chapter 8 Flashcards


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1

Which of the following processes did NOT contribute to the development of genetic

engineering?

A) transformation

B) transcription

C) transduction

D) conjugation

E) chemiosmosis

E) chemiosmosis

2

In the 20th century, scientists harnessed the natural metabolic reactions of bacteria to make

__________ for the first time in an industrial setting.

A) soy sauce

B) acetone

C) bread

D) cheese

E) alcohol

B) acetone

3

Which of the following items is NOT a part of the name of a restriction enzyme?

A) the Gram reaction of the source bacterium

B) the specific epithet of the source bacterium

C) Roman numerals to indicate its order of discovery

D) the strain of the source bacterium

E) the genus of the source bacterium

A) the Gram reaction of the source bacterium

4

The natural role of restriction enzymes in bacteria is to

A) make conjugation more efficient.

B) allow transposons to move to another place in the chromosome.

C) protect the cell from invading phages.

D) allow cells to accept foreign DNA.

E) provide the cell with new phenotypes, such as antibiotic resistance.

C) protect the cell from invading phages.

5

A library of cloned sequences representing the expressed genes of an organism is known as

a(n)

A) cDNA library.

B) FISH library.

C) gene library.

D) microarray.

E) DNA fingerprint.

A) cDNA library.

6

Which of the following restriction enzyme sites would produce blunt-ended fragments (the

arrow represents the cutting site of the enzyme)?

A) C↓CGG

B) G↓GATCC

C) G↓AATTC

D) CCC↓GGG

E) A↓AGCTT

D) CCC↓GGG

7

Put the following steps in the correct order needed to produce a recombinant vector containing

a human gene insert.

I. Introduce the recombinant plasmid into a bacterial cell.

II. Isolate the human gene and the vector DNA using restriction enzymes.

III. Ligate the DNA fragments to produce a recombinant plasmid.

IV. Grow bacterial cells on a medium containing a selective agent (such as an antibiotic).

A) II, I, III, IV

B) II, III, I, IV

C) III, I, II, IV

D) III, I, IV, II

E) I, III, IV, II

B) II, III, I, IV

8

Which of the following statements regarding vectors is FALSE?

A) Vectors are usually autonomously replicating DNA molecules.

B) A useful vector contains multiple restriction sites for insertion of DNA.

C) Vectors are generally over 100,000 base pairs in size.

D) Cloning vectors frequently contain sequences necessary for expression of inserted sequences.

E) Cloning vectors include a "marker" to facilitate identification of cells containing them.

C) Vectors are generally over 100,000 base pairs in size.

9

Synthetic nucleic acids are useful as

A) DNA probes.

B) primers for PCR.

C) antisense RNAs.

D) DNA probes and antisense RNAs.

E) DNA probes, primers, and antisense RNAs.

E) DNA probes, primers, and antisense RNAs.

10

Which of the following would be an appropriate temperature for the first step of PCR?

A) 94°C

B) 37°C

C) 65°C

D) 72°C

E) 55°C

A) 94°C

11

Which of the following is essential in PCR?

A) DNA polymerase

B) antisense RNAs

C) reverse transcriptase

D) DNA primers

E) both DNA primers and DNA polymerase

E) both DNA primers and DNA polymerase

12

If a researcher used Escherichia coli DNA polymerase instead of Thermus aquaticus DNA

polymerase in the PCR procedure, what would be the result?

A) DNA replication would occur more slowly than normal.

B) DNA replication would not occur at all.

C) Many mistakes would occur.

D) DNA replication would occur twice as fast as normal.

E) DNA replication would stop after one cycle.

E) DNA replication would stop after one cycle.

13

Which of the following would be an appropriate sequence of temperatures for PCR?

A) 94°C, 55°C, 37°C

B) 94°C, 65°C, 72°C

C) 65°C, 72°C, 94°C

D) 94°C, 37°C, 55°C

E) 72°C, 65°C, 94°C

B) 94°C, 65°C, 72°C

14

If you started with a single DNA molecule, how many would you have at the end of six PCR

cycles?

A) 4

B) 16

C) 32

D) 64

E) 100

D) 64

15

In gel electrophoresis, DNA molecules move toward the __________ electrode because they

have an overall __________ charge.

A) negative, negative

B) positive, positive

C) negative, positive

D) positive, negative

E) negative and positive, neutral

D) positive, negative

16

Which of the following procedures might be used to detect the presence of genetic sequences

of a virus in a patient's blood?

A) Southern blotting

B) creation of a gene library

C) electroporation

D) genome mapping

E) xenotransplantation

A) Southern blotting

17

A northern blot differs from a Southern blot in

A) the type of probe used.

B) the presence or absence of a nitrocellulose membrane.

C) the size of the genetic sequences involved.

