APUSH Chapter 13 Flashcards

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In the 1820s and 1830s, the two issues that greatly raised the political stakes were

a. westward expansion and Indian removal

b. the end of property qualifications for voting and political conventions

c. the admission of Texas and Oregon to the Union

d. hard money and banking regulation

e. slavery and economic distress



The so-called Era of Good Feelings was never entirely tranquil, but even the illusion of national consensus was shattered by the

a. Monroe Doctrine and the Indian Removal Policy

b. War of 1812 and the clamor of the War Hawks

c. Panic of 1819 and the Missouri Compromise of 1820

d. judicial decisions of John Marshall

e. disputes between the different political parties



The new two-party political system that emerged in the 1830s and 1840s

a. divided the nation further

b. was seen at the time as a weakening of democracy

c. resulted in the Civil War

d. fulfilled the wishes of the founding fathers

e. became an important part of the nation's check and balances



In the 1820s and 1830s, the public's attitude regarding political parties

a. reflected the view of "a pox on both your houses"

b. was deeply ambivalent

c. was more positive in the North and South

d. reflected growing acceptance of the wild contentious of political life

e. was that they were the best expressions of political ideologies



The president election of 1824

a. was the first to use the electoral college

b. was the first one to see the election of a minority president

c. saw a record high voter turn out show up at the polls

d. saw the formation of well organized political parties

e. was decided by the US Supreme Court



By the 1840s, voter participation in the presidential election reached

a. nearly 50 percent

b. 25 percent

c. 40 percent

d. 15 percent

e. nearly 80 percent



The House of Representatives decided the 1824 presidential election when

a. no candidate received a majority of the vote in the Electoral College

b. William Crawford suffered a stroke and was forced to drop out of the race

c. the House was forced to do so by "King Caucus"

d. Henry Clay, as Speaker of the House, made the request

e. widespread voter fraud was discovered



People in the West tended to prefer Andrew Jackson in the 1824 election because he

a. came from the same poor background as his supporters

b. campaigned against the forces of corruption and privilege in government

c. promised to uphold the needs of free labor

d. had embraced the American System

e. none of these



John Quincy Adams, elected president in 1825, was charged by his political opponents with having struck a "corrupt bargain" when he appointed ____ to become ____.

a. John C. Calhoun, vice president

b. William Crawford, chief justice of the United States

c. Henry Clay, secretary of state

d. Daniel Webster, secretary of state

e. John Eaton, secretary of the navy



As president, John Quincy Adams

a. was more successful than as secretary of state.

b. adjusted to the New Democracy.

c. was one of the least successful presidents in American history.

d. put many of his supporters on the federal payroll.

e. was successful in getting his programs enacted into law.



John Quincy Adams could be described as

a. an excellent politician.

b. a man who sought popular support.

c. a politician with great tact.

d. possessing almost none of the arts of the politician.

e. a man of limited intelligence.



John Quincy Adams's weaknesses as president included all of the following except

a. his strong nationalistic ideology.

b. his support for elitist proposals like a national university.

c. his personal coldness and tactlessness with people.

d. the charges of "corrupt bargain" hanging over his presidency.

e. his encouragement of his supporters to "sling mud" at Jackson.



Despite Adams's discomfort, his political supporters used all of the following dirty tactics against his rival Jackson except

a. describing Jackson's mother as a prostitute.

b. claiming Jackson's wife was an adulteress.

c. printing black-bordered handbills shaped like coffins.

d. pointing out his numerous duels and brawls.

e. trumpeting his hanging of six Indian chiefs.



Andrew Jackson's Democratic political philosophy was based on his

a. support of a strong central government.

b. advocacy of the American System.

c. suspicion of the federal government.

d. opposition to the old antifederalist ideals.

e. conviction of the need for "the best and the brightest" in government.



