which muscles are activated during forced expiration?
the internal intercostal muscles and abdominal wall muscles
which of the following arterial blood levels is the most powerful respiratory stimulant?
rising CO2 levels
which if the following initiate(s) inspiration?
ventral respiratory group (VRG)
which of the following stimuli is the most powerful respiratory stimulant to increase respiration?
rising carbon dioxide levels
which blood vessels supply oxygenated systemic blood to the lung tissue?
which of these structures is/are NOT properly matched with one of its/their functions?
paranasal sinuses: surface for odor receptors
the alveolar ducts are part of the conducting zone. T/F
which of the following would NOT be helpful in identifying the left lung?
emphysema can result in an_________.
increased level of carbaminohemoglobin
increased level of deoxyhemoglobin
increased likelihood of the skin of Caucasians developing a slightly blue coloration
all of the listed responses are correct
which of the following cavaties surround(s) the lung alone?
what area in the brain sets the respiratory rhythm?
ventral respiratory group (VRG)
inspiratory neurons send information to the diaphragm via what nerve?
what directly stimulates the central chemoreceptors, thus increasing respiraition?
H+ (hydrogen ions)
which receptors inhibit inspiration during hyperinflation of the lungs?
pulmonary stretch receptors in joints, neural input from the motor cortex, and other factors
a homeostatic control mechanism controls respiration. what acts as the effector(s) in this system?
which of the following is NOT a benefit of breathing through the nose?
destruction of pathogens entering the nasopharynx
which of the following inhibits/reduces the respiratory rate?
stimulation of stretch receptors in the lungs
quiet inspiration is _______, and quiet expiration is _______.
an active process; a passive process
the division between the upper and lower respiratory system is around the nasopharynx.
which of the following statements about the pleurae is NOT true?
the pleurae create one continuous cavity for both lungs
which of these structures forms a complete ring around the airway?
which of the following would include the loss of oxygen from the hemoglobin and the blood?
a drop in blood pH
what type of epithelial tissue forms the walls of the alveoli?
simple squamous epithelium
what part of the larynx covers the laryngeal inlet during swallowing to keep food out of the lower respiratory passages?
which of the following is/are part(s) of the respiratory zone structures?
which of the following modifies and smoothes the respiratory pattern?
pontine respiratory centers
which of these cells would be most effective in the ingestion and disposal of microorganisms that may enter the alveoli?
which of the following regions contains the opening of a canal that equalizes pressure in the middle ear?
what is the primary form in which oxygen is carried in blood?
chemically bound to hemoglobin
what is the most common method of carbon dioxide transport?
as bicarbonate ions in the plasma
in children with infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS), the walls of the alveoli cling to each other and make them difficult to inflate. it is common in babies born prematurely. what cells in these infants are NOT fully developed and are NOT doing their job?
type II alveolar cells
what is the most powerful respiratory stimulant in a healthy person?
arterial blood carbon dioxide level
the diaphragm and rib muscles contract
from which structures do oxygen molecules move from the lungs to the blood?
which statement is correct?
in the blood, oxygen is bound to hemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells
after blood becomes oxygenated,
it returns to the heart, and is then pumped to body cells
is a protein that can bind four molecules of oxygen
which of the following is NOT a function of the nasal conhae
routing air and food into proper channels
which form of CO2 transport accounts for the least amount of CO2 transported in blood?
dissolved in plasma
which of the following is NOT a structural modification of the small intestine that increases surface area?
what role of the stomach is essential to life?
production of intrinsic factor
the _____ is the serous membrane that lines the abdominal organs.
which layer of the alimentary canal is responsible for segmentation and peristalsis?
the pancreas secretes ______.
which organ of the digestive tract is the body's major digestive organ?
what triggers the release of secretin from the small intestine?
the presence of acidic, fatty chyme in the small intestine
salivation is controlled almost entirely by the nervous system. which of the following stimuli would inhibit salivation?
HCI secretions convert pepsinogen to the active hormone pepsin. what cells in the gastric pits produce pepsinogen?
in response to a steak dinner, certain secretions are needed to aid digestion. what cells in the pancreas would provide these secretions?
an increase in HCI (hydrochloric acid) arriving in the duodenum would stimulate which hormone that would help to counteract the effects of HCI?
the secretion in the large intestine consists of which of the following?
bicarbonate - potassium-rich mucus
which layer of the alimentary canal contains not only glands and blood vessels but also a nerve plexus that helps regulate digestive activity?
which digestive process does NOT occur in the mouth?
which enzyme(s) is/are responsible for the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates?
which of the following is the primary physiological function of the large intestine?
water absorption and feces elimination
carbohydrates are digested into_____.
what is a major function of pancreatic juice?
neutralizing chyme entering the small intestine from the stomach
______ and ______ are water-soluble vitamins that are absorbed in the small intestine.
B complex and C vitamins
which layer of the stomach contains the gastric pits that secrete mucous, acid, and digestive enzymes?
the ______ circulation drains all of the organs of the digestive system.
which of the following does NOT describe a basic regulator of digestive control?
conscious neural control
which of the following is NOT a means of mechanically breaking down food?
what type of blood capillary located in this sublayer is uniquely suited for absorption of nutrient material?
which of the following is NOT a function of saliva
saliva contains enzymes that begin the chemical breakdown of proteins
which chemical activated the transformation of trypsinogen to trypsin?
which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the stomach?
the stomach releases enzymes to digest carbohydrates
which of the following functions is NOT correctly matched with its description?
propulsion : physical breakdown of ingested food in the GI tract
bacteria that resides in the large intestine make vitamin C.
which of these best describes a lacteal?
a lymphatic vessel designed to help introduce fats to the blood
which major process involves the removal of water from intestinal contents?
which of the following is NOT a function of the large intestine?
production of intrinsic factor
which area of the stomach adjoins the small intestine?
what structural modification of the small intestine slows the movement of chyme through the lumen?
the _____ is the first segment of the small intestine.
which of the following processes occurs in the stomach?
bile is produced by the _____ under hormonal influence of _____.
most absorption of nutrients occurs in the _____.
which layer of the digestive tract controls digestive propulsion?
which of the following is NOT a secretin of the pancreas?
which layer of the alimentary canal is constructed from either stratified squamous or simple columnar epithelium?
which of these structures is found in the stomach but nowhere else in the alimentary canal?
which cells in the small intestine's mucosa secrete mucus?