Human Anatomy & Physiology: Chapter 4 Tissues: The Living Fabric Flashcards
Goblet cells are found in this type of epithelium
Glands that secrete by rupture of cells are classified as _____
An epithelial tissue has four layers of cells. The apical layer is flat, and the cells of the basal layer are taller than they are wide. The epithelial tissue would be classified as ____
Calcium salts are found in which connective tissue?
This is the most widespread connective tissue and serves as a univeral packing material between other tissues
Which cells typically cluster along blood vessels and detect foreign microorganisms?
Which type of muscle is voluntary?
Multinucleated cells predominate in which muscle tissue?
The two contractile proteins found in muscle cells are
actin and myosin
Muscle tissue can be described as
vasular and innervated
intercalated discs are a unique feature of which muscle tissue
Membranes that line open body cavities are classifed as
Body membranes are usually composed of which two tissues?
Epithelial and connective
During organization of tissue repair, a blood clot is replaced by ____
Of the four major types of tissues, which type forms boundaries between different environments?
What would a structure that has three ducts and flasklike sacs be termed?
Of the four major tissue types, which type is avascular?
Stroma consists of what specific tissue type?
Reticular connective tissue
The walls of large arteries and walls of the bronchial tubes contain which kind of cartilage?
Chemotherapy destroys cells in mitosis. Which type of tissue would be most affected by chemotherapy?
Why are histological sections stained?
To enhance contrast
T or F
Polarity is a property of all normal epithelial tissues.
The role of microvilli is to ____
increase surface area
T or F
Epithelial tissues are innervated and usually vascularized
protection from wear and tear
filtration and diffusion
Secretion and absorption
You observe a tissue that has cells of varying heights. At first glance, it appears that they tissue has multiple cell layers, but upon closer investigation you see that all of the cells attach to the same basement membrane. What classification would you give this epithelial tissue?
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
What is the role of an exocrine gland?
To secrete substances onto body surfaces or into body cavities
You observe a multicellular gland with branched ducts and saclike secretory areas. What type of gland would this most likely be?
A compound alveolar exocrine gland
A sebaceous (oil) gland of the skin must completely rupture to release its secretory products. Thus, this type of gland is considered to be ____
a holocrine gland.
____ are important unicellular exocrine glands.
(osteoblasts are bone forming cells that secrete new extracellular matrix)
Hematopoietic stem cells
blood cell formation
(Hematopoietic stem cells give rise to red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets depending on body needs.)
formation of cartilage
(Chondroblasts give rise to cartilage tissue)
Formation of connective tissue proper
White blood cells
body's defense system
The best classification of adipose tissue is ____
a loose connective tissue
T or F
All connective tissue is derived from a common embryonic tissue called mesenchyme.
Neurons are cells that are involved in ____
responding to stimuli
Which type of muscle tissue has intercalated discs and is involuntarily controlled?
The skin is a ____ membrane
All of the body's organs are derived from three primary germ layers. Which of the primary germ layers can produce epithelial tissues?
Ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm can all give rise to epithelial tissues
During the process of tissue repair, which process produces scar tissue?
(During the process of tissue repair, fibrosis involves the proliferation of a fibrous connective tissue called scar tissue.)
Embryonic ectoderm develops into which major tissue types?
epithelial tissue and nervous tissue
(Nervous tissue develops solely from embryonic ectoderm, while epithelial tissues develop from ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm embryonic tissue)
What type of tissue forms tendons?
dense regular connective tissue
The basement membrane is located between which tissue types?
Epithelial and connective tissue
(Epithelial tissue secretes the superficial basal lamina region of the basement membrane, whereas connective tissue produces the deeper reticular layer of the basement membrane.)
Which type of epithelial tissue line the interior of blood vessels?
Simple squamous endothelium
____ is a unicellular gland associated with mucus production.
(Goblet cells, located between columnar epithelial cells, function in producing the protein mucin, which, when combined with water, forms mucus.
Which apical epithelial cell structure functions in the movement of materials across the surface of the cell?
(The cilia bend and move in coordinated waves, pushing mucus and other substances over the epithelial surface.)
What description best describes a squamous-shaped cell?
a flattened, scale-like cell
Which epithelial tissue type is best adapted for the rapid transport of materials across its membrane?
(Simple squamous epithelial tissue, composed of a single layer of flattened cells, occurs wherever small molecules must past through a membrane quickly.)
All connective tissues share what features in common?
All connective tissues have a common, mesenchymal origin and secrete ground substance.
Which tissue lines the majority of the digestive tract, from stomach to rectum?
Simple columnar epithelial tissue lines most of the digestive tract, from the stomach to the rectum.
Which type of epithelial tissue provides the greatest amount of protection from rubbing, wear, and tear?
(Stratified squamous is the thickest form of epithelial tissue and is composed of multiple layers of flat cells.)
Transitional epithelium can be found in which body system?
(Transitional epithelium forms the lining of hollow urinary organs, which stretch as they fill with urine.)
Which fiber is the strongest, with the greatest tensile strength due to cross-linked fibrils?
(The cross-linked fibrils of collagen fibers make them the strong fibers with the greatest tensile strength.)
Mucous that protects your stomach lining is secreted by which type of epithelial cell?
(Goblet cells are simple columnar epithelial cells)
What type of connective tissue provides support and protection for body structures and is a site for synthesizing blood and fat storage?
(Because of its rocklike hardness, bone has an exceptional ability to support and protect body structures.)
