Unit 1 Flashcards


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Course point and ATI questions for Unit 1 misc. chapters
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1

Which of the following are examples of restorative healthcare? SATA

  1. Home Health
  2. Rehab Fac.
  3. Skilled Nursing Fac.
  4. Oncology Center

A. B. D.

2

Which of the following health care financing mechanisms are federally funded? (SATA)

  1. PPO
  2. Medicare
  3. Long-term Care Insurance
  4. EPO
  5. Medicaid

B. E.

3

A nurse's personal philosophy is developed by learning through which of the following? (Select all that apply.)
A) Environment
B) Interpersonal relationships
C) Formal and informal education

D) Religion and Culture

E) How a person interacts with the environment

• Religion and culture
• Environment
• Interpersonal relationships
• Formal and informal education
Adaptation theory is important in the field of nursing as individuals act and interact with their environment. However, it does not form the foundation of one's personal philosophy, one's values, and their perception of life. Learning from interpersonal relationships, education, religion, culture, and the environment play the key role in philosophy development.

4

Which of the following is a responsibility of the State Licensing boards?

  1. Monitoring EBP practice for clients who have a specific dx.
  2. Ensuring providers comply with regulations
  3. Set quality standards for accrediting health care facilities
  4. Determining if meds are safe for clients

B

5

Which of the following are tertiary care settings? (SATA)

  1. ICU
  2. Oncology tx center
  3. Burn center
  4. Cardiac rehab
  5. Home health

A. B. C.

6

Which of the following clients needs a referral to a social worker? (SATA)

  1. Terminally ill client requesting hospice at home
  2. A client asking about community resources available for older adults
  3. A client wanting her child baptized before sx.
  4. A client requesting an electric wheelchair for after discharge
  5. A client that doesn't understand how to use a nebulizer

A. B. D.

7

A goal for a p/t who has difficulty with self feeding due to rheumatoid arthritis is to use adaptive devices. The nurse caring for the client should initiate a referral to which of the following members of the care team?

  1. Social Worker
  2. CNA
  3. Registered Dietician
  4. Occupational Therapist

D.

8

Which of the following members of the care team can assist a p/t in understanding the effects of their meds.? (SATA)

  1. Provider
  2. CNA
  3. Pharmacist
  4. RN
  5. Respiratory therapist

A. C. D.

9

A p/t who has problems swallowing due to a CVA needs a referral to which care team member?

  1. Social Worker
  2. CNA
  3. Occupational therapist
  4. Speech pathologist

D.

10

When giving examples of the duties a CNA performs which of the following should be included? (SATA)

  1. Bathing
  2. Ambulating
  3. Toileting
  4. Determining pain level
  5. Measuring vital signs

A. B. C. E.

11

A p/t decides not to have a sx even if it means it can save his life. The nurse understands this is which type of ethical principle?

  1. Fidelity
  2. Autonomy
  3. Justice
  4. Nonmaleficence

B.

12

A nurse offers pain meds to a postoperative p/t prior to ambulation. This is an example of what kind of ethical principle?

  1. Fidelity
  2. Autonomy
  3. Justice
  4. Beneficence

D.

13

All p/t's waiting on a kidney transplant have to meet the same qualifications. This is an example of what ethical principle?

  1. Fidelity
  2. Autonomy
  3. Justice
  4. Nonmaleficence

C.

14

A nurse questions a rx due to a p/t's age and unstable status. Which ethical principle is this?

  1. Fidelity
  2. Autonomy
  3. Justice
  4. Nonmaleficence

D.

15

Which of the following could be described as an ethical dilemma?

  1. A nurse shows signs of chemical impairment
  2. A nurse threatening to use restraints on a p/t if they don't stay in bed
  3. A family has mixed feelings about tube feeding their terminally ill father
  4. A terminally ill p/t who hesitates to name her spouse as her power of attorney

C.

16

An AP threatens to diaper a client if he doesn't use the urinal properly. Which of the following torts are they committing?

  1. Assault
  2. Battery
  3. False Imprisonment
  4. Invasion of privacy

A.

17

A p/t wish to leave the hospital AMA. The nurse prepares to give a sedative along with his normal meds to keep him at the hospital. Which tort is she about to commit?

  1. Assault
  2. False imprisonment
  3. Negligence
  4. Breach of confidentiality

B.

18

Which of the following statements indicates an understanding of advanced directives?

