ch 19

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1

During pulmonary circulation blood leaves the __________.

right ventricle and moves to the lungs

right ventricle and goes directly to the aorta

left ventricle and moves to the lungs

right atrium and goes directly to the lungs

right atrium and goes directly to the left ventricle

a

2

During systemic circulation, blood leaves the __________.

left ventricle and goes directly to the aorta

right ventricle and goes directly to the aorta

right atrium and goes directly to the lungs

right ventricle and moves to the lungs

lungs and moves to the left atrium

a

3

The endothelium is composed of __________.

simple columnar epithelium

tunica media muscle cells

stratified squamous epithelium

simple squamous epithelium

simple cuboidal epithelium

d

4

The inferior vena cava brings blood from the lower regions of the body and empties into the __________.

left ventricle

right atrium

aorta

left atrium

right ventricle

b

5

Which of the following is the correct sequence of layers in the vessel wall from outside to inside?

tunica externa, tunica media, tunica intima

tunica intima, tunica externa, tunica media

tunica media, tunica intima, tunica externa

tunica intima, tunica externa, tunica media

It varies from vessel to vessel.

a

6

The major long-term mechanism of blood pressure control is provided by the __________.

the lungs

the heart

kidneys

the digestive tract

paravertebral ganglia

c

7

Exchange of gases and nutrients occurs by diffusion between the __________.

arterioles and tissue cells

arterioles and venules

arteries and veins

artery walls and tissue cells

capillaries and tissue cells

e

8

Any condition in which blood vessels are inadequately filled and blood cannot circulate normally is called __________.

hypertension

varicose veins

circulatory shock

atherosclerosis

arteriosclerosis

c

9

Reduction in the lumen diameter of a blood vessel as the smooth muscle contracts is known as __________.

varicose veins

vasodilation

atherosclerosis

vasoconstriction

arteriosclerosis

d

10

The only vessels that provide direct access to nearly every cell in the body are the __________.

venules

capillaries

arterioles

arteries

veins

b

11

Which of the following regulates blood flow at the entrance to each true capillary?

tunica intima

valves

lymph nodes

precapillary sphincter

tunica externa

d

12

Loss of vasomotor tone that results in a huge drop in peripheral resistance is known as __________.

varicose veins

atherosclerosis

vasoconstriction

vascular shock

hypertension

d

13

Which of the following arteries branches to form the common hepatic artery, left gastric artery, and splenic artery?

gonadal arteries

inferior mesenteric artery

descending aorta

superior mesenteric artery

celiac trunk

e

14

Which of the following veins is the longest in the body?

superior vena cava

femoral vein

inferior vena cava

great saphenous vein

hepatic portal vein

d

15

Which of the layers of an artery wall is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system and many hormones?

inner layer

middle layer

subendothelial layer

outer layer

b

16

Which of the following types of blood vessels have the proportionally thickest tunica media of all vessels?

elastic arteries

distributing arteries

vasa vasorum

arterioles

b

17

__________ inhibits fibrinolysis by competing with plasminogen and may contribute to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.

Foamy macrophages

Cholesterol

Cytomegalovirus

Lipoprotein (a)

d

18

The minute-to-minute blood flow through the capillary beds is determined by the __________.

elastic lamina on both sides of the tunica media in muscular arteries

diameter of arterioles

constriction of elastic arteries

number of elastic fibers in conducting arteries

b

19

The presence of __________ stabilizes the wall of capillaries.

gap junctions

pericytes

elastic fibers

valves

b

20

All but which of the following blood vessels contain intercellular clefts?

sinusoidal capillaries

arterioles

fenestrated

capillaries

continuous capillaries

b

21

The flow of blood from the left ventricle to the right atrium is called the __________.

systemic circulation

microcirculation

pulmonary circulation

hepatoportal circulation

a

22

A metarteriole is a vessel that __________.

auxiliary channel

drains the capillary bed

is intermediate between a capillary and a venule

is intermediate between the arteriole and the capillary bed

c

23

Which of the following conditions would NOT increase the chances of developing varicose veins?

pregnancy

standing to attention for long periods of time

a potbelly in an obese person

running in place

d

24

Up to 65% of the body's blood supply is found in __________.

veins

arteries

capillaries

arterioles

a

25

All of the following are examples of venous sinuses EXCEPT __________.

carotid sinuses

dural sinuses

coronary sinuses

venous sinuses

a

26

Most neural controls of blood pressure involve input from baroreceptors, which are sensitive to __________.

the constriction of capillary beds

to changes in blood pressure

the level of oxygen in the blood

the level of carbon dioxide in the blood

b

27

An elastic lamina on both sides of the tunica media is a characteristic of __________.

muscular arteries

elastic arteries

all arteries

conducting arteries

a

28

Which of the following blood vessels is the most susceptible to atherosclerosis?

the femoral artery

the cerebral arteries

the pulmonary arteries

the aorta

d

29

Which of the following is the major force generating blood flow?

blood vessel diameter

blood viscosity

peripheral resistance

pumping action of the heart

total blood vessel length

d

30

Blood enters the myocardium of the heart by coronary vessels that originate from the __________.

inside of the ventricles

pulmonary artery

aorta

superior vena cava

pulmonary veins

c