APUSH Chapter 14

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1
  1. Life on the frontier was

a.

fairly comfortable for women but not for men.

b.

downright grim for most pioneer families.

c.

free of disease and premature death.

d.

rarely portrayed in popular literature.

e.

based on tight-knit communities.

B

2

All of the following gave rise to a more dynamic, market-oriented, national economy in early nineteenth-century America except

a.

the push west in search of cheap land.

b.

government regulation of all major economic activity.

c.

a vast number of European immigrants settling in the cities.

d.

newly invented machinery.

e.

better roads, faster steamboats, further-reaching canals, and tentacle-stretching railroads.

B

3

Pioneering Americans marooned by geography

a.

never took the time to explore the beauty of the natural landscape.

b.

grew to depend on other people for most of their basic needs.

c.

abandoned the rugged individualism of colonial Americans.

d.

never looked for any help beyond their immediate family.

e.

were often ill informed, superstitious, provincial, and fiercely individualistic.

E

4

For women, life on the frontier was especially difficult because they

a.

were more susceptible to disease and premature death than men.

b.

experienced extreme loneliness, and could go weeks without seeing another person.

c.

had to live in three-sided lean-to homes made of sticks.

d.

were required to help clear the land and do the housework.

e.

None of these

B

5

In early-nineteenth-century America, the

a.

annual population growth rate was much higher than in colonial days.

b.

urban population was growing at an unprecedented rate.

c.

birthrate was rapidly declining.

d.

death rate was increasing.

e.

center of population moved northward.

B

6

The dramatic growth of American cities between 1800 and 1860

a.

led to a lower death rate.

b.

contributed to a decline in the birthrate.

c.

resulted in unsanitary conditions in many communities.

d.

forced the federal government to slow immigration.

e.

created sharp political conflict between farmers and urbanites.

C

7

Ecological imperialism can best be described as

a.

the efforts of white settlers to take land from Native Americans.

b.

the aggressive exploitation of the West's bounty.

c.

humans' domination over the animal kingdom.

d.

the spread of technology and industry.

e.

the practice of using spectacular natural settings as symbols of America.

B

8

George Catlin advocated

a.

placing Indians on reservations.

b.

efforts to protect America's endangered species.

c.

continuing the rendezvous system.

d.

keeping white settlers out of the West.

e.

the preservation of nature as a national policy.

E

9

The influx of immigrants to the United States tripled, then quadrupled, in the

a.

1810s and 1820s.

b.

1820s and 1830s.

c.

1830s and 1840s.

d.

1840s and 1850s.

e.

1860s and 1870s.

D

10

The overwhelming event for Ireland in the 1840s was

a.

the rebellion against British rule and potato famine.

b.

influx of immigrants from mostly Eastern European countries.

c.

the legalization of the Roman Catholic Church.

d.

the migration from the countryside to the city.

e.

the increasing use of English instead of Gaelic.

A

11

Ireland's great export in the 1840s was

a.

people.

b.

potatoes.

c.

wool.

d.

whiskey.

e.

music.

A

12

Whether they were propertied or landless, immigrants were often enticed to leave their homelands by

a.

letters from family or friends in the U.S., bragging about easy opportunities for wealth

b.

advertisements from companies promising big salaries to those who emigrate.

c.

greater prospects of finding a suitable husband or wife.

d.

word that there was free land available in the West.

e.

None of these

A

13

When the Irish flocked to the United States in the 1840s, they stayed in the larger seaboard cities because they

a.

preferred urban life.

b.

were offered high-paying jobs.

c.

were welcomed by the people living there.

d.

were too poor to move west and buy land.

e.

had experience in urban politics.

D

14

Native-born Protestant Americans distrusted and resented the Irish mostly because these immigrants

a.

were poor.

b.

were thought to love alcohol.

c.

were Roman Catholic.

d.

frequently became police officers.

e.

were slow to learn English.

C

15

German immigrants in the early nineteenth century tended to

a.

settle in eastern industrial cities.

b.

assimilate themselves well into American culture.

c.

become slave-owners.

d.

join the temperance movement.

e.

preserve their own language and culture.

E

16

German immigrants to the United States

a.

quickly became a powerful political force.

b.

came to escape economic hardships and autocratic government.

c.

were as poor as the Irish.

d.

contributed little to American life.

e.

were almost all Roman Catholics.