  1. I'd rather have my bro make decisions for me, but I know it has to be my wife.
  2. I know they won't go ahead with the sx unless I prepare these forms
  3. I plan to write that I don't want them to put me on a breathing machine.
  4. I will get my PCP to approve my plan before I turn it in at the hospital.

C.

19

A nurse should take which of the following actions regarding informed consent? (SATA)

  1. Make sure the surgeon obtained the p/t's consent
  2. Witness the p/t's signature on the consent form
  3. Explain the risk and benefits of the procedure
  4. Describe the consequences of not having the procedure
  5. Tell the p/t about alternatives to having the surgery

A. B.

20

A nurse notices another nurse seems drowsy and unfocused for the last week and then finds her asleep in the break room while not on break. What should the nurse do?

  1. Alert the ANA
  2. Fill out an incident report
  3. Report observations to the nurse manager of the unit
  4. Leave the nurse alone to sleep

C.

21

A nurse preparing a change-of-shift report should include which of the following?

  1. Input and output for the shift
  2. Bp from the previous day
  3. Bone scan scheduled for today
  4. Med routine from the MAR

C.

22

A nurse is discussing the HIPPA privacy rule during an orientation. Which of the following info should be included? (SATA)

  1. A single password is provided for all the nurses on the same unit
  2. Family members should provide a code prior to receiving info regarding the health of a p/t
  3. Communication of a p/t's info. can occur at the nurses station
  4. A p/t can request a copy of her medical record
  5. A nurse may copy a p/t's med record for transfer to another facility

B. C. D. E.

23

Which of the following legal guidelines should be followed when documenting in a p/t's record? (SATA)

  1. Cover errors with white out
  2. Put the date/time on all entries
  3. Document objective data. Leave out opinions
  4. Use as many abbreviations as possible
  5. Wait until the end of the shift to document

B. C.

24

Which of the following require the completion of an incident report? (SATA)

  1. Med error
  2. Needlestick
  3. Conflict w/ provider and nursing staff
  4. Omission of rx
  5. Complaint from p/t's family member

A. B. D.

25

A nurse is receiving a providers rx by phone. Which of the following actions are appropriate? (SATA)

  1. Repeat the details of the rx back to the provider
  2. Have another nurse listen to the phone rx
  3. Obtain the providers signature for the rx within 24 hours
  4. Decline the verbal rx bc it is not an emergency
  5. Tell the charge nurse that the provider has rx morphine by phone

A. B. C.

26

Which of the following p/t needs does the nurse assign to AP?

  1. Feeding a client who was admitted 24 hours ago with aspiration pneumonia
  2. Reinforce teaching with a client who is learning to walk with a quad cane
  3. Reapplying a condom catheter for a p/t who is incontinent
  4. Applying a sterile dressing to a pressure ulcer

C.

27

A p/t is awaiting transfer to the PACU after thoracic sx. Which staff member can take him?

  1. Charge nurse
  2. RN
  3. LPN
  4. AP

B.

28

A nurse is delegating the ambulation of a p/t who had knee sx 5 days ago to an AP. Which info. should be shared with the AP? (SATA)

  1. The roommate ambulates independently
  2. The client ambulates with his slippers over his compression socks
  3. The client uses a walker when ambulating
  4. The client had pain meds 30 min. ago
  5. The client is allergic to codeine
  6. The client ate 50% of his breakfast this morning

B. C. D.

29

An RN is making assignments for a PN at the beginning of her shift. Which ones should the PN question?

  1. Assist a p/t 24 hour post-op to use an incentive spirometer
  2. Collecting a clean catch urine specimen from a p/t who has a wound infection
  3. Providing nasopharyngeal suctioning for a client who has pneumonia
  4. Teaching a client who has asthma how to use a metered-dose inhaler

D.

30

A nurse is conducting a program about delegation, Which of the following elements should she include when presenting the 5 rights of delegation? (SATA)

  1. Right Client
  2. Right supervision and evaluation
  3. Right direction and communication
  4. Right time
  5. Right circumstances

B. C. E.

31

By the second day a p/t has not achieved satisfactory pain relief. Based on this evaluation, which of the following actions should the nurse take, according to the nursing process?

  1. Reassess the client to determine the reasons for inadequate pain relief
  2. Wait to see if the pain lessens in the next 24 hours
  3. Change the plan of care to include different pain relief interventions
  4. Teach the p/t about the plan of care for managing pain

A.

32

A newly licensed nurse notices her p/t is 2 hours late getting his PRN pain med and the p/t says he is in pain. The nurse asks the charge nurse to observe her preparing and administering the med. The nurse checks with the p/t 40 min later and he says he is better. The charge nurse tells the new nurse she left out which of the following steps in the nursing process?

