch-digesting bacteria in the digestive tract.
E) the monomer of starch is glucose, while the monomer of cellulose is maltose.
Which of the following is not a polymer?
5,12,19,26,33,....? We can _______ that the next number in the pattern is 40.
A solution contains 0.0000001(10⁻⁷) moles of hydroxyl ions [OH⁻] per
liter. Which of the following best describes this solution?
A) acidic: H⁺ acceptor
B) basic: H⁺ acceptor
C) acidic: H⁺ donor
D) basic: H⁺ donor
What results from an unequal sharing of electrons between atoms?
A) a nonpolar covalent bond
B) a polar covalent bond
C) an ionic bond
D) radioactive decay
E) a hydrophobic interaction
A localized group of organisms that belong to the same species is called a
The nucleus of a nitrogen atom contains 7 neutrons and 7 protons. Which of the following is a correct statement concerning nitrogen?
A) The nitrogen atom has a mass number of approximately 7 and an atomic number of 14
B) The nitrogen atom has a mass number of approximately 14 and an atomic number of 7.
C)The nitrogen atom has a mass number of approximately 14 and an atomic number of 14.
D) The nitrogen atom has a mass number of approximately 7 and an atomic number of 21.
E) The nitrogen atom has a mass number of approximately 14 and an atomic number of 21.
In a normal cellular protein, where would you expect to find a hydrophobic amino acid such as valine?
A) in the interior of the folded protein, away from from water
B) on the exterior surface of the protein, interacting with water
C) in the transmembrane portion interacting with lipid fatty acid chains
D) in the interior of the folded protein, away from water, or in a transmembrane portion interacting with lipid fatty acid chains
E) anywhere in the protein, with equal probability
Which structure is the site of the synthesis of proteins that may be exported from the cell?
A) rough ER
D) Golgi vesicles
E) free cytoplasmic ribosomes
Which of the following is a major cause of the size limits for certain types of cell?
A) limitation on the strength and integrity of the plasma membrane as cell size increases
B) the difference in plasma membranes between prokaryotic and eukaryotes
C) evolutionary progression in cell size; more primitive cells have smaller sizes
D) the need for sufficient surface area to support the cell's metabolic needs
E) rigid cell walls that limit cell size expansion
What type of bond is very prevalent in lipids and gives lipids their properties?
A) polar covalent
B) nonpolar covalent
C) strong ionic bond
D) peptide bond
E) hydrogen bond
Which if the following best describes the logic of scientific inquiry?
A) If I generate a testable hypothesis, tests and observations will support it.
B) If my prediction is correct, it will lead to a testable hypothesis.
C) If my observations are accurate, they will support my hypothesis
D) If my hypothesis is correct, I can expect certain test results.
E) If my experiments are set up right, they will lead to a testable hypothesis.
Which if these provides evidence of the common ancestry of all life?
A) ubiquitous use of catalysts by living systems
B) near universality of the genetic code
C) structure of the nucleus
D) structure of cilia
E) structure of chloroplasts
__________ is a storage polysaccharide commonly found in the cells of animals.
Why is each element unique and different from other elements with respect to its chemical properties?
A) Each element has a unique atomic mass.
B) Each element has a unique number of protons.
C) Each element has a unique number of neutrons.
D) Each element has different radioactive properties.
About 25 of the 92 natural elements are known to be essential to life. Which 4 of these 25 elements make up approximately 96% of living matter?
A) carbon, sodium, hydrogen, nitrogen
B) carbon, oxygen, phosphorus, hydrogen
C) oxygen, hydrogen, calcium, nitrogen
D) carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen
E) carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, calcium
Based on your knowledge of polarity of water molecules, the solute molecules depicted in the figure is most likely
A) positively charged.
B) negatively charged.
C) without charge.
To understand the chemical basis of inheritance, we must understand the molecules structure of DNA. This is an example of the application of which concept to the study of biology?
B) emergent properties
D) the cell theory
E) feedback regulation
What is the maximum number of hydrogen atoms that can be covalently bonded in a molecule containing two carbon atoms?
Which of the following best summarizes the relationship between dehydration reactions and hydrolysis?
A) Dehydration reactions assemble polymer, and hydrolysis reactions break down polymers.
B) Dehydration reactions eliminate water from lipid membranes, and hydrolysis makes lipid membranes water permeable.
C) Dehydration reactions can occurs only after hydrolysis.
D) Hydrolysis creates monomers, and dehydration reactions break down polymers.
E) Dehydration reactions ionize water molecules and add hydroxyl groups to polymers; hydrolysis reactions release hydroxyl groups from polymers.
A controlled experiment is one in which
A) the experiment is repeated many times to ensure that the results are accurate.
B) the experiment proceeds at a slow pace to guarantee that the scientist can carefully observe all reactions and process all experimental data.
C) there are at least two groups, one of which does not receive the experiment treatment.
D) there are at least two groups, one differing from the other by two or more variables.
E) there is one group for which the scientist controls all variables.