What body tissue controls and regulates body functions?
(Nervous tissue sends electrical signals to control the body.)
Which tissue is found on the surface of the skin?
Stratified squamous epithelium
Which cells secrete the ground substance of cartilage?
Microvilli are found on the ____ surface of epithelial cells.
(Microvilli are present on the free surface of the cell, which is the apical surface.)
Which type of muscle cell is unstriated, unbranched, involuntary, spindle-shaped, and found in the walls of most hollow organs?
The presence of keratin in integument provides a tough protective characteristic to ____
stratified squamous epithelium
(The stratified squamous epithelium, which forms the epidermis, contains keratin that allows it to be a tough protective cover for the body.)
Which exocrine gland stores its secretions until the gland ruptures?
a holocrine gland
Connective tissue arises from which embryonic tissue?
Which individuals have the greatest concentration of brown fat?
(Brown fat is found in young infants, who lack the ability to produce body heat by shivering.)
A flat sheetlike tendon that connects muscle to bone is known as
A multicellular gland with round secretory cells and branching ducts is described as
compound, alveolar, and exocrine.
(Multicellular exocrine glands with round secretory cells are alveolar, and if the ducts are branched, they are considered compound.)
The stroma of most lymphoid organs is composed of
reticular connective tissue.
What is the purpose of fixing tissue for microscopic viewing?
Fixing tissues preserves it and prevents it from deteriorating.
What types of stains are used to stain tissues to be viewed with an electron microscope?
Heavy metal salts are used to stain tissues viewed by electron microscopes.
Epithelial tissue is the only tissue type that has polarity, that is, an apical and a basal surface. Why is this important?
Epithelial tissue lines body cavities and covers the body's external surface; thus polarity with one free (apical) surface is a requirement.
Which gland type--merocrine or holocrine-- would you expect to have the highest rate of cell division? Why?
Holocrine glands have the highest rate of cell division. The secretory cells fragment and are lost in the secretion; thus the secretory cells must be continuously replaced.
Stratified epithelia are "built" for protection or to resist abrasion. What are the simple epithelia better at?
Simple epithelia are "built" to provide for efficient absorption and filtration across their thin epithelial barriers.
Some epithelia are pesudostratified. What does this mean?
Pseudostratified epithelia appear to be stratified because their cells' nuclei lie at different distances from the basement membrane. However, all cells rest on the basement membrane.
Where is transitional epithelium found and what is its importance at those sites?
Transitional epithelium is found in the urinary bladder and other hollow urinary organs. The ability of this epithelium to thin allows the urinary organs to handle (store or transport) a larger urine volume when necessary.
What are four functions of connective tissue?
Connective tissue functions to bind, support, protect, and insulate body organs. In addition, blood acts to transport substances throughout the body.
What are the three types of fibers found in connective tissues?
Reticular, collagen, and elastic fibers are found in the various connective tissues.
Which connective tissue has a soft weblike matrix capable of serving as a fluid reservoir?
Areolar connective tissue, because of its loose weblike nature, is capable of serving as a fluid reservoir.
What type of connective tissue is damaged when you cut your index finger tendon?
Dense regular connective tissue is damaged when you lacerate a tendon.
It has been observed that aging cartilage tends to calcify or ossify and its cells die. What survival needs are not being met in these cells and why is this so?
Oxygen and nutrient needs are not being met because the calcified cartilage matrix is too hard to allow them to reach the cells by diffusion. Remember, cartilage is avascular.
You are looking at muscle tissue through the microscope and you see striped branching cells that connect with one another. What type of muscle are you viewing?
Cardiac muscle cells have striations and are branching cells.
Which muscle type(s) is voluntary? Which is injured when you pull a muscle exercising?
Skeletal muscle tissue is voluntary and is the muscle tissue injured when you "pull a muscle" while exercising.
How does the extended length of a neuron's processes aid its function in the body?
With extended processes, a neuron can conduct electrical signals a great distance within the body.
What type of membrane consists of epithelium and connective tissue, and lines body cavities to the exterior?
A mucous membrane consistes of both connective tissue and epithelium. It lines body cavities open to the exterior.
What type of membrane lines the thoracic walls and covers the lungs, and what is it called?
The serous membranes called pleurae line the thorax walls and cover the lungs.
The two layers of serous membranes are held together by serous fluid, which is largely water. Which of the properties of water (Chapter 2) makes these layers "stick" together?
Water's high surface tension (due to its hydrogen bonds) makes the layers of serous membrane stick together.
What are the three main steps of tissue repair?
The three main steps of tissue repair are inflammation, organization, and regeneration and fibrosis (which is a permanent repair).
Why does a deep injury to the skin result in abundant scar tissue?
More sever injuries damage and destroy more tissue, requiring greater replacement with scar tissue.
Tissue type composed largely of nonliving extracellular matrix; important in protection and support
The tissue immediately responsible for body movement
The tissue that enables us to be aware of the external environment and to react to it
The tissue that lines body cavities and covers surfaces
An epithelium that has several layers with an apical layer of flattened cells, is called
Lines most of the digestive tract:
Lines the esophagus:
Lines much of the respiratory tract:
pseudostratified ciliated columnar
Forms the walls of the air sacs of the lungs:
Found in urinary tract organs:
Endothelium and mesothelium:
The gland type that secretes products such as milk, saliva, bile, or sweat through a duct is
an exocrine gland
the membrane which lines body cavities that open to the exterior is
Scar tissue is a variety of