As a Christian king responsible for ruling a Christian society, Charlemagne:
a. took responsibility for reforming the religious life of his kingdom just as he reformed its government.
b. was careful to observe the distinctions between religious and political authority established by Saint Augustine of Hippo.
c. placed the Frankish church under the control of the pope, while he ruled the kingdom politically.
d. became a monk at the end of his life, thus ensuring his own salvation.
e. established his empire as a theocratic state ruled by the laws set forth in the Bible.
took responsibility for reforming the religious life of his kingdom just as he reformed its government
Why did Justinian try to reconquer the western Roman Empire?
a. The Persians had been defeated in the East, so he could safely launch military expeditions to the West.
b. He believed that he should be the head of a unified Christian church.
c. He needed to keep his army as far away from his capital as possible.
d. He sought to revive and reconstruct wholly the old empire.
e. His empire required continuing conquests in order to prosper.
because he sought to revive and reconstruct wholly the old empire
A pandemic broke out in 541–42 which has come to be known as:
a. the sickness of the East.
b. the scourge of the Goths.
c. Belisarius’s gift.
d. God’s Revenge.
e. the Justinianic Plague.
the Justinianic Plague.
The Carolingian Empire collapsed during the ninth century:
a. because of the division of the empire among all the legitimate heirs of Louis and the Frankish aristocracy’s dissatisfaction with the fractured central authority.
b. the decline of the moral behavior of Charlemagne’s heirs.
c. Islamic penetration of its southern frontier.
d. because the Byzantines invaded to punish Charlemagne for accepting the title of emperor.
e. Russian pressure in the east pushing other tribes toward Italy.
because of the division of the empire among all the legitimate heirs of Louis and the Frankish aristocracy's dissatisfaction with the fractured central authority.
One result of the campaigns of Belisarius in North Africa and Italy was:
a. the alliance of the Vandals and the Visigoths against the Romans.
b. his successful seizure of power back in Constantinople.
c. the weakening of Constantinople against the Sassanids.
d. the near extinction of the Christian faith in the West.
e. the development of a rich and powerful Italy.
the weakening of Constantinople against the Sassanids.
The stability of Byzantine government was the product of:
a. an efficient bureaucracy.
b. the role of the monasteries in Byzantine politics.
c. a predictable system of succession to the imperial throne.
d. unregulated wages and prices.
e. a highly centralized palace government.
an efficient bureaucracy.
In the late sixth century C.E., the economy of Arabia:
a. was practically nonexistent due to Arabia’s domination by the Byzantine Empire.
b. was still almost entirely made up of nomadic Bedouins.
c. was based on the production of figs, wool, and goats at desert oases.
d. was in a state of crisis brought on by the invasion of Huns.
e. became much more commercially sophisticated as a result of the wars between Byzantium and Persia changing trade routes.
became much more commercially sophisticated as a result of the wars between Byzantium and Persia changing trade routes.
It is difficult to date the beginning of Byzantine history with precision because:
a. Greek was the only language ever used by Roman emperors in Constantinople.
b. Justinian resisted new forms of thought and art throughout his life.
c. it began during the so-called Dark Ages during which very few records were kept.
d. Constantine never administered the Roman Empire from Constantinople.
e. the Byzantine Empire was the uninterrupted successor of the Roman Empire.
the Byzantine Empire was the uninterrupted successor of the Roman Empire.
Underlying the Carolingian Renaissance was the basic conviction that:
a. original Latin poetry and epic literature were the highest form of art.
b. to be better Christians, everyone should pray and devote their lives to the Church.
c. the Bible could be best appreciated if it were translated into robust French and German idioms.
d. proper Christian doctrine should be widely disseminated and heretical beliefs should be strictly punished.
e. classical learning was the foundation on which Christian wisdom rested.
classical learning was the foundation on which Christian wisdom rested.
Pope Gregory I:
a. denied the use of penance.
b. fully accepted the religious authority of the patriarch of Constantinople.
c. did not care at all for monasteries or how they were operated.
d. failed to protect the papacy against the Lombards.
e. significantly advanced Benedictine monasticism as the major monastic movement in the West.
significantly advanced Benedictine monasticism as the major monastic movement in the West.
Many of the local populations in Byzantium and Persia:
a. viewed the Arab armies as deliverers.
b. chose to commit suicide rather than accept Arab rule.
c. were immediately forced to convert to Islam once they fell into Arab hands. d. were even more heavily taxed by the Arabs than previously.
e. converted Arab soldiers to either Christianity or Zoroastrianism.
viewed the Arab armies as deliverers.
