Human Anatomy & Physiology: The Digestive System Flashcards


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1

The mechanical and chemical receptors that control digestive activity are located

in the walls of the tract organs

2

The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to

collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage

3

The chemical and mechanical processes of food breakdown are called

digestion

4

When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. The series of reactions is called

chemical digestion

5

The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called

mesenteries

6

From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. arrange them in order from the lumen

Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

7

Which of the following is not a factor that helps create the stomach mucosal barrier?

rennin

8

What part of the tooth bears the force of chewing?

enamel

9

The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorbs digested nutrients lie in the

lamina propria

10

Which hormone causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile?

cholecystokinin

11

choose the incorrect statement regarding bile

Bile contains enzymes for digestion

12

The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?

plicae circulares and intestinal villi

13

Select the statement that is true concerning primary teeth

there are 20 primary teeth, and by 24 months of age most children have all 20

14

Which of the following is true concerning the number and type of permanent teeth?

There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge

15

Which of the following is not true of saliva?

contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins

16

The salivary glands are composed of which two types of secretory cells

serous cells and mucous cells

17

the solutes contained in saliva include

electrolytes, digestive enzyme, mucin, lysozyme, wastes, and IgA

18

In addition to storage and mechanical breakdown of food, the stomach

initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins

19

chyme is created in the

stomach

20

hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach

parietal cells

21

Gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin are hormones or paracrines that are released directly into the lamina propria. Which of the following cell types synthesize and secrete these products

enteroendocrine cells

22

these are three phases of gastric secretion. The cephalic phase occurs

before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought

23

peristaltic waves are

waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another

24

Gastrin is digestive hormone that is responsible for the stimulation of acid secretions in the stomach. These secretions are stimulate by the presence of

protein and peptide fragments

25

pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the

chief cells of the stomach

26

You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes will help to digest the meal

amylase

27

the ducts that deliver bile and pancreatic juice from the liver and pancreas, respectively, unite to form the

hepatopancreatic ampulla

28

the enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule is called

hydrolysis

29

Short-chain triglycerides found infoods such as butterfat molecules in milk are split by a specific enzyme in preparation for absorption. Which of the following enzymes is responsible?

lipase

30

parietal cells of the stomach produce

hydrochloric acid

31

hepatocytes do not

produce digestive enzymes

32

which of the following is not a phase of gastric secretion

enterogastric

33

which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed

B12

34

chief cells

are found in the basal regions of the gastric glands

35

Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by the process of

catabolism

36

The___ contains lobules with sinusoids (lined with macrophages) that lead to a central venous structure

liver

37

If an incision has to be made in the small intestine to remove an obstruction, the first layer of tissue to be cut is the

serosa

38

The terminal portion of the small intestine is known as the

ileum

39

The dental formula for an adult is 2-1-2-3- what does the 1 stand for?

canine tooth

40

Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged

lipids

41

___ is locally regulated in the blood by the active from the vitamin D, which acts as a cofactor

calcium

42

Important peritoneal folds do not include the

round ligament

43

The lamina propria is composed of

loose connective tissue

44

_____ is not important as a stimulus in the gastric phase of gastric secretion

carbohydrates

45

Pancreatic amylase does not get to the small intestine via the

cystic duct

46

The function of the goblet cells is to

produce mucus that protects part of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion

47

Which of the following is an essential role played by large intestine bacteria?

synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins

48

Nervous control of gastric secretion is provided by

the vagus nerve and enteric plexus

49

Which of the following are types of papillae on the tongues that contain taste buds?

fungiform and circumvallate

50

Which of the following produce intrinsic factor?

parietal cells

51

Which of the following enzymes is specific for proteins

trypsin

52

surgical cutting of the lingual frenulum would occur in which part of the body

tongue

53

A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsification agents, and phospholipids is

bile

54

The layer of the digestive tube that contains blood vessels, lymphatic nodes, and a rich supply of elastic fibers is the

submucosa

55

which of the following is not characteristic of the large intestine

is longer than the small intestine

56

what stomach secretion is necessary for normal hemoglobin production in RBCs?

intrinsic factor

57

How are most nutrients absorbed through the mucosa of the intestinal villa

active transport driven directly or indirectly by metabolic energy

58

Select the correct statement about the regulation of gastric secretion

gastric secretion can be stimulated before food has entered the mouth

59

paneth cells

secrete enzymes that kill bacteria

60

select the correct statement about digestive processes

chyme entering the duodenum can decrease gastric motility via the enterogastric reflex

61

Chemical digestion in the small intestine involves

cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormones responsible for gallbladder contraction

62

select the correct statement about absorption

if intact proteins are transported across the villus epithelium, an immune response may be the generated

63

select the correct statement about electrolyte absorption

iron and calcium are absorbed mostly by the duodenum

64

You have just eaten french fries, buttered toast, ice cream, and whole milk. Which of the following glands would be active in helping you to digest this food?

the pancreas

65

The ingestion of the meal high in fat content would cause which of the following to occur?