  1. Assessment
  2. Planning
  3. Intervention
  4. Evaluation

A. She didn't ask the client to rate his pain on a pain scale

33

Which of the following is objective data in relation to the nursing process? (SATA)

  1. Respiratory rate is 22/min with even, unlabored respirations
  2. The p/t's partner states the p/t hurts after walking for 10 min
  3. Pain in 3/10
  4. Skin is pink, warm, and dry
  5. The AP reports the p/t walked with a limp

A. D. E.

34

Which of the following interventions do not require a providers rx? (SATA)

  1. Writing a rx for morphine
  2. inserting an NG tube
  3. Showing a client how to use progressive muscle relaxation
  4. Performing a daily bath after the evening meal
  5. Repositioning a p/t every 2 hours to reduce pressure ulcer risk

C. D. E.

35

Which of the following statements by a newly hired nurse should be identified as appropriate for the planning step of the nursing process?

  1. I will determine the most important client problems that we should address
  2. I will review the past medical hx on the clients record to get more info.
  3. I will go carry out the new rx's from the provider
  4. I will ask the client if his nausea has resolved

A.

36

Which nursing actions demonstrate the aim of nursing to promote health? (Select all that apply.)

a)Administering an insulin shot to a diabetic patient
b)Helping a person with paraplegia learn how to use a wheelchair
c)Serving as a role model of health for patients by maintaining a healthy weight
d)Facilitating decisions about lifestyles that would enhance the well-being of a teenager
e)Increasing student awareness of sexually transmitted diseases by distributing informational pamphlets at a college health center
f)Performing diagnostic measurements and examinations in an outpatient setting

C. Serving as a role model of health for patients by maintaining a healthy weight
D. Facilitating decisions about lifestyles that would enhance the well-being of a teenager
E. Increasing student awareness of sexually transmitted diseases by distributing informational pamphlets at a college health center

Health promotion is motivated by the desire to increase a person’s well-being and health potential

37

A nursing student understands which of the following is true of concepts?

a)Concepts provide a means of testing knowledge.
b)Concepts describe objects, properties, and events and relationships among them.
c)Concepts differentiate nursing from other disciplines.
d)Concepts are derived through deductive and inductive reasoning.

Concepts describe objects, properties, and events and relationships among them.

38

If a nurse describes a study of people, and the nursing profession including: studies of education, policy development, ethics, and nursing history, then what is the nurse defining?

a)Nursing research
b)Maslow's theory
c)Nursing theory
d)Adaptation theory

Nursing research

Nursing research is a study of people and the nursing profession. Adaptation, nursing, and Maslow's theory may provide a theoretical foundation for the study, but the study itself is nursing research.

39

The nurse is caring for a client after a stroke rendered the client's right side weaker than the left. The nurse coordinates the plan of care with the physical therapist. The nurse's interventions reflect which one of nursing's four broad goals?

a)To faciliate coping
b)To restore health
c)To promote health
d)To prevent illness

To restore health
The four broad aims of nursing practice are to promote health, prevent illness, restore health, and facilitate coping with death and/or disability. In the example, the nurse is coordinating care with the other disciplines in an attempt regain some of the strength in the client's right side. This is an example of restoring a client's health. The nurse is not preventing the stroke or promoting health prior to the stroke. The nurse is not facilitating coping with the stroke.

40

A nursing student is describing nursing concepts in class. The student states that these concepts can be put together, along with the relationships described among the concepts. The nursing instructor knows that the student is describing which of the following?

a)Deductive reasoning
b)Theory
c)Inductive reasoning
d)Concepts

Theory

Theory is a group of concepts and the relationships among them. Concepts are abstract ideas or objects and their relationships to one another. Deductive reasoning provides a basis for theory development as one studies a general idea to more specific properties. Inductive reasoning is derived from consideration of specific properties to make conclusions about a general idea.

41

A nursing student is describing building nursing theory during a fundamentals nursing class. The student describes that a theory can be built by looking at an idea as a whole and then breaking the idea down into smaller, more specific ideas. The nursing instructor knows that the student is describing which of the following?

a)Inductive reasoning
b)Deductive reasoning
c)Theory
d)Concepts

Deductive reasoning

Deductive reasoning involves looking at an idea as a whole and then considering more specific ideas. Theory is a group of concepts and the relationships among them. Concepts are abstract ideas or objects and their relationships to one another. Inductive reasoning is derived from consideration of specific properties to conclusions about a general idea. (less)

42

A nurse is discussing the history of the profession with a client and describes that a shift in societal focus from religion to warfare had a negative impact on nursing due to which of the following?

