These are the smallest blood vessels in our body.
This is the muscular layer of blood vessels.
All of the following would be found in large arteries EXCEPT ___.
a) elastic tissue
b) smooth muscle
___ is not a type of capillary.
These vessels carry blood toward the heart.
Venules unite to form ___.
The exchange between blood vessels & cells occur in the ___.
These vessels control blood flow to tissues.
Sinusoids are highly modified forms of these vessels.
These vessels also serve as a blood reservoir.
If you have a BP of 120/80 mm Hg, what is the diastolic pressure?
80 mm Hg
If you have a BP of 110/80 mm Hg, what is your pulse pressure?
30 mm Hg
Blood flow is inversely proportional to the ___.
___ have the greatest effect on peripheral resistance.
Gaining weight may increase blood pressure because an increase in adipose tissue causes an increase in ___.
Blood vessel length
The ___ nervous system is responsible for vasomotor tone.
Baroreceptors in our arteries respond to a(n) ___.
increase in blood pressure
___ does NOT modify cardiovascular center activity.
Long-Term Mechanisms control blood pressure by ___.
regulating blood volume
The Renin-Angiotensin Mechanism stimulates the release of which hormone from the adrenal cortex?
___ is not a branch off of the arch of the aorta.
Right Common Carotid
The first portion of the aorta is called the ___.
In which of the following tissues would low oxygen levels cause vasoconstriction?
a) skeletal muscle
___ arteries supply 80% of the cerebrum.
___ forces fluids out of the blood and into the tissues.
Capillary Hydrostatic Pressure
___ causes vasoconstriction in the systemic circulation.
How would an attack by a mugger affect blood pressure? What is the physiological basis for your answer?
BP would increase due to sympathetic nervous system stimulation
Aldosterone will ___.
Promote an increase in blood pressure
Gives rise to the right common carotid and right subclavian arteries
External Iliac Artery
Supplies a lower limb
Common site to check a pulse
Internal Carotid Artery
Major supply to the cerebral hemispheres
Large unpaired branch of the abdominal aorta that supplies the liver, stomach and spleen
What type pf vessel has relatively little smooth muscle or elastin in the Tunica Media, a large lumen, and thin walls?
___ promotes vasodialation.
Varicose veins seen in the superficial veins of the legs are unsightly and often treated by surgically removing them. However, even without these veins being present, the return of all blood toward the heart from the legs is not diminished primarily because ___.
blood can return via the deep veins
Which artery branches off the subclavian arteries?
Which artery serves the distal part of the large intestine via its left colic, sigmoidal and superior rectal branches?
Inferior Mesenteric Artery
What layer can change blood vessel diameter by vasodialation and vasoconstriction?
Which vein is the longest in the body and empties into the femoral vein?
Great Saphenous Vein (superficial)
Which vessel returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium to complete the pulmonary circuit?
___ would NOT move by diffusion across a capillary endothelium to or from the surrounding interstitial fluid and tissues.
Which of the following statements regarding the hepatic portal system is false?
It branches off of the inferior vena cava
Which artery branches into the Common Hepatic Artery, Splenic Artery, and Left Gastric Artery?
Is BP is almost normal in a person who has lost a lot of blood, does that mean the tissues are receiving adequate blood flow?
What is the effect of Hypovolemic Shock on the blood vessels and the heart?
Blood vessels constrict to increase venous return and maintain pressure. Heart rate increases to compensate for loss of BP and to maintain cardiac output
___ will lower blood pressure.
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) - hormone released by the heart. It stimulates the kidney to excrete more sodium and wiater, which decreases total blood volume, leading to decrease in BP
Which vein becomes the External Iliac Vein as it enters the Pelvis?
The ___ would experience a decrease in blood flow during exercise.
___ is the pressure that propels blood to the tissues.
Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)
Arteriolar blood pressure increases in response to all but which of the following?
a) falling blood volume
b) increasing stroke volume
c) increasing heart rate
d) rising blood volume
A) falling blood volume
___ are all involved directly in pulmonary circulation.
Right Ventricle, Pulmonary Artery, and Left Atrium
What type of vessel has a relatively more smooth muscle and less elastic tissue?
A patient with essential HTN might have pressures of 200/120. This HTN state could result in all of the following except ___.
decreased size of the heart muscle
T/F: When ALBUMIN levels in the blood are below normal, fluid absorption from the tissues into the bloodstream increases.
The influence of blood vessel diameter on peripheral resistance is significant because ___.
resistance is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the vessel radius.
___ is a result of anaphylaxis.
Select the correct statement about factors that influence blood pressure
Excess red blood cell production would cause an increase in BP
The most common type of blood capillary is the ___.
Which arteries carry DEOXYGENATED blood?
T/F: Veins carry only oxygen deficient blood
___ is involved in long term BP regulation.
Largest artery of the body
Supplies the kidney
Common Hepatic Artery
Supplies the duodenum and stomach
Inferior Mesenteric Artery
Supplies the distal areas of large intestine
Internal Iliac Artery
Supplies Pelvic structures
artery that DOES NOT anastomose
Where are the sensors for the arterial baroreceptor reflex located?
Carotid sinus and arotic arch
If BP is increased at the arterial barorecptors, what would hapen with the activity level of the PNS and the SNS?
Increased PNS activity and decreased activity of the SNS
___ would cause vasodialation of the arterioles.
Decreased activity of the SNS
Stimulation of the adrenal medulla would result in ___.
Increase in heart rate and contractility
A decrease in BP at the arterial baroreceptors would result in ___.
Increase in heart contractility
___ is a stimulus in local autoregulation of blood flow.
___ provides a long term response to changes in BP.
A thrombus in the first branch of the aorta would affect the flow of blood to the ___
Right side of the head and neck and the right upper arm
Brain blood flow autoregulation ___.
is abolished when abnormally high CO2 levels persist
Peripheral resistance ___.
increases as blood viscosity increases
The arteries that directly feed into the capillary beds are called __.
What type of tissue is found in the walls of the arteries but not in the walls of the capillaries and venules?
___ sends branches to the thyroid, larynx, tongue, skin and muscles of the anterior face and posterior scalp.
External Carotid Artery
___ carry blood AWAY from the heart.
Blood flow to the skin ___.
increases when environmental temperature rises
Why is it important that BP drop to lower levels as it reaches the capillary beds?
B/c capillaries are fragile and extremely permeable
Substances absorbed in the intestines would be routed to the liver via the ___.
Hepatic Portal Vein
From what artery does the Right Common Carotid Artery arise?
Cerebral blood flow is regulated by ___.
Intrinsic autoregulatory mechanisms
Mechanisms that do not help regulate BP are ___.
Dural Sinus Reflex
___ is the most significant source of blood flow resistance.
Blood Vessel Diameter