Andrew Jackson's inauguration as president symbolized the

a. return of Jeffersonian simplicity.

b. newly won ascendancy of the masses.

c. supremacy of states' rights over federal power.

d. involvement of state governments in the economy.

e. act of style over substance.



The purpose behind the spoils system was

a. to press those with experience into governmental service.

b. to make politics a sideline and not a full-time business.

c. to reward political supporters with public office.

d. to reverse the trend of rotation in office.

e. the widespread encouragement of a bureaucratic office-holding class.



The spoils system under Andrew Jackson resulted in

a. a clean sweep of federal job holders.

b. the replacement of insecurity by security in employment.

c. the destruction of the personalized political machine.

d. the appointment of many corrupt and incompetent officials to federal jobs.

e. the same actions of those taken by John Quincy Adams.



Writing about his observations of America and Americans as he traveled across the United States, the Frenchman Alexis de Tocqueville was most struck by

a. the comparative wealth of Americans versus Europeans.

b. the general equality of condition among the people.

c. the low voter turn-outs.

d. the ugliness of political campaigns.

e. None of these



The people who proposed the exceptionally high rates of the Tariff of 1828 were

a. supporters of John Quincy Adams who wanted to protect New England manufacturers.

b. abolitionists who saw it as the opening wedge for the use of federal power against slavery.

c. ardent supporters of Andrew Jackson who actually hoped it would be defeated.

d. supporters of Henry Clay's American System.

e. southern plantation owners who wanted to prevent dumping of Egyptian cotton in America.



Southerners feared the Tariff of 1828 because

a. it would hurt their manufacturing sector.

b. this same power could be used to suppress slavery.

c. it might hurt Andrew Jackson's political career.

d. they were convinced that it would destroy the American woolen industry.

e. it could damage the chances of the American System's success.



Opposing the Tariff of 1828, Southerners labeled it a "Yankee Tariff" because

a. the tariff protected New England manufacturing at their expense.

b. it charged a tax on Southern manufactured goods, making it difficult for the South to compete in the world market.

c. it imposed a high tax on Southern-grown cotton.

d. it put an unfair burden on southern commerce for tax revenues.

e. None of these



John C. Calhoun's South Carolina Exposition was an argument for

a. secession.

b. protective tariffs.

c. majority rule.

d. states' rights.

e. trade with England.



The nullification crisis of 1832-1833 erupted over

a. banking policy.

b. internal improvements.

c. tariff policy.

d. public land sales.

e. Indian policy.



The South Carolina state legislature, after the election of 1832

a. voted to abolish all federal legislation, with regard to tariffs, as unconstitutional.

b. declared the existing tariff constitutional and part of South Carolina law.

c. was taken over by a majority of Federalists.

d. voted to secede from the union.

e. declared the existing tariff null and void in South Carolina.



The strong regional support for the Tariff of 1833 came from

a. the South.

b. New England.

c. the middle Atlantic states.

d. the West.

e. the frontier.



The Force Bill of 1833 provided that the

a. Congress could use the military for Indian removal.

b. Congress would employ the navy to stop smuggling.

c. President could use the army to collect excise taxes.

d. military could force citizens to track down runaway slaves.

e. President could use the army and navy to collect federal tariff duties.



The person most responsible for defusing the tariff controversy that began in 1828 was

a. Andrew Jackson.

b. John C. Calhoun.

c. John Quincy Adams.

d. Daniel Webster.

e. Henry Clay.



The nullification crisis of 1833 resulted in a clear-cut victory for

a. South Carolina.

b. Andrew Jackson and the Union.

c. states' rights.

d. neither Andrew Jackson nor the nullifiers.

e. the industrialists.



In response to South Carolina's nullification of the Tariff of 1828, Andrew Jackson

a. publicly hanged several of the nullifiers.

b. dispatched naval and military forces to the state while denouncing nullification.

c. worked quietly to defuse the confrontation.

d. mobilized all the other southern states to oppose nullification.

e. sought a Supreme Court ruling declaring nullification invalid.