Female criminals recruited as nurses

As many Western societies shifted from a religious orientation to an emphasis on warfare, this led to a tremendous shortage of people to care for the sick. To meet this need, women who were convicted of crimes were recruited into nursing in lieu of serving jail sentences. In addition to having a poor reputation, nurses received low pay and worked long hours in unfavorable conditions.

43

When a researcher begins to form plans for a research project, the researcher must decide on the method for conducting the research. The nurse researcher that plans to emphasize collection of narrative data and the analysis would select which of the following methods of research?

Qualitative research

Qualitative research utilizes words or narrative for data, rather than numbers. Quantitative research utilizes numerical values and statistical analysis of data. Basic research is utilized to generate or refine theory. Applied research is utilized for its application in clinical practice. The stem of the question did not provide information as to the application of the study.

44

A nurse is discussing dietary issues with a Latino client in the clinic. The client states, "I read a research article about the importance of beans in the Latino diet. The findings from the study suggested that inclusion of meat and beans in the diet would help in the development of muscles and bones." The information that the client is expressing is known as what?

Scientific knowledge

Scientific knowledge is derived through the scientific method. Research is conducted according to the scientific method; therefore, the information would be based on scientific knowledge. Authoritative knowledge is gleaned from an expert based on their perceived expertise. Traditional knowledge is known as knowledge that is passed down from one generation to the next. Philosophy is the study of wisdom and one's perceptions of life.

45

What is the central theme of Florence Nightingale’s nursing theory?

Meeting the personal needs of the client within the environment.

Florence Nightingale believed in meeting the personal needs of the client within the environment.

46

A person practicing nursing in the 1950s would most likely have been influenced by what trend?

Large numbers of women began to work outside the home, asserting their independence.

After World War II, increasing numbers of women entered the workforce, becoming more assertive and independent. At this time, efforts were directed at upgrading nursing education, moving it from the hospital setting to the college setting. Male dominance in health care, influencing the progress of the nursing profession, was greatly impacted by World War II. By the 1950s, this dominance was beginning to decrease. The broadening of practice in a variety of health care settings did not occur as early as the 1950s.

47

The nurse asks a client about his spiritual health. Which statement best explains the standard of care utilized by the nurse?
a)The RN collaborates with spiritual healers.
b)The RN prays with clients.
c)The RN collects comprehensive data.
d)The RN provides spiritual counseling.

The RN collects comprehensive data.

The standard being exemplified is Standard 1: Assessment: The RN collects comprehensive data. Spiritual assessment is part of the comprehensive assessment data collection. The RN may pray with a client and/or collaborate with spiritual healers, but it is not part of the standards of care. The RN typically does not provide spiritual counseling

48

Trends in managed care have resulted in an increased focus on the care of clients by nurses in which settings?
a)Critical care units
b)Long-term care settings
c)Hospital settings
d)Community-based settings

Community-based settings

Health care is increasingly provided in community-based settings such as clinics, outpatient settings, and homes. The impetus for this change has largely been the implementation of a system of managed care to control and monitor health care services to minimize costs.

49

The nursing instructor is explaining sources of knowledge to a group of nursing students. The nursing instructor describes "some knowledge is gained from someone with a great deal of perceived experience." One of the students correctly describes this source as being:
a)Traditional knowledge
b)Authoritative knowledge
c)Philosophy knowledge
d)Scientific knowledge

b) Authoritative Knowledge

50

Which group of nurses would be least likely involved in direct research? Select all that apply.
a)Clinical Nurse Specialists
b)Student nurses
c)Nurses at the PhD level
d)Novice nurses
e)Nurse Practitioners

Novice nurses
• Student nurses
Direct research, except in the role of data collection or administration of medications and treatments as a protocol in a research project, usually does not involve student nurses and novice nurses. Master's prepared nurses such as clinical nurse specialists and nurse practitioners, as well as nurses at the PhD level, can be involved in direct research.

51

How would a student nurse define a conceptual framework?
a)A foundation for nursing skills and care.
b)A group if interrelated objects that follow a pattern.
c)A set of phenomena and related abstractions.
d)An explanation of nursing and nursing practice.

A group if interrelated objects that follow a pattern.

A conceptual framework is made up of a group of concepts (interrelated objects, descriptions, or events) that follows an understandable pattern.