B

17

All of the following are true statements about the relationship between Irish immigrants and U.S. citizens except

a.

the Irish were seen as wage-depressing competitors for jobs.

b.

native workers hated the Irish.

c.

the Irish often saw signs on factory gates that said "No Irish Need Apply."

d.

race riots between blacks and Irish were common.

e.

Irish immigrants became fiercely supportive of the abolitionist cause.

E

18

When German immigrants came to the United States, they

a.

often became Baptist or Methodists.

b.

mixed well with other Americans.

c.

remained mostly in the Northeast.

d.

prospered with astonishing ease.

e.

dropped most of their German customs.

D

19

Those who were frightened by the rapid influx of Irish immigrants organized

a.

the Order of the Star-Spangled Banner.

b.

the "Molly Maguires."

c.

Tammany Hall.

d.

the Ancient Order of Hibernians.

e.

the Ku Klux Klan.

A

20

The sentiment of fear and opposition to open immigration was called

a.

the cult of domesticity.

b.

nativism.

c.

racism.

d.

rugged individualism.

e.

patriotism.

B

21

Between 1830 and 1860, nearly ____ million Irish arrived in America.

a.

1

b.

2

c.

5

d.

8

e.

10

B

22

Irish immigrants typically worked in all of the following occupations except

a.

domestic servants.

b.

construction workers.

c.

day laborers.

d.

silversmiths.

e.

saloon owners.

D

23

Native-born Americans feared that Catholic immigrants to the United States would

a.

want to attend school with Protestants.

b.

overwhelm the native-born Catholics and control the church.

c.

establish the Catholic Church at the expense of Protestantism.

d.

assume control of the Know-Nothing party.

e.

establish monasteries and convents in the West.

C

24

All of the following are true statements about German immigrants except

a.

they typically settled in Northeast coastal cities.

b.

they tended to be better educated than mainstream Americans.

c.

they supported public schools, the arts, and music.

d.

they championed freedom and fought to end slavery.

e.

they settled in compact colonies to preserve their language and culture.

A

25

Immigrants coming to the United States before 1860

a.

depressed the economy due to their poverty.

b.

found themselves involved in few cultural conflicts.

c.

had little impact on society until after the Civil War.

d.

settled mostly in the South.

e.

helped to fuel economic expansion.

E

26

Identify the following statement that is false.

a.

Land was cheap in America; this helped fuel the immigration flux.

b.

Money for capital investment was not plentiful in pioneering America.

c.

Foreign capital was dependent upon security in property rights, sufficient infrastructure, an adequate work force, and political stability.

d.

Even though capital was lacking, raw materials were widely developed and discovered in America.

e.

The country had a difficult time producing goods of high quality and cheap cost to compete with mass-produced European products.

D

27

The "Father of the Factory System" in the United States was

a.

Robert Fulton.

b.

Samuel F. B. Morse.

c.

Eli Whitney.

d.

Samuel Slater.

e.

Thomas Edison.

D

28

Eli Whitney was instrumental in the invention of the

a.

steamboat.

b.

cotton gin.

c.

railroad locomotive.

d.

telegraph.

e.

repeating revolver.

B

29

A great deal of the cotton produced in the American South in the early nineteenth century was

a.

produced by free labor.

b.

sold to New England textile mills.

c.

grown on the Atlantic tidewater plains.

d.

consumed by the southern textile industry.

e.

combined with wool to make linsey-woolsey fabrics.

B

30

Most of the cotton produced in the American South after the invention of the cotton gin was

a.

produced by free labor.

b.

sold to England.

c.

grown on the tidewater plains.

d.

consumed by the southern textile industry.

e.

of the long-staple variety.

B

31

The American phase of the industrial revolution first blossomed

a.

on southern plantations.

b.

in the New England textile industry.

c.

in rapidly growing Chicago.

d.

in railroads and ship building.

e.

in coal and iron mining regions.

B

32

As a result of the development of the cotton gin

a.

slavery revived and expanded.

b.

American industry bought more southern cotton than did British manufacturers.

c.

a nationwide depression ensued.

d.

the South diversified its economy.

e.

the textile industry moved to the South.

A

33

The underlying basis for modern mass production was

a.

unionized labor.

b.

Supreme Court rulings that favored laissez-faire.

c.

the use of interchangeable parts.

d.

the principle of limited liability.

e.

the passing of protective tariffs.

C

34

The early factory system distributed its benefits

a.

mostly to the owners.

b.

evenly to all.

c.

primarily in the South.

d.

to workers represented by unions.

e.

to overseas investors.

