A&P Chapter 3 Cells: The Living Units

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Mastering A&P Human Anatomy & Physiology 10th Edition Marieb
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1

Drag the appropriate labels to their respective targets.

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2

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3

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4

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5

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6

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7

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8

Which of the following lists, in correct order, the phases of interphase?

G1, S, and G2

9

Which of the following lists, in correct order, the phases of mitosis?

prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

10

During which of the following phases does DNA replication occur?

Synthesis

11

During which of the following phases does chromatin condense and become chromosomes?

prophase

12

Which of the following describes tight junctions?

junctions among epithelial cells lining the digestive tract

13

The glycocalyx is often referred to as the "cell coat," which is somewhat fuzzy and sticky with numerous cholesterol chains sticking out from the surface of the cell membrane.

False

14

Which of the following forms of vesicular transport processes are used by flu viruses, diphtheria, and cholera toxins to enter our cells?

receptor-mediated endocytosis

15

Which of the following statements is correct regarding net diffusion?

The greater the concentration gradient, the faster the rate.

16

Diffusion movement always occurs from areas of greater to areas of lesser concentration.

True

17

Aquaporins are believed to be present in red blood cells and kidney tubules, but not in any other cells in the body.

False

18

In their resting state, all body cells exhibit a resting membrane potential ranging from -50 to about +50 millivolts.

False

19

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of peroxisomes?

They contain powerful enzymes called acid hydrolases.

20

Which of these is an inclusion, not an organelle?

melanin

21

Microtubules are hollow tubes made of subunits of the protein tubulin.

True

22

Some hormones enter cells via ________.

receptor-mediated endocytosis

23
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The indicated protein interacts with DNA to form the structural unit of chromatin called a ______.

nucleosome

24
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Which letter is pointing to an mRNA molecule?

B

25

Which of the following names the three main parts of a human cell?

cytoplasm, plasma membrane, and nucleus

26

Match the following.
Drag the appropriate labels to their respective targets.

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27

The RNA responsible for bringing the amino acids to the ribosome for protein formation is ________.

tRNA

28

Cholesterol helps to stabilize the cell membrane while decreasing the mobility of the phospholipids.

True

29

Which of the following is characteristic of cilia?

They are whiplike, motile cellular extensions that occur in large numbers on the exposed surfaces of certain cells.

30
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What type of protein is indicated by the arrow?

histone

31

Mitosis ________.

is division of the nucleus

32

Which of the following statements is correct regarding RNA?

Messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA play a role in protein synthesis.

33
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The figure is of which cellular organelle?

a mitochondrion

34

Phagocytosis is a form of exocytosis.

False

35

________ is the diffusion of a solvent, such as water, across a selectively permeable membrane.

Osmosis

36

Lipid rafts, found in the cell outer membrane surface, are concentrating platforms for certain receptor molecules or for protein molecules needed for cell signaling.

True

37
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What is the specific role of the enzyme indicated by B during the formation of the new DNA strands?

joining the nucleotides that form the new DNA strand

38

If a tRNA had an AGC anticodon, it could attach to a(n) ________ mRNA codon.

UCG

39

Some hormones enter cells via ________.

receptor-mediated endocytosis

40

The nucleolus ________.

is the site of ribosome assembly in a cell

41

Which of the following is NOT a concept of the cell theory?

Cells are given life through a process known as spontaneous generation.

42

Which of the following statements correctly describes the plasma membrane?

It is a dynamic fluid structure that is in constant flux.

43

Which of the following is FALSE regarding the membrane potential?

The resting membrane potential is maintained solely by passive transport processes.

44

Solutions with a higher concentration of solutes than the concentration inside the cells are __________.

hypertonic

45

Interstitial fluid represents one type of extracellular material.

True

46
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What is the function of the indicated protein?

to allow DNA to form a compact structure

47

What is the difference between active and passive transport across the plasma membrane?

Active transport is ATP dependent, whereas passive transport uses only the kinetic energy of the particles for movement across the plasma membrane.

48

________ is a molecular "ferry" that brings amino acids to the ribosome to build a protein.

t-RNA

49

Apoptosis is programmed cell suicide; cancer cells do not undergo this process.

True

50
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The structure indicated by B is ______.

the Golgi apparatus

51

If cells are placed in a hypertonic solution containing a solute to which the membrane is impermeable, what could happen?

The cells will lose water and shrink.

52

DNA transcription is another word for DNA replication.

False

53

Why is the selective permeability of the plasma membrane essential for normal cell function?

Selective permeability allows cells to exclude some substances and allow others to pass into or out of the cell.

54

In their resting state, all body cells exhibit a resting membrane potential; therefore, all cells are polarized.

True

55

In which stage of mitosis do the identical sets of chromosomes uncoil and resume their chromatin form?

telophase

56

Which of the following is a principle of the fluid mosaic model of cell membrane structure?

Phospholipids form a bilayer that is largely impermeable to water-soluble molecules.

57

Each daughter cell resulting from mitotic cell division has exactly as many chromosomes as the parent cell.

True

58

A red blood cell placed in pure water would ________.

swell and burst

59

The main component of the cytosol is ________.

water

60

Which type of cell junction acts as anchors and distributes tension through a cellular sheet and reduces the chance of tearing when it is subjected to great mechanical stress?

desmosomes

61

What must happen before a body cell can begin mitotic cell division?

Its DNA must be replicated exactly so that identical copies of the cell's genes can be passed on to each of its offspring.