The nullification crisis started by South Carolina over the Tariff of 1828 ended when

a. Andrew Jackson used the court system to force compliance.

b. the federal army crushed all resistance.

c. Congress used the provisions of the Force Bill.

d. Congress passed the compromise Tariff of 1833.

e. South Carolina took over the collection of tariffs.



Andrew Jackson's administration supported the removal of Native Americans from the eastern states because

a. the Indians assimilated too easily into white society.

b. the Supreme Court ruled in favor of this policy.

c. whites wanted the Indians' lands.

d. Georgia and Florida tried to protect the Indians and their lands.

e. they continued their attacks on white settlements.



In their treatment of Native Americans, white Americans did all of the following except

a. recognize the tribes as separate nations.

b. argue that Indians could not be assimilated into the larger society.

c. try to civilize them.

d.trick them into ceding land to whites.

e.promise to acquire land only through formal treaties.



The policy of the Jackson administration toward the eastern Indian tribes was

a. a war of genocide.

b. gradual assimilation.

c. forced removal.

d. federal protection from state governments.

e. to encourage them to preserve their traditional culture.



On the forced march from their Georgia homeland to Oklahoma known as the Trail of Tears, the Cherokees experienced all of the following except

a. 100,000 Indians being uprooted.

b. women and children crying.

c. countless people dying on route or after arriving in Indian Territory.

d. having to abandon sacred and family grave sites.

e. the abuse of wives and daughters by U.S. soldiers



Andrew Jackson and his supporters disliked the Bank of the United States for all of the following reasons except it

a. minted gold and silver coins but issued no paper money.

b. controlled much of the nation's gold and silver.

c. was a private institution.

d. foreclosed on many western farms.

e. put public service first, not profits.



Andrew Jackson made all of the following charges against the Bank of the United States except that

a. the bank was unconstitutional.

b. it was controlled by an elite moneyed aristocracy.

c. the bank was autocratic and tyrannical.

d. the bank was beholden to British financial interests.

e. the bank's president arrogantly defied the president.



One of the positive aspects of the Bank of the United States was its

a. officers' awareness of the bank's responsibilities to society.

b. attention to regional differences in American economy and culture.

c. function as a source of credit and stability, promoting the nation's expanding economy.

d. ability to expand and contract paper currency as needed.

e. willingness to work closely with the department of the Treasury.



While in existence, the second Bank of the United States

a. was the depository of the funds of the national government.

b. irresponsibly inflated the national currency by issuing federal bank notes.

c. limited economic growth by extending public credit.

d. forced an ever-increasing number of bank failures.

e. did little to help the economy.



Andrew Jackson's veto of the recharter bill for the Bank of the United States was

a. the first presidential veto.

b. a major expansion of presidential power.

c. unconstitutional.

d. overturned by a two-thirds vote in Congress.

e. supported by the Anti-Masonic party.



Andrew Jackson based his veto of the recharter bill for the Bank of the United States on

a. constitutional grounds exclusively.

b. advice from Henry Clay and other close advisors.

c. the Supreme Court's McCulloch v. Maryland decision.

d. the fact that he found the bill harmful to the nation as well as unconstitutional.

e. the belief that it was supported by the "necessary and proper" clause in the Constitution.



The Anti-Masonic party of 1832 appealed to

a. the supporters of Andrew Jackson.

b. American suspicions of secret societies.

c. those who wished to keep the government from meddling in social and economic life.

d. people opposed to the growing political power of evangelical Protestants.

e. supporters of the American System.



Innovations in the election of 1832 included

a. direct election of the president.

b. adoption of written party platforms.

c. election of the president by the House of Representatives.

d. presidential nominations of "favorite sons" by state legislatures.

e. abandonment of party conventions.



All of the following were characteristics of Henry Clay's election campaign of 1832 except

a. overconfidence of his campaign and the National Republicans.

b. a hefty campaign chest of $50,000.

c. most of his financial support did not come from the Bank of the United States.

d. he had strong newspaper backing.

e. he lost both the popular vote and the Electoral vote.