52

Which concept is not one of the four central concepts in nursing practice?
a)Person
b)Nursing
c)Environment
d)Spirituality

Spirituality

Spirituality is not one of the four central concepts in nursing. The four central concepts in nursing practice include person, environment, health, and nursing.

53

A nurse is caring for a client with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The nurse explains to the client that COPD is a chronic disease. Why is COPD considered a chronic disease?

a)It is a sequela of acute illness.
b)It takes a long time to cure.
c)It has a gradual onset and lasts for a long time.
d)It persists for a long time.

It has a gradual onset and lasts for a long time.

Chronic illness has a gradual onset and lasts for a long time. It is usually seen in old age. It may or may not be due to acute illness. Chronic diseases are a major cause of morbidity in the population.

54

What is the definition of wellness?

a)a desire to be without disease
b)an active state of being healthy
c)being without disease
d)maximizing the state in which you live

an active state of being healthy

Wellness, a reflection of health, is an active state of being healthy by living a lifestyle that promotes good physical, mental, and emotional health.

55

The nursing instructor is teaching about nursing theories. Students are asked to identify facts related to nursing theory. Which of the following facts are true regarding nursing theory? (Select all that apply.)

a)Nursing theories are written in technical language and should be studied by those with higher educational levels.
b)Nursing theory provides a focus for care that is delivered to clients.
c)Nursing theories may be descriptive or prescriptive.
d)The ultimate outcome for nursing theory is improved client care.
e)Nursing theory provides a rationale for the care that nurses provide.

• The ultimate outcome for nursing theory is improved client care.
• Nursing theory provides a rationale for the care that nurses provide.
• Nursing theories may be descriptive or prescriptive.
• Nursing theory provides a focus for care that is delivered to clients.

Nursing theories should be written in simple and practical language so that the information can be translated to the bedside. Therefore, nurses at all educational levels should have a basic knowledge of nursing theory. All of the other choices are true of nursing theory.

56

A nurse is planning to participate in a research project and is looking for information about what is already known about the topic. The nurse is involved in which step of the research process?

a)problem area identification
b)scientific literature review
c)problem statement formulation
d)identification of theoretical framework

scientific literature review

The nurse is engaged in a review of the scientific literature to find out what is already known about the subject and to prevent duplication of effort if the subject is already well-studied. Identifying the problem area is completed first. This then guides the literature review. From there the nurse identifies the theoretical framework as a guide to identify and study systematically the logical relationships between variables. The problem statement identifies the direction the project will take. (less)

57

A nurse is preparing a seminar for a nursing research symposium. As part of the presentation, the nurse plans to discuss the history surrounding the development of nursing research. When describing the research that occurred during the early half of the twentieth century, which area would the nurse describe as being the focus?

a)nursing education
b)treatment issues
c)available nurse supply
d)client care

nursing education

Between 1900 and 1940, research in nursing centered on education, methods of teaching, and methods of evaluating how nurses learned. During and after World War II, research interest turned to supply and demand for nurses as the need for nurses to serve in both the military and civilian sectors increased. Client care and treatment issues are common areas of interest in current nursing research.

58

A nurse must possess several characteristics in order to be successful in this profession. Secondary to critical thinking skills, which of the following is of great value?

a)advocating for the client at all times
b)educational attainment such as Master's of Nursing
c)delegation of responsibilities
d)good teamwork and team-building skills

advocating for the client at all times

Nursing is caring, commitment, and dedication to meeting the health needs of all people. Nurses direct care to promote, maintain, and restore health in various settings. They are prepared to identify and to assist with the health care needs of individuals, families, communities, and populations.

59

The nursing student who has diarrhea before every test and every clinical understands that this is not a healthy behavior. The student is aware that this negative effect can impact overall health. The nurse recognizes that this student needs to focus on which of the following dimensions of health?

a)Sociocultural dimension
b)Emotional dimension
c)Intellectual dimension
d)Physical dimension

Emotional dimension

This is an example of the emotional dimension. How the mind affects body functions and responds to body conditions also influences health. Long term stress affects body systems, and anxiety affects health habits. Intellectual dimension encompasses cognitive abilities and past experiences, while the physical dimension includes things like genetics, sex, and race. Sociocultural dimensions relate to a client's economic level, lifestyle, family, and culture.

