Ch. 19 - The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels - MAP Questions Flashcards


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1

These are the smallest blood vessels in our body.

Capillaries

2

This is the muscular layer of blood vessels.

Tunica Media

3

All of the following would be found in large arteries EXCEPT ___.

a) elastic tissue

b) smooth muscle

c) endothelium

d) valves

D) Valves

4

___ is not a type of capillary.

Distributing

5

These vessels carry blood toward the heart.

Venules

6

Venules unite to form ___.

Veins

7

The exchange between blood vessels & cells occur in the ___.

Capillaries

8

These vessels control blood flow to tissues.

Arterioles

9

Sinusoids are highly modified forms of these vessels.

Capillaries

10

These vessels also serve as a blood reservoir.

Veins

11

If you have a BP of 120/80 mm Hg, what is the diastolic pressure?

80 mm Hg

12

If you have a BP of 110/80 mm Hg, what is your pulse pressure?

30 mm Hg

13

Blood flow is inversely proportional to the ___.

Peripheral Resistance

14

___ have the greatest effect on peripheral resistance.

Arterioles

15

Gaining weight may increase blood pressure because an increase in adipose tissue causes an increase in ___.

Blood vessel length

16

The ___ nervous system is responsible for vasomotor tone.

Sympathetic

17

Baroreceptors in our arteries respond to a(n) ___.

increase in blood pressure

18

___ does NOT modify cardiovascular center activity.

Thermoreceptors

19

Long-Term Mechanisms control blood pressure by ___.

regulating blood volume

20

The Renin-Angiotensin Mechanism stimulates the release of which hormone from the adrenal cortex?

Aldosterone

21

___ is not a branch off of the arch of the aorta.

Right Common Carotid

22

The first portion of the aorta is called the ___.

Ascending Aorta

23

In which of the following tissues would low oxygen levels cause vasoconstriction?

a) skeletal muscle

b) Heart

c) Brain

d) Lungs

D) Lungs

24

___ arteries supply 80% of the cerebrum.

Internal Carotid

25

___ forces fluids out of the blood and into the tissues.

Capillary Hydrostatic Pressure

26

___ causes vasoconstriction in the systemic circulation.

Endothelins

27

How would an attack by a mugger affect blood pressure? What is the physiological basis for your answer?

BP would increase due to sympathetic nervous system stimulation

28

Aldosterone will ___.

Promote an increase in blood pressure

29

Brachiocephalic Trunk

Gives rise to the right common carotid and right subclavian arteries

30

External Iliac Artery

Supplies a lower limb

31

Radial Artery

Common site to check a pulse

32

Internal Carotid Artery

Major supply to the cerebral hemispheres

33

Celiac Trunk

Large unpaired branch of the abdominal aorta that supplies the liver, stomach and spleen

34

What type pf vessel has relatively little smooth muscle or elastin in the Tunica Media, a large lumen, and thin walls?

Vein

35

___ promotes vasodialation.

Nitric Oxide

36

Varicose veins seen in the superficial veins of the legs are unsightly and often treated by surgically removing them. However, even without these veins being present, the return of all blood toward the heart from the legs is not diminished primarily because ___.

blood can return via the deep veins

37

Which artery branches off the subclavian arteries?

Vertebral Artery

38

Which artery serves the distal part of the large intestine via its left colic, sigmoidal and superior rectal branches?

Inferior Mesenteric Artery

39

What layer can change blood vessel diameter by vasodialation and vasoconstriction?

Tunic Media

40

Which vein is the longest in the body and empties into the femoral vein?

Great Saphenous Vein (superficial)

41

Which vessel returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium to complete the pulmonary circuit?

Pulmonary Vein

42

___ would NOT move by diffusion across a capillary endothelium to or from the surrounding interstitial fluid and tissues.

Proteins

43

Which of the following statements regarding the hepatic portal system is false?

It branches off of the inferior vena cava

44

Which artery branches into the Common Hepatic Artery, Splenic Artery, and Left Gastric Artery?

Celiac Trunk

45

Is BP is almost normal in a person who has lost a lot of blood, does that mean the tissues are receiving adequate blood flow?

