Chapter 24: Nutrition and Metabolism Flashcards


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1

Which of the choices below is not a source of glucose during the postabsorptive state?

A) lipolysis in adipose tissues and the liver

B) catabolism of cellular protein

C) glycogenolysis in the liver

D) absorption of glucose from the GI tract

D) absorption of glucose from the GI tract

2

What is the outcome of ketosis?

Metabolic Acidosis

3

Which of the following is a common feature of the both sets of reactions represented by the letters A and B in the figure?

A) Both include steps involving the oxidation of organic molecules.

B) Both include steps involving reactions that result in the release of carbon dioxide.

C) Both include steps involving the hydrolysis of organic molecules.

D) Both sets of reactions occur within the mitochondria. Both sets of reactions occur in the cytoplasm.

Both include steps involving the oxidation of organic molecules.

4

Which of the following is a water-soluble vitamin?

A) vitamin A

B) vitamin D

C) vitamin K

D) vitamin B

D) Vitamin B

5

Which of the following best defines negative nitrogen balance?

A) A negative nitrogen balance is normal and is a way of maintaining homeostasis.

B) It is a condition usually caused by having a diet low in fish and meat.

C) Protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis.

D) It occurs when amino acids are broken down by liver enzymes and carried to the bloodstream.

C) Protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis.

6

__________ are considered "bad" cholesterol; high blood levels are believed to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.

LDL's

7

Which of the choices below happens during the absorptive state?

A) Only glucose metabolism occurs.

B) No metabolism occurs.

C) Anabolic processes exceed catabolic ones.

D) Catabolic processes exceed anabolic ones.

C) Anabolic processes exceed catabolic ones.

8

When a person's hypothalamic thermostat is set to a higher level and the actual body temperature is below that level, the person may ________.

A) pant

B) perspire heavily

C) shiver

D) exhibit vasodilation of skin vessel

C) Shiver

9

T/F: A growing child is likely to exhibit negative nitrogen balance.

FALSE

10

Breakdown of glycogen to release glucose

Glycogenolysis

11

Formation of glucose from proteins or fats

Gluconeogenesis

12

Storage of glucose in the form of glycogen

Glycogenesis

13

Breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid

Glycolysis

14

___ molecules are broken down in cellular respiration, providing fuel for the cell.

Glucose

15

Which energy-rich molecule produced by cellular respiration directly powers cell work?

ATP

16

Proton pumps within the electron transport chain transport H+ ions ______.

From matrix to intermembrane space

17

Which hormone is called the "metabolic" hormone?

Thyroxine

18

As the body progresses from the absorptive to the postabsorptive state, only the ________ continues to burn glucose while every other organ in the body mostly switches to fatty acids.

Brain

19

Anabolism includes reactions in which ________.

larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones

20

Many factors influence BMR. What is the most critical factor?

The ratio of surface area to volume (weight) of the body

21

Conditions that promote the oxidative deamination and energy use of amino acids include ________.

excessive amounts of protein in the diet

22

Neurons and red blood cells rely exclusively on __________ to meet their energy needs.

Glucose

23

Select the correct sequence of steps as energy is extracted from glucose during cellular respiration.

Glycolysis -> Acetyl CoA -> Citric Acid Cycle -> Electron Transport Chain

24

What is the correct general equation for cellular respiration?

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP energy

25

Which of the following processes takes place in the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell?

A) electron transport chain

B) ATP production by ATP synthase

C) acetyl CoA formation

D) glycolysis

E) citric acid cycle

D) glycolysis

26

In what organelle would you find acetyl CoA formation, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain?

Mitochondrion

27

Which statement describes glycolysis?

This process splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each glucose.

28

Which statement describes the citric acid cycle?

This process produces some ATP and carbon dioxide in the mitochondrion.

29

Which statement describes the electron transport chain?

This process uses energy captured from electrons flowing to oxygen to produce most of the ATPs in cellular respiration.

30

In gluconeogenesis, during the postabsorptive state, amino acids and ________ are converted to glucose.

Glycerol

31

__________ is a substance in food used by the body to promote normal growth, maintenance, and repair.

A nutrient

32

The movement of H+ through the ATP synthase is best described as an example of ______.

Facilitated Diffusion

33

Which of the following is represented by the "membrane" indicated in the figure?

A) nuclear membrane

B) outer mitochondrial membrane

C) inner mitochondrial membrane

D) plasma membrane

C) inner mitochondrial membrane

34

__________ is the key hormone regulator of the absorptive state.

Insulin

35

Which of the following is a normal consequence of the activation of the heat-promoting center?

Release of Epinephrine

36

The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available fuel for neurons and blood cells is ________.

Glucose

37

The amount of ________ produced is probably the most important hormonal factor in determining BMR.

Thyroxine

38

The hyperglycemia that occurs during diabetes mellitus is accompanied by ______.

Ketosis

39

Which hormone directs essentially all events of the absorptive state?

Insulin

40

Which term describes the breakdown of stored fats into glycerol and fatty acids?

Lipolysis

41

Which of the following is NOT an essential role of the liver?

Urea Disposal

42

Heat-loss mechanisms do not include ________.

vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels

43

Which of the following does not occur in the mitochondria?

A) glycolysis

B) formation of malic acid from fumaric acid

C) electron transport

D) Krebs cycle

A) Glycolysis

44

Heavy sweating can induce heat cramps due to ______.

A) abnormal electrolyte levels in muscle cells

B) abnormal electrolyte levels in neurons

C) abnormal electrolyte levels in interstitial fluid

D) All of the listed responses are correct.

