Urinary system

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1

The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the

loop of henle

2

urine passes through the

pelvis of the kidney to ureter to bladder to urethra

3

which of the following is not associated with the renal corpuscle

vasa recta

4

An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule of water is due to

increase in the production of ADH

5

The urinary bladder is composed of____ epithelium

transitional

6

The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin

by a decrease in the blood pressure

7

which of the choices below is not a function of the urinary system

regulates blood glucose levels and produces hormones

eliminates solid, undigested wastes, and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salts, and heat

8

Which gland sits atop each kidney

adrenal

9

cortical nephron

short nephron loop

glomerulus further from the cortex-medulla junction

efferent arteriole supplies peritubular capillaries

10

the glomerulus differs from the other capillaries in the body in that it ____

is drained by afferent arteriole

11

The descending limb of the loop of henle

contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla

12

select the correct statement about the ureters

the ureters are capable of peristalsis like that of the gastrointestinal tract

13

the fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because it

stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position

14

the renal corpuscle is made up of

bowman's capsule and glomerulus

15

the functional and structural unit of the kidneys is the

nephron

16

the juxtaglomerular apparatus is responsible for

regulating the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic blood pressure

17

the chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is

glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure)

18

which of the following statements describes the histology of the ureters

they are trilayered (mucosa, muscularis, and adventitia)

19

which of the following statements is a false statement

the male urethra serves both the urinary and reproductive systems at the same time

20

which of the following acts as the trigger for the initiation of micturition

the stretching of the bladder wall

21

the filtration membrane includes all except

renal fascia

22

the mechanism of water reabsorption by the real tubules is

osmosis

23

most electrolyte absorption by the renal tubules is

hormonally controlled in the distal tubule segments

24

the macula densa cells respond to

changes in solute content of the filtrate

25

which of the following is not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule

creatinine

26

The fluid in the glomerular (bowman's) capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of

plasma protein

27

alcohol acts as a diuretic because it

inhibits the release of ADH

28

the function of angiotensin II is to

constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure

29

A disease caused by inadequate secretion of ADH by the pituitary gland with symptoms of poluria is

diabetes insipidus

30

an important characteristic of urin is its specific gravity or density, which is

1.015-1.035

31

sequence from formation of urine to its elimination from the body

the glomeruli makes filtrate

most filtrate is reabsorbed into the blood

substances are secreted into the filtrate

32

select the correct statement about the nephrons

the parietal layer of the glomerular capsule is simple squamous epithelium

33

What would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal

net filtration would decrease

34

which of the following is not a part of the juxtaglomerular apparatus

podocyte cells

35

tubular reabsorption

by active mechanisms usually involves movement against an electrical and/or chemical gradient

36

which of the following is not a reason why substances are either not reabsorbed or are incompletely reabsorbed from the nephron

they are extremely complex molecules

37

reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by

secondary active transport

38

which of the following choices is a function of loop of Henle

for a large volume of every dilute urine or a small volume of very concentrated urine

39

fetal kidneys do not have to work very hard because

the placenta allows the mother's urinary system to clear the waste from fetal blood

40

which of the following best describes kidney function in older adults

kidney function decreases due to kidney atrophy

41

the factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the

glomerular hydrostatic pressure

42

if the Tm for a particular amino acid is 120mg/100ml and the concentration of that amino acid in the blood is 230mg/100ml, the amino acid will

appear in the urine

43

if one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does that mean

normally all the glucose is reabsorbed

44

excretion of dilute urine requires

impermeability of the collecting tubule to water

45

which of the choices below is not a method by which the cells of the renal tubules can raise blood pH

by secreting sodium ions

46

in the ascending limb of the loop of henle the

thick segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption

47

select the correct statement about urinary system development

kidneys develop from the urogenital ridges

48

which of the choices below does not describe the importance of tubular secretion

ridding the body of bicarbonate ions

49

which statement is correcdt

reabsorption of water is hormonally controlled

50

What is the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus

help regulate blood pressure and rate of blood filtration by the kidneys

51

which of the choices below is the salt level monitoring part of the nephron

macula densa

52

which of the hormones below is responsible for the facultative water reabsorption

