Why are 2 beads assigned to each individual in the simulation?
The beads represent alleles
Evolution is a theory.
Although it has been traditionally describedas "survival of the fittest", Charles Darwin's mechanism for evolution is more accurately described as "survival of the more fit.”
As a group of species are placed in an evolutionary sequence by biologists, that sequenceis irrefutable and not subject to change or debate.
Positive selection increases the chance of survival and reproduction.
Does the presence of more complexity in terms ofanatomy and/or physiology always indicate that an animal is newer in evolutionary history?
No, because evolution is the result of selection for desirable traits, not necessarily more complex traits
For this question, we will utilize a population of Martians that is in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. The dominant Martian phenotype is the possession of 2 antennae. In this population, 84 of the Martians have 2 antennae, while 16 lack antennae. What is the frequency of heterozygotes in this population?
What is true about positive selection for a trait? Check all that apply.
A. The frequency of the trait increases
B. Survival of those with the trait is enhanced
C. Reproduction of those with the trait is more likely
D. Future generations of offspring of parents with the trait are more likely to survive
Answer A, B, C
Change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
Proportion of individuals in a certain category relative to the total number of individual considered
Enables us to calculate and predict allelic and genotypic frequencies
Allows for the prediction of allelic & genotypic frequencies
p + q = 1 (dominant + recessive alleles)
0.5 + 0.5 = 1
p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 (BB + Bb + bb = 1)
0.25 + 0.50 + 0.25 = 1
The Hardy-Weinberg Principle
Population is large enough to overcome random events.
Choice of mates is random
Mutation does not occur
Individuals do not migrate into or our of the population
There is no selection pressure.
The Hardy-Weinberg Principle Assumptions
An individual able to survive in environment
An individual able to reproduce
Frequency in favorable traits for an environment increase and the nature of the population will gradually change
Genetic changes in populations over time
Group of related organisms
Progressive changes in trait
Common ancestral forms
Not evolved from each other
Gonium (4, 8, 16, or 32 cells)
Volvox100’s —1000’s vegetative cells
Few reproductive cells
Volvocine Line of Algae