60

Marjory Gordon developed the concept of functional health patterns to help organize nursing information in a holistic way. Which functional health pattern focuses on health values and beliefs?

a)Self-perception
b)Elimination
c)Health perception–health management
d)Cognitive-perceptual

Health perception–health management

Health perception–health management pattern focuses on health values and beliefs, as well as the resources in the community that are available to meet health needs. Elimination pattern is closely related to nutrition and metabolism.

61

The nurse notes the initials APRN after a nurse who is ordering a client's medications. According to ANA standards of nursing practice, which of the following is the correct action by the nurse?
a)Ask the nursing manager what APRN means.
b)Contact the client's physician for medication orders.
c)Report the nurse to the state board of nursing.
d)No action is needed. This is within the ANA standards for APRNs.

No action is needed. This is within the ANA standards for APRNs.

According to the ANA standards of practice, APRNs provide consultation and use prescriptive authority and treatment so there is no action needed by the nurse, and there is no need to contact the client's physician for additional medication orders.

62

Which of the following best exemplifies the role of the nurse as educator?
a)a nurse referring a client to outpatient services
b)a nurse allowing a client to verbalize fears of death
c)a nurse discussing side effects of a medication with a client
d)a nurse researching the best way to provide care

a nurse discussing side effects of a medication with a client

When the nurse is in the role of educator, the nurse uses communication skills to assess, implement, and evaluate individualized education plans to meet the learning needs of clients, such as when discussing side effects of a medication. Allowing the client to verbalize feelings and/or referring them to outpatient services demonstrates the role of counselor. Researching the best way to provide care demonstrates the role of researcher

63

Following the identification of a researchable problem, what must the nurse do?
a)Select literature relevant to the problem.
b)Determine a source appropriate to collect data.
c)Obtain a list of possible outcomes.
d)Evaluate the number of ways to collect data.

Select literature relevant to the problem.

Literature review is the process of selecting published materials that have relevance to the potential research.

64

Standards for ethical practice for nurses are primarily laid out by what organization?
a)International Council of Nurses
b)World Health Organization
c)American Hospital Association
d)American Nurses Association

American Nurses Association

The ANA Code of Ethics for Nurses is the main source of the ethical principles that nurses must follow.

65

Which of the following is a characteristic of nursing practiced from early civilization to the 16th century?

a)The physician was the priest who treated disease with prayer.
b)The nurse was a nun committed to caring for the needy and homeless.
c)Nursing changed from a spiritual focus to an emphasis on knowledge expansion.
d)Most early civilizations believed that illness had supernatural causes.

Most early civilizations believed that illness had supernatural causes.

Most early civilizations believed that illness had supernatural causes. The physician was the medicine man who treated disease by chanting, inspiring fear, or opening the skull to release evil spirits (Dolan, Fitzpatrick, & Herrmann, 1983). The nurse usually was the mother who cared for her family during sickness by providing physical care and herbal remedies. As civilizations grew, temples became the centers of medical care because of the belief that illness was caused by sin and the gods' displeasure.

66

Which of the following is the best example of a nurse demonstrating the role of caregiver?
a)reporting lab values to a client's physician
b)starting an intravenous line in the client's arm
c)assigning a room for a new hospital client
d)referring the client to a mental health clinic

starting an intravenous line in the client's arm

In the role of caregiver, the nurse provides care to clients to meet their needs, such as when starting an intravenous line. The role of caregiver is the primary role of the nurse. Teaching a client about medication is the role of educator. Telling a doctor a lab value is the role of communicator. Securing a referral to the local clinic is the role of counselor. Assigning rooms is a management role.

67

A nursing student is describing nursing concepts in class. The student states that these concepts can be put together, along with the relationships described among the concepts. The nursing instructor knows that the student is describing which of the following?
a)Concepts
b)Deductive reasoning
c)Theory
d)Inductive reasoning

Theory

Theory is a group of concepts and the relationships among them. Concepts are abstract ideas or objects and their relationships to one another. Deductive reasoning provides a basis for theory development as one studies a general idea to more specific properties. Inductive reasoning is derived from consideration of specific properties to make conclusions about a general idea.

68

A nurse is providing care for three clients on a medical unit, two of whom are significantly more acute than the third. The nurse is making a concerted effort to ensure that the less acute client still receives a reasonable amount of time, attention, and care during the course of the shift. Which of the following is the nurse attempting to enact?
a)Justice
b)Beneficence
c)Nonmaleficence
d)Fidelity

Justice

The ethical principle of justice includes an effort to fairly distribute benefits and to minimize discrimination, even when circumstances make this difficult to achieve. This is demonstrated by the nurse's efforts to fairly distribute her time and care.

