Mktg 372 supplement B

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1

Suppose that a firm makes gears (G) and axles (A). Each gear requires 15 minutes of labor and each axle requires 30 minutes of labor. One thousand hours of labor are available. How should the labor constraint(s) be written?

.25G + .5A ≤ 1000

2

If a firm is using a linear program to determine production amounts of its chairs and tables, which of the following constraints must be in the model?

non-negativity

3

What does LP stand for?

Linear Program

4

Sausage and Cheese Ltd. prepares three gift packages containing sausages and cheeses. The "Tasters," "Succulent," and "Gourmet" gift packages contain 3 sausages and 6 cheeses, 5 sausages and 4 cheeses, and 6 sausages and 5 cheeses, respectively. There are 2500 sausages and 3000 cheeses available for packing, and demand is unlimited. Profits are $2.50, $3.50, and $4.00 for the "Tasters," "Succulent," and "Gourmet" gift packages, respectively. The goal is to maximize profits. Let T, S, and G represent the number of gift packages produced of type "Tasters," "Succulent," and "Gourmet," respectively. What is the objective function for this linear program?

Max 2.5T + 3.5S + 4G

5

Which of the following statements is not correct?

A Linear Program as described in Supplement B can have more than one objective function if it has only one constraint.

6

What is the optimal solution (X, Y, Z) to the following linear program?
Max 2X + 4Y + 6Z
Subject to
Z ≤ 0
X + Y + Z ≤ 20
X, Y, Z ≥ 0

(0, 20, 0)

7

Consider the following constraints from a two-variable Linear Program.
(1) X ≥ 0
(2) Y ≥ 0
(3) X + Y ≤ 50
If constraints (2) and (3) are binding, what is the optimal solution (X, Y)?

(50, 0)

8

Consider the following three functions:
g(x, y) = 4x - 9y2
h(x, y, z) = 13x + y + 3z -6
i(y, z) = z - y
Which of the following is true regarding the linearity of the functions?

h and i are linear, but g is not linear

9

George Dantzig developed the ___________________ in 1947 to solve Linear Programs.

Simplex Method

10

When was the Simplex Method developed?

1947

11

A constraint in Excel Solver consists of what three pieces of information?

Cell Reference, relationship operator, and Constraint

12

In the "Solver Options" box of Excel Solver, what should be checked to ensure that all decision variables are ≥ 0?

Assume Non-Negative

13

In the "Solver Options" box of Excel Solver, what should be checked to ensure that the Simplex Method is used to solve the model?

Assume Linear Model

14

In the "Solver Parameters" box of Excel Solver, what is clicked to actually solve the problem?

"SOLVE"

15

Three reports are available when Solver has successfully found an optimal solution. These are _______.

Answer Report, Sensitivity Report, and Limits Report

16

The ________________________ for a constraint is the amount the optimal objective value will change if the right-hand-side of the constraint is increased by one unit.

Shadow Price

17

One use of the Answer report is:

as a debugging tool.

18

In Linear Programming models, what do you want to do with the objective?

maximize or minimize

19

A mathematical model in which one is trying to maximize or minimize some quantity while satisfying a set of constraints is a(n):

constrained optimization problem

20

Human intelligence is not needed in which of the following steps of solving optimization problems?

solving the problem

21

Once you've written the algebraic formulation of the problem, the next setup involved in Solving Optimization Problems is:

set up the Solver settings

22

A ____________________ contains explicit definitions of the decision variables, an algebraic expression of the objective function, and algebraic statements of the constraints.

formulation

23

When formulating optimization problems, which of the following represent the typical sequence?

(1) diagram, (2) text-based formulation, (3) algebraic formulation

24

A diagram of the situation can help _______ the problem as well as be a(n) ______ _______ tool.

structure, valuable communication

25

The algebraic formulation of an optimization problem must state what three things?

decision variables, objective function, and constraints

26

What are the allowable constraint relationship types in optimization problems?

=, ≤, ≥

27

If C represents the number of chairs produced, which of the following is a proper non-negativity constraint?

C ≥ 0

28

Which type of constraint does not allow the solution for a decision variable of an optimization problem to be less than zero?

non-negativity

29

Testing of the LP model should include __________ and _____________.

base case, test values

30

How can the following Linear Program be characterized?
Min X + Y
Subject to
X ≤ 20
Y ≤ 5
X + Y ≥ 40
X, Y ≥ 0

bounded and infeasible

31

Consider the following three functions:
f(x) = 6x2
g(x, y) =4x - 3y + 19
h(x, y) = 3xy
Which of the following is true regarding the linearity of the functions?

g(x, y) is linear, but f(x) and h(x, y) are not linear

32

Sausage and Cheese Ltd. prepares three gift packages containing sausages and cheeses. The "Tasters," "Succulent," and "Gourmet" gift packages contain 3 sausages and 6 cheeses, 5 sausages and 4 cheeses, and 6 sausages and 5 cheeses, respectively. There are 2500 sausages and 3000 cheeses available for packing, and demand is unlimited. Profits are $2.50, $3.50, and $4.00 for the "Tasters," "Succulent," and "Gourmet" gift packages, respectively. The goal is to maximize profits. Let T, S, and G represent the number of gift packages produced of type "Tasters," "Succulent," and "Gourmet," respectively. What is the constraint describing the sausage capacity?

