What is the term for metabolic pathways that release stored energy by breaking down complex molecules?
Which of the following statements describes the results of this reaction?
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy
C6H12O6 is oxidized and O2 is reduced.
When a molecule of NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) gains a hydrogen atom (not a proton), the molecule becomes
The ATP made during glycolysis is generated by
Why are carbohydrates and fats considered high-energy foods?
They have a lot of electrons associated with hydrogen.
Starting with one molecule of glucose, the energy-containing products of glycolysis are
2 NADH, 2 pyruvate, and 2 ATP.
The primary role of oxygen in cellular respiration is to
act as an acceptor for electrons and hydrogen, forming water.
Where is ATP synthase located in the mitochondrion?
In prokaryotes, the respiratory electron transport chain is located
in the plasma membrane.
Which of the following normally occurs regardless of whether or not oxygen (O2) is present?
A human cell containing 22 autosomes and a Y chromosome is
For a species with a haploid number of 23 chromosomes, how many different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes are possible for the gametes?
about 8 million
Homologous chromosomes move toward opposite poles of a dividing cell during
How does the sexual life cycle increase the genetic variation in a species?
by allowing crossing over
Independent assortment of chromosomes is a result of
the random and independent way in which each pair of homologous chromosomes lines up at the metaphase plate during meiosis I.
Meiosis II is similar to mitosis in that
sister chromatids separate during anaphase
Refer to the drawings in Figure 13.2 of a single pair of homologous chromosomes as they might appear during various stages of either mitosis or meiosis, and answer the following questions.
Which of these statements is false?
At sexual maturity, ovaries and testes produce diploid gametes by meiosis
Which of the following defines a genome?
the complete set of an organism's genes
Which of the following occurs in meiosis but not in mitosis?
synapsis of chromosomes
Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration?
Photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules, whereas respiration releases it
Which of the following statements is a correct distinction between autotrophs and heterotrophs?
Autotrophs, but not heterotrophs, can nourish themselves beginning with CO2 and other nutrients that are inorganic
Which statement describes the functioning of photosystem II?
The electron vacancies in P680+ are filled by electrons derived from water
Which of the following are products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that are utilized in the Calvin cycle?
ATP and NADPH
Where are the molecules of the electron transport chain found in plant cells?
thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts
What is the primary function of the Calvin cycle?
synthesize simple sugars from carbon dioxide
In the process of carbon fixation, RuBP attaches a CO2 to produce a six-carbon molecule, which is then split to produce two molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate. After phosphorylation and reduction produces glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P), what more needs to happen to complete the Calvin cycle?
regeneration of RuBP
A plant has a unique photosynthetic pigment. The leaves of this plant appear to be reddish yellow. What wavelengths of visible light are being absorbed by this pigment?
blue and violet
produce organic molecules from inorganic molecules.
________ cells in leaves are specialized for photosynthesis