A

35

By the time of the fabled London World's Fair in 1851, American products were prominent among the world's commercial wonders, which included all of the following except

a.

Edison's phonograph.

b.

Goodyear's vulcanized rubber goods.

c.

Colt's firearms.

d.

Morse's telegraph.

e.

McCormick's reaper.

A

36

The American workforce in the early nineteenth century was characterized by

a.

substantial employment of women and children in factories.

b.

strikes by workers that were few in number but usually effective.

c.

a general lengthening of the workday from ten to fourteen hours.

d.

extensive political activity among workers.

e.

reliance on the system of apprentices and masters.

A

37

All of the following are true statements about the workers in the Lowell factory system except

a.

they were virtually all New England farm girls.

b.

they were carefully supervised on and off the job by watchful matrons.

c.

they lived in company boardinghouses and were forbidden to form unions.

d.

they worked five days a week for twelve to thirteen hours a day.

e.

they labored under grueling working conditions.

D

38

One reason that the lot of adult wage earners improved was

a.

support gained from the United States Supreme Court.

b.

the passage of minimum wage laws.

c.

the passage of laws restricting the use of strikebreakers.

d.

the enactment of immigration restrictions.

e.

the enfranchisement of the laboring man.

E

39

In the case of Commonwealth v. Hunt, the supreme court of Massachusetts ruled that

a.

corporations were unconstitutional.

b.

labor unions were not illegal conspiracies.

c.

labor strikes were illegal by violating the Fair Labor Acts.

d.

the Boston Associates' employment of young women in their factories was inhumane.

e.

the state could regulate factory wages and working conditions.

B

40

The cult of domesticity

a.

gave women more opportunity to seek employment outside the home.

b.

resulted in more pregnancies for women.

c.

restricted women's moral influence on the family.

d.

glorified the traditional role of women as homemakers.

e.

was especially strong among rural women.

D

41

Early-nineteenth-century American families

a.

were becoming more loosely knit and less affectionate.

b.

usually included three generations in the same household.

c.

taught their children to be unquestioningly obedient.

d.

usually allowed parents to determine choice of marriage partners.

e.

were getting smaller.

E

42

One of the goals of the child-centered family of the 1800s was to

a.

raise children who were obedient to authority.

b.

allow parents to spoil their children.

c.

raise independent individuals.

d.

increase the number of children.

e.

preserve childhood innocence.

C

43

The effect of early-nineteenth-century industrialization on the trans-Allegheny West was to encourage

a.

specialized, cash-crop agriculture.

b.

slavery.

c.

self-sufficient farming.

d.

heavy industry.

e.

higher tariffs.

A

44

With the development of cash-crop agriculture in the trans-Allegheny West

a.

subsistence farming became common.

b.

farmers began to support the idea of slave labor.

c.

farmers quickly faced mounting indebtedness.

d.

the South could harvest a larger crop.

e.

the issue of farm surpluses came to the fore.

C

45

The first major transportation project, which ran sixty-two miles from Philadelphia to Lancaster, Pennsylvania, was the

a.

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad.

b.

National (Cumberland) Road.

c.

Erie Canal.

d.

St. Lawrence Seaway.

e.

Lancaster Turnpike.

E

46

After the construction of the Lancaster Turnpike and the Cumberland (National) Road, road building slowed somewhat because of

a.

corruption in construction contracts.

b.

the inability to construct hard-surface highways.

c.

eastern states' opposition.

d.

the steamboat and canal boom.

e.

the reluctance of shippers to move their products by road.

D

47

Western road building faced all of the following problems except

a.

the expense.

b.

states' rights advocates' opposition.

c.

eastern states' opposition.

d.

competition from canals.

e.

wartime interruptions.

D

48

The major application for steamboats transporting freight and passengers in the United States was on

a.

New England streams.

b.

western and southern rivers.

c.

the Great Lakes.

d.

the Gulf of Mexico.

e.

coastal waterways.

B

49

The canal era of American history began with the construction of the

a.

Mainline Canal in Pennsylvania.

b.

James River and Kanasha Canal from Virginia to Ohio.

c.

Wabash Canal in Indiana.

d.

Suez Canal in Illinois.

e.

Erie Canal in New York.

E

50

Construction of the Erie Canal

a.

forced some New England farmers to move or change occupations.

b.

showed how long-established local markets could survive a continental economy.

c.

helped farmers so much that industrialization was slowed.

d.

was aided by federal money.

e.

created political tensions between the Northeast and the Midwest.