3T + 5S + 6G ≤ 2500

33

Dane's aircraft muffler manufacturers have 1500 linear feet of steel on hand to manufacture the three top selling muffler sets. Super mufflers (S) provide $285 profit and common (C) mufflers' profit margin is $310, while the deluxe (D) muffler set provides a $400 profit margin. It costs Dane $310, $295, and $400 to build each muffler set, respectively. What is the objective function of Dane's aircraft muffler manufacturing?

Max 285S + 310C + 400D

34

How can the following Linear Program be characterized?
Min X + Y
Subject to
X ≥ 20
Y ≥ -5
X + Y ≤ 23

bounded and feasible

35

Capital Co. is considering five different projects. Define Xi as a binary (0-1) variable that equals 1 if project i is undertaken and 0 otherwise, for i = 1,2,3,4,5. Which of the following represents the constraint(s) stating that projects 2, 3, and 4 cannot all be undertaken simultaneously?

X2 + X3 + X4 ≤ 2

36

Which of the following is not one of the steps in setting up the Solver optimization problem?

specify the constraints

37

Solver provides many options for the solution process. For LPs, the two most commonly used are:

assume linear model, assume non-negative

38

Consider a mathematical program where Xi represents the amount produced of item i (i = 1,2,3,4), and you want the total amount produced over all four items to equal either 100, 120, 140, or 200. If you define qi as binary (0-1) variables (i = 1,2,3,4) and add the constraint q1 + q2 + q3 + q4 = 1, what other constraint do you need to add to the program?

X1 + X2 + X3 + X4 = 100q1 + 120q2 + 140q3 + 200q4

39

Consider the mathematical program below. Which of the following choices represents an upper bound to the problem?
Max 10 - X2
Subject to
X ≥ 3

X = 0

40

Consider the Linear Program below. Which of the choices represents the best (tightest) lower bound?
Max 2X + Y
Subject to
X + Y ≤ 10
X, Y ≥ 0

(5, 0)

41

How can the following Linear Program be characterized?
Min X + 2Y
Subject to
X ≤ 20
Y ≤ 5
X, Y ≥ -40

bounded and feasible

42

How can the following Linear Program be characterized?
Min X + 2Y
Subject to
X ≤ 20
X, Y ≥ -40

unbounded and feasible

43

Consider the following constraints from a two-variable Linear Program.
(1) X ≥ 0
(2) Y ≥ 0
(3) X + Y ≤ 20
(4) 2X + 5Y ≤ 70
If constraints (3) and (4) are binding, what is the optimal solution (X, Y)?

(10, 10)

44

Consider the following constraints from a two-variable Linear Program.
(1) X ≥ 0
(2) Y ≥ 0
(3) 10X + 4Y ≤ 110
(4) 5X - Y ≤ 40
If constraints (3) and (4) are binding, what is the optimal solution (X, Y)?

(9, 5)

45

For an optimization problem a(an) __________________ violates at least one of the constraints.

infeasible solution

46

If the solution to an optimization problem violates two constraints but satisfies three, it is a(an) ________.

infeasible solution

47

The two primary Excel tools for diagnosing problems in models are ___________________.

Error Checking and Formula Auditing

48

Which Excel tool provides solutions to Linear Programs?

Solver

49

What in Excel Solver corresponds to the objective function in the algebraic model?

Target Cell

50

What in Excel Solver corresponds to the decision variables in the algebraic model?

Changing Cells

51

In the Excel Solver "Add Constraint" box, what two additional choices are available under the relationship operator list besides ≤, ≥, and =?

int and bin

52

Constraints at their limits at the optimal solution of a Linear Program, that is, with the left-hand-side value equal to the right-hand-side value, are called _________________________.

binding constraints

53

Constraints that are not at their limits at the optimal solution of a Linear Program, that is, with the left-hand-side value not equal to the right-hand-side value, are called _________________________.

non-binding constraints

54

To retain model flexibility while using Solver you must:

use only cell references

55

At the optimal solution of a Linear Program, the difference between the right-hand-side value and the left-hand-side value of a constraint is the ____________________.

slack

56

The Answer Report Target Cell, Adjustable Cell, and Constraint sections all include:

original value, final value

57

What do you need to do before using Solver?

have a working, flexible spreadsheet model

58

Consider the following three functions:
g(x, y) = 4x - 3y + 21
h(x, y, z) = 13x2 + y + 3z
i(z) = z
Which of the following is true regarding the linearity of the functions?

g and i are linear, but h is not linear

59

Consider the following two functions:
g(x, y) =4x - 3y + 21
h(x, y) = 13xy
Which of the following is true regarding the linearity of the functions?

g(x, y) is linear, but h(x, y) is not linear

60

How can the following Linear Program be characterized?
Max X + Y
Subject to
X ≤ 34
X, Y ≥ 0

unbounded and feasible

61

In Linear Programming models, over what quantities do you have control?

decision variables

62

What is the optimal solution to the following linear program?
Max 2X + Y
Subject to
2X + 2Y ≥ 40
X + Y ≤ 10
X ≥ 0
Y ≥ 0

the program is infeasible

63

Which of the following statements is correct?

Given a Linear Program with a maximization objective, the optimal objective function value may decrease if a ≥ constraint is added to the program.

64

The text-based formulation of an optimization problem should state what three things?

decision variables, objective function, and constraints