Bile would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum

66

The mucosa of the developing alimentary tube comes from

endoderm

67

A baby is admitted to the hospital with a history of projectile vomiting after each feeding. On examination, it is found that the sphincter controlling food passage from the stomach to the duodenum is thickened and does not open readily. Because of the baby's loss of gastric juice, his blood probably indicates

alkalosis

68

Hormones or paracrines that inhibit gastric secretion include

secretin

69

which of these not part of the splanchnic circulation

inferior vena cava

70

What is the process of digestion

Ingestion

propulsion

mechanical breakdown

digestion

absorption

defecation

71

select the correct statement about absorption

if intact proteins are transported across the villus epithelium, an immune response may be generated

72

alimentary canal

digests and absorbs food.

mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small/large intestine

73

accessory organs

teeth, tongue, gall bladder, salivary glands, liver, and pancreas.

produce secretin that helps break down food

74

layers of the alimentary canal

mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa

75

anatomy of the oral cavity

card image

76

The tongue

card image

77

The salivary glands

A. ducts of sublingual gland

B. sublingual gland

C. Parotid gland

F. submandibular gland

card image

78

splanchnic circulation

includes arteries that branch off the abdominal aorta to serve the digestive organs and hepatic portal circulation

79

intrinsic muscles

confined in tongue and not attached to bone

allows tongue to change its shape

80

extrinsic muscles

alters the tongue's position

they protrude it, retract it, and move it from side to side

81

lingual frenulum

secures the tongue to the floor of the mouth and limits its posterior movement.

82

filiform papillae

roughen the tongue surface. provides friction for manipulating foods.

83

enteric nervous system

the in-house nerve supply of alimentary canal.

84

enteric neurons

communicate widely with one another to regulate digestive system activity

85

peritoneum

most extensive serous membrane

86

visceral peritoneum

covers external surfaces of most digestive organs

87

parietal peritoneum

lines body walls

88

peritoneal cavity

slit like space containing a slippery fluid secreted by serous membrane

89

mesentery

double layer of peritoneum.

Provides routes for blood vessels, lymphs, and nerves to reach digestive viscera

holds organs in place

stores fat

90

function of The salivary gland

Cleanses the mouth

dissolves food chemicals

moistens food and helps compact it

contains amylase that begins the digestion of starchy foods

91

two types of secretory cells

serous and mucous cells

92

cardiac sphincter

a physiological sphincter

93

primary dentitions

upper jaw: 2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 molars/2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 molars X 2

20 teeths

94

permanent dentition

2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 premolars, 3 molars/ 2 incisors 1 canine, 2 premolars, 3 molars X 2

32 teeths

95

digestive processes of the mouth

the mouth ingests

Begins mechanical breakdown by chewing

intitiates propulsion by swallowing

starts the digestion of polysaccharides

96

The pharynx

food passes to the oropharynx, then to the laryngopharynx

The mucosa contains stratified squamous epithelium

97

the esophagus

esophageal hiatus: where it pierces the diaphragm

cardiac orifice: where it joins the stomach

98

anatomy of the stomach

card image

99

buccal phase of swallowing

occurs in the mouth; voluntary

it ends when bolus leaves mouth and stimulates tactile receptors in the pharynx

100

Pharyngeal-esophageal phase

involuntary. controlled by medulla and lower pons. vagus nerves transmit motor impulses from the swallowing center to the muscles of the pharynx and esophagus

101

enterogastrones

secretes cholecytokinin (CCK) and secretin

102

alkaline tide

as acid is pumped into the stomach, HCO3- is exported into the blood

103

gastric glands

produce stomach secretion

104

parietal cells

found in apical region of glands. secretes HCL and intrinsic factor

105

pepsin

protein-digesting enzyme. activating of pepsin helps digest proteins, breakdown plant food and kills bacteria

106

chief cells

occurs in basal regions of the gastric glands. produces pepsinogen

107

cephalic phase of gastric secretion

occurs before food enters the stomach

108

gastric phase

releases gastric juice. 3-4hrs longs

occurs once food enters the mouth

109

intestinal phase

occurs with a brief stimulatory component followed by inhibition

110

enterogastric reflex

duodenum inhibits acid secretion through the enteric nervous system (short reflexes) and sympathetic and vagus nerves (long reflexes)

111

Gross anatomy of the liver

card image

112

The Liver

produces bile for export to the duodenum

bile breaks fat into tiny particles to make it digestible.

bile leaves the liver through right and left hepatic ducts

113

Bile

yellow-green, alkaline solution containing bile salts, bile pigments, cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, and variety or electrolytes.

114

Bile salts

primarily salts of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids

115

bilirubin

chief bile pigment.

yellow waste product of the heme of hemoglobin formed during the breakdown of word out RBCs

116

gall bladder

stores bile that is not needed for digestion

covered by visceral peritoneum

117

pancreas

produces enzymes that breakdown all foodstuffs

118

pancreatic juices

proteases (protein)

amylases (starch)

lipase (fats)

nucleases (nucleic acids)

119

small intestine

3 sections

duodenum (10 inches)

jejunum (8ft)

ileum (12ft)

site for digestion and absorption

120

enteropeptidase

within the duodenum

activates trypsinogen to trypsin

121

retroperitoneal organs

organs that loses their mesentery and lies posterior to the peritoneum

122

intraperitoneal organs

organs that keeps their mesentery and remains in the peritoneal cavity

123

gross anatomy of large intestine

card image