D) the number of genetic sequences detected.

E) the type of nucleic acid being isolated.

E) the type of nucleic acid being isolated.

18

Which of the following methods of inserting DNA into cells might be used on plant seeds?

A) protoplast fusion

B) injection

C) electroporation

D) both injection and electroporation

E) protoplast fusion, injection, and electroporation

B) injection

19

The DNA double helix can be separated into single strands using

A) heat.

B) NaOH.

C) reverse transcriptase.

D) both heat and NaOH.

E) heat, NaOH, and reverse transcriptase.

D) both heat and NaOH.

20

The sequencing and analysis of an organism's genetic information is called

A) protein synthesis.

B) gene therapy.

C) genomics.

D) northern blotting.

E) PCR.

C) genomics.

21

Which of the following devices is used for PCR?

A) an electrophoresis chamber

B) a gene gun

C) a DNA sequencer

D) a thermocycler

E) a nucleic acid synthesis machine

D) a thermocycler

22

DNA fingerprinting can be used

A) to detect unculturable organisms.

B) to generate cDNA clones.

C) in forensic investigations.

D) to generate cDNA clones and libraries.

E) for forensics and detection of unculturable organisms.

E) for forensics and detection of unculturable organisms.

23

The process of introducing animal organs into the human body is

A) recombinant DNA technology.

B) biotechnology.

C) electrophoresis.

D) protoplast fusion.

E) xenotransplantation.

E) xenotransplantation.

24

Subunit vaccines are safer than traditional vaccines because they

A) are acellular.

B) are administered in food.

C) do not pose a risk for causing the disease.

D) are acellular and do not pose a risk for causing the disease.

E) are acellular and can be administered in food.

D) are acellular and do not pose a risk for causing the disease.

25

Which of the following recombinant tools is NOT used in DNA fingerprinting?

A) PCR

B) restriction enzyme digestion

C) gel electrophoresis

D) reverse transcription

E) Neither PCR nor gel electrophoresis is used.

D) reverse transcription

26

Transgenic organisms

A) contain cells from other organisms.

B) contain genetically engineered microbes.

C) are the same thing as clones.

D) contain genes from other organisms.

E) have genomes that have been sequenced completely.

D) contain genes from other organisms.

27

Which of the following microbes produces a protein that kills a variety of insect pests?

A) Pseudomonas

B) Haemophilus influenzae

C) Bacillus thuringiensis

D) Thermus aquaticus

E) Plasmodium falciparum

C) Bacillus thuringiensis

28

In vitro means

A) "within glassware."

B) "in life."

C) "in the cell."

D) "within an organism."

E) "from a stranger."

A) "within glassware."

29

If all the following DNA fragments were analyzed on an electrophoresis gel, which one

would migrate farthest from the negative electrode?

A) 5000 base pairs

B) 750 base pairs

C) 1000 base pairs

D) 250 base pairs

E) 2500 base pairs

D) 250 base pairs

30

Protoplasts are associated with which of the following?

A) Southern blotting

B) electroporation

C) gene therapy

D) xenotransplants

E) PCR

B) electroporation

31

An antigen is a

A) molecule necessary for PCR.

B) naturally occurring insecticide.

C) foreign substance that stimulates immunity.

D) genetic marker found in most plasmids.

E) substance used to make gels for DNA electrophoresis.

C) foreign substance that stimulates immunity.

32

An effective tool for screening a large number of genetic sequences at once is known as

A) restriction analysis.

B) FISH.

C) cDNA synthesis.

D) microarray.

E) gel electrophoresis.

D) microarray.

33

Which of the following is generally NOT considered an ethical issue regarding recombinant

DNA technology?

A) the modification of crop plants

B) screening of humans for genes that predispose them to disease

C) unforeseen impact on the environment

D) the modification of animals to produce pharmaceuticals for humans

E) answering basic research questions

E) answering basic research questions

34

The first complete gene map was that of

A) Escherichia coli.

B) Plasmodium falciparum.

C) Staphylococcus aureus.

D) Haemophilus influenzae.

E) Pseudomonas.

D) Haemophilus influenzae.

35

Which of the following microbes has been genetically engineered to contain a protein that

helps protect crops from freezing?

A) Deinococcus radiodurans

B) Bacillus thuringiensis

C) Pseudomonas

D) Salmonella

E) Escherichia coli

C) Pseudomonas

36

Synthesis of cDNA __________ requires the use of

A) DNA ligase.

B) agarose.

C) reverse transcriptase.

D) restriction enzymes.

E) fluorescent synthetic nucleotides.

C) reverse transcriptase.

37

Probes used for detecting genetic sequences are frequently composed of

A) agarose.

B) synthetic nucleic acids and radioactive chemicals.

C) restriction enzymes.