69

Using the nursing process to make ethical decisions involves following several steps. Which step is the nurse implementing when she reflects on the decision-making process and the role it will play in making future decisions?
a)Evaluating
b)Planning
c)Implementing
d)Diagnosing

Evaluating

Evaluating an ethical decision involves reflecting on the process and evaluating those elements that will be helpful in the future. The nurse may also question how this experience can improve reasoning and decision making in the future. Diagnosing the ethical problem involves stating the problem clearly. Planning includes identifying the options and exploring the probable short-term and long-term consequences. Implementing includes the implementation of the decision and comparing the outcomes of the action with what was considered and hoped for in advance.

70

A nurse is preparing to conduct a research study and chooses a mixed method of research. The nurse chooses this method based on the understanding that the results will:
a)identify the problem more succinctly.
b)be more holistic.
c)provide a more complex level of understanding.
d)reveal gaps in data analysis.

provide a more complex level of understanding.

A mixed method uses both quantitative and qualitative approaches to research inquiry. The key to the combination is integrating the two forms of data collected to illuminate research findings. The assumption in this approach is that by examining two sets of data, the results will yield a more complex level of understanding. This method is not associated with being more holistic, revealing gaps, or identifying the problem more succinctly.

71

A nursing instructor is explaining to a group of nursing students the importance of understanding the sources of knowledge. Which of the following types of knowledge would the instructor describe as being subjective? (Select all that apply)
a)Scientific method
b)Evidence-based practice
c)Scientific knowledge
d)Traditional knowledge
e)Authoritative knowledge

• Traditional knowledge
• Authoritative knowledge
Traditional and authoritative knowledge are practical but may be subjective. Scientific knowledge, the scientific method and evidence based practice are all rooted in research and are unlikely to be subjective.

72

A nurse researcher ensures that a research subject's privacy is protected by which method? Select all that apply.
a)Autonomy
b)Beneficence
c)Confidentiality
d)Justice
e)Anonymity

• Confidentiality
• Anonymity
Clients involved in research must be assured that their privacy is being protected. Privacy is protected in two general ways. Anonymity is the protection of the subject so that not even the researcher can link the subject to the information provided. Confidentiality ensures that the subjects' identities will not be linked with the information they provide and will not be publicly divulged.The ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, and justice serve as guides in maintaining the rights of research participants when the specific goals of research projects are determined.

73

A nurse is planning to continue her education in the hopes of becoming an expert in geriatric nursing who carries out direct care. For which of the following expanded career roles is the nurse preparing?
a)Nurse manager
b)Physician assistant
c)Nurse-midwife
d)Clinical nurse specialist

Clinical nurse specialist

Clinical nurse specialists are nurses with an advanced degree who are considered experts in a specialized area of care. They also provide direct care, consultation, and education of clients, families, and staff. Nurse managers do not normally provide direct care. Nurse-midwives specialize in obstetrical care. Physician assistants are not nurses.

74

Which of the following is monitored by the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN)? Select all that apply.
a)Nursing certification
b)Quality improvement
c)Client-centered care
d)Evidence-based practice
e)Informatics

• Evidence-based practice
• Client-centered care
• Informatics
• Quality improvement
The Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN, 2014) initiative has identified key quality and safety competencies for nurses: client-centered care, teamwork and collaboration, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, safety, and informatics. These competencies support the responsibilities defined previously. Providing care focused on clients requires the nurse to balance client advocacy with safety. Effective management and coordination of care requires teamwork and collaboration. Evidence-based practice leads to safe and effective care. Nurses must continually evaluate and improve the quality of care. Competence in informatics allows nurses to use the latest technology in the provision, documentation, and evaluation of care. Nurses who achieve these competencies are able to improve the quality and safety of client care wherever they work.

75

A nurse researcher is involved in an experimental research study. Which component would the nurse researcher manipulate?
a)Data analysis
b)Independent variable
c)Research design
d)Dependent variable

Independent variable

An independent variable has the presumed effect on the dependent variable. It may be manipulated if the researcher is doing an experimental study; in a nonexperimental study, it is assumed to have occurred naturally before or during the study. The dependent variable is what you believe might be influenced or modified by the independent variable, or is the consequence or presumed effect that varies as changes occur in the independent variable. The dependent variable is the one that the researcher is interested in understanding and explaining. The research design is the overall plan for the collection and analysis of data. Data analysis involves evaluating the raw form of the information in an orderly, planned manner.