Which of these is an example of inductive reasoning?
A) Hundreds of individuals of a species have been observed an and all are photosynthetic; therefore, the species is photosynthetic.
B) These organisms live in sunny parts of this area, so they are able to photosynthesize.
C) If horses are always found grazing on grass, they can be only herbivores and not omnivores.
D) If protists are all single-celled organisms, then they are incapable of aggregating.
E) If two species are members of the same genus, they are more alike than each of them could be to a different genus.
Which of the following is an activity that would not reflect the practice of science?
A) Science is typically performed alone.
B) Date are typically collected by teams of students and experienced researchers.
C) Scientists typically reexamine conclusions or repeat experiments from other large, famous labs.
D) Scientists who work in forests studying ecology often collaborate closely with geneticists who work only in the lab.
E) The practice of science results in a discovery that lends new insight, and technology involves how this new insight will be applied to develop a new drug.
The liver is involved in detoxification of many poisons and drugs. Which of the following structures is primarily involved in this process and therefore abundant in liver cells?
A) Rough ER
B) Smooth ER
C) Golgi apparatus
D) Nuclear envelope
E) Transport vesicles
The complexity and variety of organic molecules is due to
A) the chemical versatility of carbon atoms.
B) the variety of rare elements in organic molecules.
C) the fact that they can be synthesized only in living organisms.
D) their interaction with water
E) their tremendously large sizes
What of the following functional group is a carboxyl group?
A compound contains hydroxyl groups as it predominant functional group. Which of the following statements is true concerning this compound?
A) It lacks an asymmetric carbon, and it is probably a fat or lipid.
B) It should dissolve in water.
C) It should dissolve in a nonpolar solvent.
D) It wont form hydrogen bonds with water.
E) It is hydrophobic.
Which of the following is not part of a nucleotide?
A) 4 carbon sugar
B) phosphate group
C) 6 carbon sugar
D) nitrogenous base
Which of the following statements best distinguishes hypothesis from theories in science?
A) theories are hypothesis that have been proved.
B) hypotheses are guesses; theories are correct answer;
C) hypotheses usually are relatively narrow in scope; theories have broad explanatory power.
D) Theories are proved true: hypotheses are often contradicted by experimental results.
What is the difference between covalent bonds?
A) Covalent bonds are formed between atoms to form molecules; ionic bonds are formed between atoms to form compounds.
B) Covalent bonds involved the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms; ionic bonds involved the sharing of single electrons between atoms.
C) Covalent bonds involved the sharing of electrons between atoms; ionic bonds involved the electrical attraction between atoms.
D) Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms; ionic bonds involved the sharing of protons between atoms.
E) Covalent bonds involve the transfer of electrons between atoms: ionic bonds involved the sharing of electrons between atoms.
Atoms A has a mass of 75 daltons and its atomic number 45. How many neutrons does atom A have?
Which type of bond must be broken for water to vaporize?
A) ionic bonds
B) both hydrogen bonds and ionic bonds
C) polar covalent bonds
D) hydrogen bonds
E) both polar covalent bonds and hydrogen bonds
We can be sure that a mole of table sugar and a mole of vitamin C are equal in their
A) mass in daltons.
B) mass in grams.
D) number of atoms.
E) number of molecules.
Which of the following effects is produced by the high surface tension of water?
A) Lakes don't freeze solid in winter, despite low temperatures.
B) A water struder can walk across the surface of a small pond.
C) Organisms resist temperature changes, although they give off heat due to chemical reactions.
D) Evaporation of sweat from the skin helps to keep people from overheating.
E) Water flows upward from the roots to the leaves in plants.
If a DNA sample were composed of 10% thymine, what would be the percentage of guanine?
E) impossible to tell from the information given
Which level of protein structure do the α helix and the β pleated
E) primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary
Why is Darwin considered orginial in his thinking?
A) He provided examples of organisms that had evolved over time.
B) He demonstrated that evolution is contributing to occur now.
C) He described the relationship between genes and evolution
D) He proposed the mechanism that explains how evolution takes place.
E) He observed that organisms produce large numbers of offspring
All of the following are part of a prokaryotic cell expect
B) a cell wall
C) a plasma membrane
E) an endolplasmic reticulum
Which cellular structure is common to all three domains of life?
B) endoplasmic reticulum
D) phospholipid bilayer cell membrane
E) endocytotic vesicles
On food packages, to what does the term insolube fiber refer?
Many mammals control their body temperature by sweeting. Which property of water is most directly responsible for the ability of sweat to lower body temperature?
Which of the following statements about the 5' end of polynucleotides strand of RNA is correct?
A) The 5' end has a hydroxyl group attached to the number 5 carbon of ribose.
B) The 5' end has a phosphate group attached to the number 5 carbon of ribose.
C) The 5' end has phosphate attached to the number 5 carbon of the nitrogenous base.
D) The 5' end has a carboxyl group attached to the number 5 carbon of ribose.
E) The 5' end is the fifth position on one of the nitrogenous bases.