One of the main reasons Andrew Jackson decided to weaken the Bank of the United States after the 1832 election was

a. his fear that Nicholas Biddle might try to manipulate the bank to force its recharter.

b. his desire to halt the rising inflation rate that the bank had created before 1832.

c. his desire to fight the Specie Circular, which hurt the West.

d. that he lost money he had invested in it.

e. his desire to convince the Marshall court of its unconstitutionality.



Supporters of the Whig party included all of the following except

a. opponents of public education.

b. backers of southern states' rights.

c. large northern industrialists.

d. many evangelical Protestants.

e. backers of the American System.



The cement that held the Whig party together in its formative days was

a. hatred of Andrew Jackson.

b. support of the American System.

c. opposition to the Anti-Masonic party.

d. the desire for a strong president.

e. opposition to the tariff.



The Whigs hoped to win the 1836 election by

a. supporting Henry Clay.

b.using smear tactics.

c. forcing the election into the House of Representatives.

d. emphasizing personality over issues.

e. outspending their opponents.



The Panic of 1837 was caused by all of the following except

a. excessive speculation.

b. Jackson's banking and financial policies.

c. financial problems abroad.

d. failure of wheat crops.

e. taking the country off the gold standard.



The Whigs offered all of the following proposals for the remedies of the economic ills facing America in 1837 except

a. expansion of bank credit.

b. proposal of the Divorce Bill.

c. proposal of higher tariffs.

d. proposal of subsidies for internal improvements.

e. more active involvement on the part of the government.



Americans moved into Texas

a. when invited by the Spanish government.

b. after an agreement was concluded between Mexican authorities and Stephen Austin.

c. on Sam Houston's defeat of General Santa Anna.

d. to spread Protestantism.

e. after the Battle of San Jacinto.



The government of Mexico and the Americans who settled in Mexican-controlled Texas clashed over all of the following issues except

a. slavery.

b. immigration.

c. allegiance to Spain.

d. local rights.

e. Santa Anna raising an army to use against Texas.



Texans won their independence as a result of the victory over Mexican armies at the Battle of

a. Santa Anna.

b. Goliad.

c. the Alamo.

d. San Jacinto.

e. the Rio Grande.



Texas gained its independence with

a. help from Britain.

b. no outside assistance.

c. help from Americans.

d. the blessing of the Mexican government.

e. help from the French.



Spanish authorities allowed Moses Austin to settle in Texas because

a. they believed that Austin and his settlers might be able to civilize the territory.

b. they believed that the militarily powerful Austin would otherwise have taken the land by force.

c. Spanish control of the territory was a subject of dispute between Spain and the United States.

d. Spain planned to sell the land to the United States.

e.he paid them a sizeable sum of money.



One reason for the Anglo-Texan rebellion against Mexican rule was that the

a. Mexicans opposed slavery.

b. Mexican government refused to allow the "Old Three Hundred" to purchase land.

c. Anglo-Texans wanted to break away from a government that had grown too authoritarian.

d. Anglo-Texans objected to the Mexican government's execution of Stephen Austin.

e. Mexicans tried to establish slavery among the Americans.



Presidents Jackson and Van Buren hesitated to extend recognition to and to annex the new Texas Republic because

a. Texans did not want to be annexed to the United States.

b. antislavery groups in the United States opposed the expansion of slavery.

c. they were old political opponents of the Texas president, Sam Houston.

d. public opinion in the United States opposed annexation.

e. they feared war with Mexico's ally, Spain.



Most of the early American settlers in Texas came from

a. New England.

b. the South and Southwest.

c. the Old Northwest.

d. the middle Atlantic states.

e. the Ohio Territory.



The "Tippecanoe" in the Whigs' 1840 campaign slogan was

a. Daniel Webster.

b. Martin Van Buren.

c. William Harrison.

d. Nicholas Biddle.

e. Henry Clay.