D) silicon chips.

E) nitrocellulose.

B) synthetic nucleic acids and radioactive chemicals.

38

38) __________ are used for cutting DNA molecules into fragments.

A) Antisense RNAs

B) Mutagens

C) DNA polymerase and DNA ligase

D) Restriction enzymes

E) RNA polymerases

D) Restriction enzymes

39

A microarray is assembled using

A) reverse transcriptase and DNA polymerase.

B) restriction enzymes.

C) agarose and nitrocellulose.

D) gold beads and magnets.

E) single-stranded DNA and silicon chips.

E) single-stranded DNA and silicon chips.

40

The process known as PCR involves the use of

A) DNA polymerase.

B) RNA polymerase.

C) reverse transcriptase.

D) DNA ligase.

E) restriction enzymes.

A) DNA polymerase.

41

In Southern blotting, DNA molecules are immobilized on

A) silicon chips.

B) nitrocellulose membranes.

C) agarose.

D) gold beads.

E) paper.

B) nitrocellulose membranes.

42

__________ are used in the detection of DNA by FISH.

A) Restriction fragments

B) Reverse transcriptase and DNA polymerase

C) Synthetic DNAs and fluorescent tags

D) Compressed air and gold beads

E) DNA polymerase and DNA ligase

C) Synthetic DNAs and fluorescent tags

43

Injecting DNA into cells can be accomplished using

A) nitrocellulose membranes.

B) silicon chips and nucleic acids.

C) compressed air and gold beads.

D) micropipettes.

E) micropipettes, or compressed air and gold beads.

E) micropipettes, or compressed air and gold beads.

44

During DNA electrophoresis, DNA molecules pass through __________, which separates

the molecules according to size.

A) agarose

B) nitrocellulose

C) silicon chips

D) restriction fragments

E) sequencers

A) agarose

45

The enzyme __________ is used for connecting DNA fragments.

A) DNA polymerase

B) DNA ligase

C) restriction enzyme

D) reverse transcriptase

E) probase

B) DNA ligase

46

The use of microbes to make practical products such as vaccines or hormones is called

__________.

Answer: biotechnology

47

A technique using fluorescent-tagged probes to detect specific DNA sequences in their natural

locations is known as __________. (Be sure to use capital letters.)

Answer: FISH

48

Nucleic acid molecules used to deliver new genes to cells are called __________.

Answer: vectors

49

Restriction __________, first isolated from bacterial cells, cut DNA molecules at specific

sites.

Answer: enzymes

50

Short nucleic acid molecules used to locate complementary sequences in a larger population

of molecules are called __________.

Answer: probes

51

A set of clones representing the entire genome of an organism is known as a gene

__________.

Answer: library

52

The northern blot is a technique used to detect specific RNA molecules in a larger population

of molecules that have been separated by gel __________.

Answer: electrophoresis

53

8) Small RNAs that bind to an mRNA and alter its expression are known as __________ RNAs.

Answer: antisense

54

The process of locating genes within the nucleic acid of an organism is called __________

mapping.

Answer: genetic

55

The insertion of foreign DNA directly into a cell's nucleus using a glass micropipet is called

__________.

Answer: microinjection

56

DNA __________ can be used to detect mutant genes associated with genetic diseases in

individuals before any clinical symptoms are noted.

Answer: screening

57

A DNA __________ may be used to study the complex, changing patterns of mRNA

production in an organism.

Answer: microarray

58

Beta-carotene, the biochemical precursor to vitamin A, can be added to rice by using

__________ DNA technology, thereby increasing its nutritional value.

Answer: recombinant

59

Study of the genome of Deinococcus radiodurans may provide insight into preventing or

correcting genetic damage resulting from __________.

Answer: radiation

60

Vectors usually contain genetic __________ such as antibiotic genes or fluorescent tags.

Answer: markers

61

Gene therapy for human genetic diseases has not been successful yet.

FALSE

62

Reverse transcriptase synthesizes a DNA molecule from an RNA template.

TRUE

63

Large DNA molecules such as chromosomes are easier to work with than small molecules.

FALSE

64

Circular DNA molecules are generally more stable inside cells than linear molecules.

TRUE

65

The number of DNA molecules produced during PCR increases exponentially.

TRUE

66

Sticky-end fragments generated by EcoRI will hydrogen bond to any other sticky-end

sequence.

FALSE

67

Nitrocellulose membranes used in Southern blotting are more delicate than agarose gels.

FALSE

68

Southern blotting is a technique that can be used to identify microbes that cannot be cultured.

TRUE

69

DNA fingerprinting produces a unique banding pattern of DNA fragments for comparison

with other DNA samples.

TRUE

70

A subunit vaccine is prepared by extensive manipulation of the genome of the pathogen.

FALSE