62
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What process allows for the production of molecule B from a template consisting of molecule A?

transcription

63

The functions of centrioles include ________.

organizing the mitotic spindle in cell division

64

Which vesicular transport process occurs primarily in some white blood cells and macrophages?

phagocytosis

65
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Molecule B and molecule C are expected to interact within which of the following cellular locations?

ribosome

66

Which of the following is a function of a plasma membrane protein?

molecular transport through the membrane

67

What is the primary function of the mitochondria?

They are the main sites of ATP production.

68

The electron microscope has revealed that one of the components within the cell consists of pinwheel array of 9 triplets of microtubules arranged to form a hollow tube. This structure is a ________.

centriole

69

Facilitated diffusion requires a carrier or channel protein.

True

70

A gene can best be defined as ________.

a segment of DNA that carries the instructions for one polypeptide chain

71

What are the two basic steps of polypeptide synthesis?

transcription and translation

72

Which of the following statements is TRUE?

During exocytosis, substances from inside the cell are moved outside.

73

Lysosomes perform digestive functions within a cell.

True

74

The plasma membrane is made primarily of ________.

phospholipids

75

Some hormones enter cells via ________.

receptor-mediated endocytosis

76

Which of the following statements is correct regarding RNA?

Messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA play a role in protein synthesis.

77

If cells are placed in a hypertonic solution containing a solute to which the membrane is impermeable, what could happen?

The cells will lose water and shrink.

78

In their resting state, all body cells exhibit a resting membrane potential; therefore, all cells are polarized.

True

79

Which of the following is characteristic of cilia?

They are whiplike, motile cellular extensions that occur in large numbers on the exposed surfaces of certain cells.

80

What is the primary function of the mitochondria?

They are the main sites of ATP production.

81
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What is the specific role of the enzyme indicated by B during the formation of the new DNA strands?

joining the nucleotides that form the new DNA strand

82

Facilitated diffusion requires a carrier or channel protein.

True

83

________ is a molecular "ferry" that brings amino acids to the ribosome to build a protein.

t-RNA

84

Solutions with a higher concentration of solutes than the concentration inside the cells are __________.

hypertonic

85

What is the difference between active and passive transport across the plasma membrane?

Active transport is ATP dependent, whereas passive transport uses only the kinetic energy of the particles for movement across the plasma membrane.

86

Interstitial fluid represents one type of extracellular material.

True

87

________ is the diffusion of a solvent, such as water, across a selectively permeable membrane.

Osmosis

88

The genetic information is coded in DNA by the regular alternation of sugar and phosphate molecules.

False

89

The RNA responsible for bringing the amino acids to the ribosome for protein formation is ________.

tRNA

90

During DNA replication, the covalent bonding of nucleotides into a new strand of DNA is performed by ________.

DNA polymerase

91

The orderly sequence of the phases of mitosis is prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

True

92
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What type of protein is indicated by the arrow?

histone

93

Once solid material is phagocytized and taken into a vacuole, which of the following statements best describes what happens?

A lysosome combines with the vacuole and digests the enclosed solid material.

94

Which vesicular transport process occurs primarily in some white blood cells and macrophages?

phagocytosis

95
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Which set of membrane proteins in the figure depicts the transport of solute molecules?

A

96

Lysosomes perform digestive functions within a cell.

True

97

The nucleolus ________.

is the site of ribosome assembly in a cell

98

Some types of cells move freely through the body, while others are bound into tightly knit communities.

True

99

If a tRNA had an AGC anticodon, it could attach to a(n) ________ mRNA codon.

UCG

100

Passive membrane transport processes include ________.

movement of a substance down its concentration gradient

101
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What is a function of the enzyme indicated by structure A?

breaking the bonds between complementary base pairs

102
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The figure is of which cellular organelle?

a mitochondrion

103

DNA transcription is another word for DNA replication.

False

104

Which of the following is a function of a plasma membrane protein?

molecular transport through the membrane

105

There is only one cell type in the human body that has a flagellum.

True

106

Why is the selective permeability of the plasma membrane essential for normal cell function?

Selective permeability allows cells to exclude some substances and allow others to pass into or out of the cell.

107

Diffusion is a form of active transport.

False

108

The main component of the cytosol is ________.

water

109
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What process allows for the production of molecule B from a template consisting of molecule A?

transcription

110

Which of the following is FALSE regarding the membrane potential?

The resting membrane potential is maintained solely by passive transport processes.

111

A gene can best be defined as ________.

a segment of DNA that carries the instructions for one polypeptide chain

112

What are the two basic steps of polypeptide synthesis?

transcription and translation

113

Which type of cell junction acts as anchors and distributes tension through a cellular sheet and reduces the chance of tearing when it is subjected to great mechanical stress?

desmosomes

114
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What process is indicated by C?

exocytosis of secreted proteins

115
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The structure indicated by B is ______.

the Golgi apparatus

116

A red blood cell placed in pure water would ________.

swell and burst

117

In which stage of mitosis do the identical sets of chromosomes uncoil and resume their chromatin form?

telophase

118

Lipid rafts, found in the cell outer membrane surface, are concentrating platforms for certain receptor molecules or for protein molecules needed for cell signaling..

True

119

The electron microscope has revealed that one of the components within the cell consists of pinwheel array of 9 triplets of microtubules arranged to form a hollow tube. This structure is a ________.

centriole

120

Which of the following statements is TRUE?

During exocytosis, substances from inside the cell are moved outside.

121

Which of the following statements correctly describes the plasma membrane?

It is a dynamic fluid structure that is in constant flux.

122
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The folded membranes indicated by B are the site of ______.

enzymes involved in cellular respiration

123

Which of the following would not be a constituent of a plasma membrane?

messenger RNA