William Henry Harrison, the Whig party's presidential candidate in 1840, was

a. a true "common man."

b. a very effective chief executive.

c. made to look like a poor western farmer.

d. born in a log cabin.

e. the first military officer to become president.



Both the Democratic party and the Whig party

a. favored a renewed national bank.

b. supported federal restraint in social and economic affairs.

c. were mass-based political parties.

d. clung to states' rights policies.

e. feared the rise of the Anti-Masonic party.



The two political parties of the Jacksonian era tended to

a. promote sectionalism over nationalism.

b. take radical and extreme positions on issues.

c. take similar positions on issues such as banking.

d. be socially and geographically diverse.

e. be socially exclusive but geographically diverse.



During his long political career, John Quincy Adams was at one time or another

a. a nationalist.

b. vice president.

c. secretary of state.

d. a congressman.

e. president.

a, c, d, e


While he was president, John Quincy Adams was roundly criticized for his

a. land policy.

b. Indian policy.

c. support for internal improvements.

d. replacement of so many public servants with his own supporters.

e. supposedly aristocratic life style.

a, b, c, e


The presidential election of 1828 was characterized by

a. a campaign focused on such key issues as tariffs, banks, and foreign policy.

b. mudslinging tactics by both parties against the opposing candidate.

c. an unusually high voter turnout.

d. a narrow electoral victory for Andrew Jackson.

e. both sides using trees to symbolize their candidate.

b, c, e


Southerners disliked the Tariff of 1828 because it

a. raised the price of manufactured goods.

b. represented the growing power of the federal government.

c. signaled abandonment of the idea of protectionism.

d. was clearly designed to ensure the reelection of President Adams.

e. raised the price of imported rice.

a, b


The South Carolina nullifying convention

a. declared the Tariff of 1832 null and void within South Carolina.

b. ordered the South Carolina state legislature to make military preparations to defend the state.

c. nullified the Force Bill passed by Congress.

d. threatened to secede from the Union if the national government tried to force the state into compliance with congressional law.

e. put the national interest above sectional interest.

a, b, c, d


In his veto of the bank recharter bill, President Jackson claimed that the bank was

a. unconstitutional.

b. antiwestern.

c. too much influenced by aristocrats and foreigners.

d. corrupt and monopolistic.

e. controlled only by the government.

a, b, c, d


The Anti-Masonic party

a. was strongest in the South and Southwest.

b. was an anti-Jackson party.

c. was the nation's first third party.

d. opposed moral and religious reform.

e. was a strong opponent of the Whig party.

b, c


Following his election in 1832, President Jackson decided to

a. remove federal funds from the Bank of the United States gradually.

b. stop depositing federal funds in the Bank of the United States.

c. start depositing federal funds in several "pet" state banks.

d. revoke the charter of the Bank of the United States.

e. run for a third term in 1836.

a, b, c


The Whig party drew support from

a. Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun.

b. opponents of the American System.

c. southerners and states' rightists.

d. large northern industrialists and merchants.

e. supporters of leaving the gold standard.

a, c, d


The Panic of 1837 was the result of

a. overspeculation in internal improvements.

b. the Bank War and Specie Circular.

c. the independent treasury system.

d. economic distress in Europe.

e. Jackson's removal of the United States from the gold standard.

a, b, d


Martin Van Buren's administration was troubled by

a. his lack of personal popularity.

b. widespread scandal and corruption in the executive branch.

c. antislavery agitation against the annexation of Texas.

d. a serious economic depression.

e. the inherited enemies of former president Andrew Jackson.

a, c, d, e


Stephen F. Austin's grant from the Mexican government required that immigrants whom he helped settle in Texas

a. become Mexican citizens.

b. be Roman Catholics.

c. not own slaves.

d. be willing to make their settlements self-governing.

e. serve a short time in the Mexican army.

a, b