Not necessairly

46

What is the effect of Hypovolemic Shock on the blood vessels and the heart?

Blood vessels constrict to increase venous return and maintain pressure. Heart rate increases to compensate for loss of BP and to maintain cardiac output

47

___ will lower blood pressure.

Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) - hormone released by the heart. It stimulates the kidney to excrete more sodium and wiater, which decreases total blood volume, leading to decrease in BP

48

Which vein becomes the External Iliac Vein as it enters the Pelvis?

Femoral Vein

49

The ___ would experience a decrease in blood flow during exercise.

Kidneys

50

___ is the pressure that propels blood to the tissues.

Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)

51

Arteriolar blood pressure increases in response to all but which of the following?

a) falling blood volume

b) increasing stroke volume

c) increasing heart rate

d) rising blood volume

A) falling blood volume

52

___ are all involved directly in pulmonary circulation.

Right Ventricle, Pulmonary Artery, and Left Atrium

53

What type of vessel has a relatively more smooth muscle and less elastic tissue?

Muscular Artery

54

A patient with essential HTN might have pressures of 200/120. This HTN state could result in all of the following except ___.

decreased size of the heart muscle

55

T/F: When ALBUMIN levels in the blood are below normal, fluid absorption from the tissues into the bloodstream increases.

FALSE

56

The influence of blood vessel diameter on peripheral resistance is significant because ___.

resistance is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the vessel radius.

57

___ is a result of anaphylaxis.

Vascular Shock

58

Select the correct statement about factors that influence blood pressure

Excess red blood cell production would cause an increase in BP

59

The most common type of blood capillary is the ___.

Continuous Capillary

60

Which arteries carry DEOXYGENATED blood?

Pulmonary Arteries

61

T/F: Veins carry only oxygen deficient blood

FALSE

62

___ is involved in long term BP regulation.

Renal Mechanisms

63

Aorta

Largest artery of the body

64

Renal Artery

Supplies the kidney

65

Common Hepatic Artery

Supplies the duodenum and stomach

66

Inferior Mesenteric Artery

Supplies the distal areas of large intestine

67

Internal Iliac Artery

Supplies Pelvic structures

68

Renal Artery

artery that DOES NOT anastomose

69

Where are the sensors for the arterial baroreceptor reflex located?

Carotid sinus and arotic arch

70

If BP is increased at the arterial barorecptors, what would hapen with the activity level of the PNS and the SNS?

Increased PNS activity and decreased activity of the SNS

71

___ would cause vasodialation of the arterioles.

Decreased activity of the SNS

72

Stimulation of the adrenal medulla would result in ___.

Increase in heart rate and contractility

73

A decrease in BP at the arterial baroreceptors would result in ___.

Increase in heart contractility

74

___ is a stimulus in local autoregulation of blood flow.

Nitric Oxide

75

___ provides a long term response to changes in BP.

Renal Regulation

76

A thrombus in the first branch of the aorta would affect the flow of blood to the ___

Right side of the head and neck and the right upper arm

77

Brain blood flow autoregulation ___.

is abolished when abnormally high CO2 levels persist

78

Peripheral resistance ___.

increases as blood viscosity increases

79

The arteries that directly feed into the capillary beds are called __.

Arterioles

80

What type of tissue is found in the walls of the arteries but not in the walls of the capillaries and venules?

Elastic Tissue

81

___ sends branches to the thyroid, larynx, tongue, skin and muscles of the anterior face and posterior scalp.

External Carotid Artery

82

___ carry blood AWAY from the heart.

Arteries

83

Blood flow to the skin ___.

increases when environmental temperature rises

84

Why is it important that BP drop to lower levels as it reaches the capillary beds?

B/c capillaries are fragile and extremely permeable

85

Substances absorbed in the intestines would be routed to the liver via the ___.

Hepatic Portal Vein

86

From what artery does the Right Common Carotid Artery arise?

Brachiocephalic Trunk

87

Cerebral blood flow is regulated by ___.

Intrinsic autoregulatory mechanisms

88

Mechanisms that do not help regulate BP are ___.

Dural Sinus Reflex

89

___ is the most significant source of blood flow resistance.

Blood Vessel Diameter