D) All of the listed responses are correct

45

Heat transfer into the chair you are sitting on.

Conduction

46

Heat loss during sweating

Evaporation

47

heat loss in the form of infrared waves

Radiation

48

Heat exchange when you are under a ceiling fan

Convection

49

Which of the choices below is not a mechanism of heat production?

A) shivering

B) sweating

C) enhanced thyroxine release

D) vasoconstriction of cutaneous blood vessels

B) Sweating

50

When ketone bodies are present in the blood and urine in large amounts, it usually indicates increased metabolism of ________.

Fatty Acids

51

Which of the following pathways act as a source for the electrons carried by the NADH and FADH2 molecules shown in this figure?

Glycolysis and the Krebs cycle

52

Which nutrients are the most important anabolic nutrients?

Amino Acids

53

Which of the following is a characteristic of the electron transport chain (ETC)?

A) The ETC occurs in the mitochondria.

B) The final electron acceptor in the ETC is water.

C) NADH is a product of the ETC.

D) The electron transport chain is an anaerobic pathway

A) The ETC occurs in the mitochondria.

54

The term basal metabolic rate reflects the ________.

energy the body needs to perform only its most essential activities

55
card image

The "proton pumps" indicated in the figure are physically associated with ______.

The electron transport chain

56
card image

Which of the following is following is a true statement regarding the reactions indicated by the letters F and G?

Both reactions F and G involve the transfer of a phosphate group from an organic substrate to ADP.

57

Glucose can be obtained from ________.

Glycogenolysis

58

Which of the following would decrease body temperature?

A) dilation of cutaneous blood vessels

B) shivering

C) enhanced thyroxine release

D) eating a large meal

A) dilation of cutaneous blood vessels

59

Transamination is the process whereby the amine group of an amino acid is ________.

transferred to a keto acid

60

Which of the following is NOT a pathway in the oxidation of glucose?

A) glycolysis

B) electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation

C) gluconeogenesis

D) Krebs cycle

C) gluconeogenesis

61
card image

Which of the following molecules is most directly involved in the transfer of "energy from food" to the "proton pumps" depicted in this figure?

A) oxygen

B) carbon dioxide

C) ATP

D) NADH

E) ADP

D) NADH

62

Which hormone directs essentially all the events of the absorptive state?

A) thyroid hormone

B) epinephrine

C) growth hormone

D) insulin

D) insulin

63

Synthesis of lipids from glucose or amino acids

Lipogenesis

64

Splitting of triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids

Lipolysis

65

Conversion of fatty acids into acetyl groups

Beta Oxidation

66

Formation of ketone bodies

Ketogenesis

67

__________ refers to reactions in which large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules.

Catabolism

68

In the liver, the amine group of glutamic acid is removed as ________ in the oxidative state.

Ammonia

69

Oxidative deamination takes place in the ________.

Liver

70

Which of the choices below is not a major route of heat exchange?

A) shivering

B) evaporation

C) radiation

D) conduction/convection

A) Shivering

71

What is the primary function of cellular respiration - its end-purpose?

To generate ATP

72

Which of the following statements regarding the electron transport chain is FALSE?

Each enzyme complex in the electron transport chain catalyzes the conversion of oxygen to water.

73

Minerals required by the body in moderate amounts include all but which of the following?

Iron and Selenium

74

Glycogen is formed in the liver during the ________.

absorptive state

75

The primary function of cellular respiration is to ________.

break down food molecules and generate ATP

76

In the case of a person who consumes a normal, balanced diet, proteins are essential to the body for all of the following except ________.

Production of energy

77

Gluconeogenesis is the process in which ________.

glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate precursors

78

The most abundant dietary lipids are ________.

Triglycerides

79

T/F: Most ATP in cellular respiration is generated in glycolysis.

FALSE

80
card image

Which of the following is a common feature of the processes indicated by both letters D and E?

A) movement of organic food molecules between catabolic pathways

B) movement of pyruvic acid into the mitochondria

C) movement of hydrogen atoms associated with NADH

D) movement of phosphate groups associated with ADP

C) movement of hydrogen atoms associated with NADH

81

Glycolysis occurs in the __________ of cells and is an __________ process.

Cytosol

Anaerobic

82

Catabolism would be best described as a process that ________.

breaks down complex structures to simpler ones

83

Frostbite is LEAST likely to occur in the skin of a body region (e.g., abdominal region, finger region, etc.) that ______.

is closer to the heart than skin of a body region that is farther from the heart

84

Which of the choices below describes the pathway of cellular respiration (the complete oxidation of glucose)?

A) gluconeogenesis, Krebs cycle, lipolysis

B) glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation

C) glycogenesis, lipogenesis, electron transport chain

D) lipolysis, glycogenolysis, beta oxidation

B) glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation

85

The term metabolism is best defined as ________.

the sum of biochemical reactions involved in building and breaking down molecules

86

Hank, a 17-year-old high school student, suffered a heart attack during a recreational swim. An autopsy revealed that he had had atherosclerosis and that his death had been caused by coronary artery disease. What might have been the cause of this disease that usually strikes a person much older than Hank?

He suffered from familial hypercholesterolemia.

87

During ketosis caused by inadequate ingestion of carbohydrates, ______.

the glycogen content of the liver is reduced

88

The body's rate of kilocalorie consumption needed to fuel all ongoing activities is called the __________.

Total Metabolic Rate