The early Byzantine religion was known for its:
a. intense interest in matters of doctrine and orthodoxy.
b. rejection of the emperor as the leader of the Church.
c. doctrinal merging of elements from Christianity and Islam.
d. beautifully decorated churches.
e. ability to enforce religious doctrine throughout the eastern empire.
intense interest in matters of doctrine and orthodoxy.
The Byzantine economy in the early Middle Ages was:
a. subject to wild fluctuations due to currency debasement.
b. depressed due to being cut off from trade with northern Europe.
c. industrially underdeveloped.
d. renowned for its use of paper money.
e. highly regulated, including wage and price controls.
highly regulated, including wage and price controls.
Why were so many convents (monastic houses for women) founded during the seventh century C.E.?
a. Convents met a variety of social and spiritual needs for aristocratic families. b. Lower-class women flocked to convents as an improvement on the drudgery of their lives.
c. Nuns were the only women allowed to become priests.
d. Convents were a way for the families that founded them to make money.
e. all of these.
Convents met a variety of social and spiritual needs for aristocratic families.
In 800 Charlemagne:
a. executed Alcuin of York for treason.
b. established his most famous monastery in Paris.
c. accepted the crown and title of Holy Roman emperor.
d. died without an heir.
e. invaded Byzantium.
accepted the crown and title of Holy Roman emperor.
An important figure who founded several Merovingian monasteries was:
d. Gregory of Scotland.
Why did the Romans of Italy and North Africa resent Justinian’s efforts to "liberate" them?
a. There was a heavy cost in taxes and lives.
b. They sought to be their own Roman empire independent of the eastern Roman Empire.
c. They had already formed democratic republics.
d. The rule of the Ostrogoths was more liberal and tolerant than Byzantium.
e. They had already left the Christian religion and were content without it.
There was a heavy cost in taxes and lives.
The armies of Abu-Bakr were able to expand Islam northward out of Arabia largely because of:
a. the assistance Jewish communities gave to Arab armies during sieges of cities.
b. the superior speed of camels over horses in battle.
c. better steel weapons.
d. the alliance of Persian forces against Byzantium.
e. the weakness of Byzantine and Persian armies because of their wars against each other.
the weakness of Byzantine and Persian armies because of their wars against each other.
Charlemagne was able to contain Umayyad power in Europe by:
a. actively supporting the eastern empire in Constantinople.
b. drawing upon Scandinavian armies to help defend his frontiers.
c. maintaining diplomatic and trade relations with its rival the Abbasid Caliphate.
d. supporting a number of rebellions by North Africans against Islam.
e. converting to Islam himself.
maintaining diplomatic and trade relations with its rival the Abbasid Caliphate.
One difference between Islam and Christianity is that:
a. Christianity saw Islam as a reform version of itself.
b. Christians did not discriminate against Jews and Islam did.
c. Islam did not accept the teachings of any of the Jewish or Christian prophets.
d. Islam accepted icons even more enthusiastically than Christianity did.
e. Islam has no sacraments or priests.
Islam has no sacraments or priests.
Local lords and chieftains often granted monasteries special privileges:
a. to strengthen them against the evangelism of Islam.
b. because monasteries often played a key role in economic development and prosperity in a region.
c. to foster the medical research monasteries conducted to find cures for the plague.
d. in order to gain God’s favor against invading Asian hordes.
e. since wealth was considered a cardinal sin.
because monasteries often played a key role in economic development and prosperity in a region.
The people who took advantage of the weakness of Italy due to Justinian’s policies of reconquest were the:
As a result of the Iconoclastic Controversy:
a. political legitimacy was fundamentally linked to the defense of religious tradition.
b. the Eastern Church broke into two distinct sects.
c. all artwork and images in the Eastern Church were banned from within churches.
d. eastern Emperors were forced to be entirely neutral when it came to religious matters.
e. the leaders of Christianity in the West became the dominant faction in the Eastern Church.
political legitimacy was fundamentally linked to the defense of religious tradition.
Byzantine monasteries were deeply involved in the Iconoclastic Controversy because:
a. they were major producers of icons, so they supported the use of images in the faith.
b. they thought icons distracted people from focusing on God.
c. they faithfully supported Leo III.
d. they resented the profits the secular industries made from producing the icons.
e. they taught that the use of icons was a form of black magic.
they were major producers of icons, so they supported the use of images in the faith.
Prior to Muhammad beginning to teach his prophecy and his new faith the Arabs:
a. were a heretical sect of Christians.
b. worshiped the sun, stars, and moon.
c. had no religion at all.
d. practiced mostly Judaism.
e. had the concept of Allah as one of several gods.
had the concept of Allah as one of several gods.