76

The registered nurse is performing a nutritional assessment to ensure that the client's diet is optimal for wound healing. The nurse's intervention can be traced back to which of nursing's key people's contributions to nursing?
a)Clara Barton
b)Dorothea Dix
c)Florence Nightingale
d)Linda Richards

Florence Nightingale

Florence Nightingale's contributions to nursing included the recognition of the importance of nutrition to health. Clara Barton established the Red Cross. Dorothea Dix was a pioneer for reform of treatment for the mentally ill. Linda Richards began the practice of keeping records and writing orders.

77

The nurse is utilizing knowledge about a blood pressure medication's actions and side effects to determine whether or not to give a client, whose blood pressure is low, the prescribed blood pressure medication. What best describes the aspect of nursing demonstrated?
a)Quality improvement
b)Conduction of research
c)Science of nursing
d)Art of nursing

Science of nursing

The science of nursing is the knowledge base for the care provided by the nurse. In this example, the nurse is using this knowledge base to decide how best to care for the client by giving or not giving the blood pressure medication. The art of nursing is the application of the knowledge. In this example it would be demonstrated by the nurse actually giving or holding the medication. Quality improvement activities and the conduction of research influence the science and the art of nursing by helping build the body of knowledge that is the science of nursing.

78

The nurse discussing the importance of professional nursing organizations setting standards should include which of the following statements?
a)It helps regulate nursing licensure.
b)It sets the standard for nursing research.
c)It helps identify nursing as a profession.
d)It helps to identify nurses.

It helps identify nursing as a profession.

Professional nursing organizations that set standards for nursing helps nursing meet the defining criteria for a profession. However, they do not regulate nursing practice, set standards for nursing research, or help to identify nurses

79

A nurse providing care has a personal philosophy that nursing interventions should be instituted for clients when the clients demonstrate ineffective adaptive responses. This nurse’s philosophy is based on the theory of:
a)Imogene M. King
b)Madeline Leininger
c)Jean Watson
d)Sister Callista Roy

Sister Callista Roy

Sister Callista Roy is a nursing theorist whose work focused on the central theme that humans are biopsychosocial beings existing within an environment. Needs are created within interrelated adaptive modes: physiologic self-concept, role function, and interdependence. When individuals demonstrate ineffective adaptive responses, nursing interventions are required. Madeline Leininger is a nursing theorist whose work focused on caring as the central theme of nursing care, nursing knowledge, and nursing practice. The theory, when applied to clinical practice, provides the foundation of transcultural nursing care. Caring improves human conditions and life processes. Imogene M. King is a nursing theorist whose work focused on the central theme that the client is a personal system within a social system; the nurse and the client experience each other and the situation, act and react, and transact. This theory is exhibited in clinical practice: nursing is a process of human interactions, as nurses and clients communicate to mutually set goals, and explore and agree on the means to reach those goals. Jean Watson is a nursing theorist who is known for her focus on caring. The central theme of her work is that nursing is concerned with promoting and restoring health, preventing illness, and caring for the sick. Caring is universal and is practiced through interpersonal relationships.

80

In today's healthcare environment nurses use theories to guide all stages of the nursing process. Which of the following are examples of ways that a nurse can utilize theories to guide client care? (Select all that apply.)
a)Make client assignments on the unit.
b)Classify client data.
c)Organize client information.
d)Analyze client situations.
e)Collect client data.

• Classify client data.
• Organize client information.
• Analyze client situations.
• Collect client data.
Assignments on a clinical unit are made by utilizing acuity systems or delegation rather than being based in nursing theory. The other choices are all examples of ways that theory can guide client care.

81

A class of nursing students is studying the history of nursing. The class learns that the founder of public health nursing is:

Lillian Wald

Lillian Wald established a neighborhood nursing service for the sick and poor of the Lower East Side in New York City and was the founder of public health nursing. Clara Barton established the Red Cross in the United States in 1882. Linda Richards was the first trained nurse in the United States. Dorothea Dix was a pioneering crusader for the reform of the treatment of the mentally ill.

82

A nurse's personal philosophy is developed by learning through which of the following? (Select all that apply.)
A) Environment
B) Interpersonal relationships
C) Formal and informal education

D) How a person interacts with the environment

• Religion and culture
• Environment
• Interpersonal relationships
• Formal and informal education
Adaptation theory is important in the field of nursing as individuals act and interact with their environment. However, it does not form the foundation of one's personal philosophy, one's values, and their perception of life. Learning from interpersonal relationships, education, religion, culture, and the environment play the key role in philosophy development.