ADH

53

which of the choices below is not a glomerular filtration rate control method

electrolyte level

54

which of the choices below are the most important hormone regulators of electrolyte reabsorption and secretion

angiotensin II and aldosterone

55

which cells of the kidne are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in solute content of the filtrate

macula densa cells

56

Kidney functions/location

regulates volume of water and concentration in the body

ensuring long-term acid-base balance

excreting metabolic wastes and foreign substances

production of EPO and renin

conversion of Vitamin D to active form

dimension: 12 by 6 by 13

T12 vertebra to L3

57

blood and nerve supply

right renal artery on the right side is longer because of the aorta while the left renal vein is longer because of the vena cava

aorta -> renal artery -> segmental artery -> interlobar artery -> arcuate artery -> cortical radiate artery -> afferent arteriole -> glomerulus (capillaries) -> efferent arteriole -> peritubular capillaries (vasa recta) -> cortical radiate vein -> arcuate vein -> interlobar vein -> renal vein -> inferior vena cava

58

nephrons

structural and functional units of the kidneys.

carries out the process that forms urine

59

renal corpuscle

consist of glomerulus and the bowman's capsule. The Bowman's capsule surrounds the glomerulus

60

glomerulus

endothelium is fenestrated which makes it porous. allows large amounts of protein free fluid to pass from the blood into the bowman's capsule.

61

glomerular capsule (bowman's capsule)

parietal layer:simple squamous epithelium.

visceral layer: consist of podoctyes. filtrate enters the capsular space through the filtration slits inside bowman's capsule

62

renal tubule

leaves the bowman's capsule as proximal convoluted tubule, drops into nephron loop and winds and twist again as distal convoluted tubule before emptying into collecting duct

63

proximal convoluted tubule

cuboidal epithelial cells. Increases surface area and capacity for reabsorbing water and solutes from the filtrate and secreting substances into it.

64

Nephron loop

descending limbs: continuous with proximal tubule and cells are similar

ascending limbs

65

distal convoluted tubule

cuboidal and confined to the cortex. lack microvilli

66

collecting duct

principal cells: responsible for maintaining body water and salt balance

intercalated cells:cuboidal cells. plays a role in maintaing the acid-base balance of blood

67

classes of nephron

cortical nephrons: account for 85% of nephrons in kidneys.

juxtamedullary nephrons: play an important role in the kidney's ability to produce concentrated urine.

68

juxtaglomerular complex

region where the most distal portion of the ascending limb of the nephron loop lies against the afferent arteriole feeding the glomerulus

contains 3 parts

macula densa

granular cells

extraglomerular mesangial cells

69

macula densa

group of tall, closely packed cells in the ascending limb of the nephron loop that lies adjacent to granular cells.

They are chemoreceptors that monitor the NaCl content of the filtrate entering the distal convoluted tubule

70

granular cells

in arteriolar walls. contains renin. sense the blood pressure in afferent arteriole

71

extraglomerular mesangial cells

may pass regulatory signals between macula densa and granular cells

72

countercurrent multiplier

fluid is flowing in opposite directions.

The more NaCl the ascending limb extrudes, the more water diffuses out of the descending limb and the saltier the filtrate in the descending limb becomes. The ascending limb uses the salty filtrate left behind to raise osmolality

73

coutercurrent exchanger

flow of blood through ascending and descending portion of vasa recta

preserves medullary gradient by

1. preventing rapid removal of salt from the medullary interstitial space

2. removing reabsorbed water

74

renal clearance

volume of plasma from which the kidney clear a particular substance in a given time (1 min). tests are done to determine GFR, which allows us to detect glomerular damage

75

renal failure

filtrate formation decreases or stops completely

GFR is less than 15ml/min

76

chronic renal disease

GFR less than 60ml/min for at least 3 months

77

ureters

convey urine from the kidneys to the bladder

78

urinary bladder

stores urine temporarily. holds up to 500ml of urine.

79

urethra

thin walled muscular tube that drains urine from the bladder and conveys it our of the body.

80

micturition

act of emptying the urinary bladder

81

pronephros

during fourth week of development, first tubule system to form

82

mesonephros

second renal system

83

metanephros

third system to form

84

juxtamedullary nephron

long nephron loop

glomerulus closer to the cortex-medulla junction

efferent arteriole supplies vasa recta

85

cortical nephron

short nephron loop

glomerulus furter from the cortex-medulla junction

efferent arteriole supplies peritubular capillaries