A

51

Most early railroads in the United States were built in the

a.

North.

b.

Old South.

c.

lower Mississippi Valley.

d.

Far West.

e.

Appalachian Mountains.

A

52

Compared with canals, railroads

a.

were more expensive to construct.

b.

transported freight more slowly.

c.

were generally safer.

d.

were susceptible to weather delays.

e.

could be built almost anywhere.

E

53

In the new continental economy, each region specialized in a particular economic activity: the South ____ for export; the West grew grains and livestock to feed ____; and the East ____ for the other two regions.

a.

raised grain, southern slaves, processed meat

b.

grew cotton, southern slaves, made machines and textiles

c.

grew cotton, eastern factory workers, made machines and textiles

d.

raised grain, eastern factory workers, made furniture and tools

e.

processed meat, southern slaves, raised grain

C

54

In general, ____ tended to bind the West and South together, while ____ and ____ connected West to East.

a.

steamboats, canals, railroads

b.

railroads, canals, steamboats

c.

canals, steamboats, turnpikes

d.

turnpikes, steamboats, canals

e.

turnpikes, railroads, steamboats

A

55

All of the following were legal questions raised as a result of the new market economy except

a.

how tightly should patents protect inventions?

b.

should the government regulate monopolies?

c.

can a democratic government still support slavery?

d.

who should own these new technologies?

e.

who should own the new transportation network?

C

56

As the new continental market economy grew

a.

individual households became increasingly self-sufficient.

b.

the home came to be viewed as a refuge from the workday world.

c.

traditional women's work became more highly valued and increasingly important.

d.

respect for women as homemakers declined.

e.

the home lost most of its importance for family life.

B

57

A major economic consequence of the transportation and marketing revolutions was

a.

a lessening of the gap between great wealth and poverty.

b.

a stabilization of the work force in industrial cities.

c.

the declining significance of American agriculture.

d.

a steady improvement in average wages and standards of living.

e.

the growing realization of the rags-to-riches American dream.

d

58

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

  1. America's early-nineteenth-century population was notable for its

a.

restlessness.

b.

wastefulness.

c.

youthfulness.

d.

aggressiveness.

e.

thoughtfulness.

A,C

59

Factors encouraging the growth of immigration rates in the first half of the nineteenth century included the

a.

rapid growth rate of the European population.

b.

perception of America as the land of freedom and opportunity.

c.

introduction of transoceanic steamships.

d.

economic and political turmoil in Europe.

e.

religious oppression by European state churches.

A, B, C, D, E

60

The growth of industry and the factory system in the United States was slowed by

a.

the high price of land.

b.

the scarcity of labor.

c.

limited investment capital.

d.

a small domestic market.

e.

weak incentives for new technology.

B, C

61

The Northeast became the center of early-nineteenth-century American industry because it had

a.

a superior transportation system.

b.

abundant water power.

c.

investment capital available.

d.

a local supply of raw materials used in manufacturing.

e.

a relatively large labor supply.

B, E

62

The growth of early-nineteenth-century American manufacturing was stimulated by the

a.

War of 1812.

b.

Peace of Ghent.

c.

Louisiana Purchase.

d.

Tariff of 1816.

e.

rise of the Know-Nothing Party.

A, D

63

By 1850, America's factory system was producing

a.

textiles.

b.

boots and shoes.

c.

firearms.

d.

steel.

e.

sewing machines.

A, C

64

The concentration of capital for investment in large-scale enterprises in the early nineteenth century was promoted by the

a.

wider acceptance of the principle of limited liability.

b.

introduction of state corporate tax laws.

c.

legalization of labor unions.

d.

passage of state free incorporation laws.

e.

lowering of the capital gains tax.

A, D

65

The turnpikes, canals, and steamboats as new transportation links generally encouraged

a.

lowering of freight rates.

b.

economic growth.

c.

rising land values.

d.

migration of peoples.

e.

states' rights.

A, B, D

66

Clipper ships and the Pony Express had in common

a.

the use of the most advanced technology.

b.

speedy service.

c.

a brief existence.

d.

low cost.

e.

support from the federal government.

B, C

67

Advances in manufacturing and transportation brought

a.

a narrowing of the gap between rich and poor in America.

b.

more prosperity and opportunity to most Americans.

c.

innumerable cases of rags-to-riches economic mobility for ordinary Americans.

d.

increased immigration from Europe to the United States.

e.

economic reliance on the export of manufactured goods.

B, D