Chemistry Flashcards


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1

chemistry

the study of matter, its composition, properties, and transformation

2

matter

Mass and occupied space.

3

what is composition made of?

rocks, minerals, everything of our crust

4

Properties

Hard? Soft? Density?

5

physical change

boiling, freezing, and melting point

6

chemical change

involves into a new substance "transformation"

7

properities

unique set of characteristics that identify a matter

8

Density( low)

Density (High)

L- Loose packed

H- Tightly packed

9

deci

-1

10

centi

-2

11

mili

-3

12

micro

-6

13

nano

-9

14

pico

-12

15

femto

-15

16

kilo

3

17

mega

6

18

giga

9

19

tera

12

20

intesive

independent of the quantity of matter ( color, odor, density, temperature)

21

extensive

dependent on the quantity of matter ( mass, volume, heat)

22

sig fig rules

- non- zero digits are always significant

- any zeros between two sig digits are sig

- a final zero or trailing zero in the decimal portion are signfigant

23

sig fig rules (adding/ subtraction)

- count the number of sig. figs in the decimal portion in the problem

- add or subtract

- round the answer to the last number of places in the decimal portion

24

sig fig rules ( multi./ Dividing)

- the least number of sig. figs in the problem is the number who determines the answers sig. figs

25

What do we use acceleration to find?

how much matter is in an object

26

what is weight?

refers to the force of gravity on an object

27

what is the law of conversion?

summarize all scientific observations about matter

28

atom

smallest particle of an element that has properties of that element and can enter into a chemical combination

-discovered by democritus- believed atmons are made of particles that could not be broken down

29

molecule

consist of two or more atoms joined together by strong forces called chemical bonds

30

pure substance

constant composition, pure ( nacl, h20,)

31

mixture

is composed of two or more types of matter that can be present in varying amounts and can be separated by physical change ( evaporation)

32

heterogenous

a mixture that varies from point to point ( sand water)

the properties of each substance don't change

33

homogenous

also called a SOLUTION, exhibits a uniform composition and appears visually the same throughout

(Sports drinks).. same amount of sugar to water throughout ever drink

34

accuracy

how close to the measurement is to the true value

35

percision

is how consistent results are when measurements are repeated

36

difference between chemical change and physical

chemical change atoms rearrange, physical change molecular structure stays the same

37

physical change characteristics

-color

-density

-solubility

-sour taste

-melting point

38

chemical change

- flammability

- reacts with acid

-supports combustion

-reacts with water to form gas

-reacts with base

39

atomic theory

-All matters are made of tiny indivisible particles called "atoms"

- Atoms of same element are similar, atoms of different elements are different

-Elements combine to form compounds, combination of atoms of different element, produce compound atom

-Created by john Dalton

40

Conservation of mass

mass is constant (does not change and can not be broken or destroyed) "here to stay"

41

law of definite proportion

elements combine in fixed proportion by mass to form compound.

( they also combine in certain ways, never changes)

ALSO, it is fixed because you need to take the whole atom, never can take a portion

example: 1g hydrogen and 8g oxygen and 9g water) FIXED BY MASS

42

law of multiple proportion

-two elements can form more than one compound

example: hydrogen and carbon

-> one can produce carbon monoxide and another can produce carbon dioxide, etc...

43

negative (another word)

Anode

(reduction because it gains an electron)

"LEO says GER"

44

positive (another word)

Cathode

(Oxidation because it looses an electron)

"LEO says GER"

45

who discovered the x-ray

wihelm Roentgen

46

who discovered the electron

J.J thompson with the help of the cathode ray tube ( figured it out when the rays bent)

47

what is the charge of cathode rays?

negative "electron"

48

Who was Robert Millikan?

"oil drop experiment" which measured the charge of the electron

49

who discovered radioactivity?

Henri Bacquerei

(something that is giving energy)

50

what aided the discovery of radioactivity?

uranium salt

51

who discovery the gamma ray?

ernest Rutherford

52

who designed the mass spectrometer

Francis Aston

53

What does the mass spectrometer do ?

- gives relative mass of particles

-invented neutron because there was missing mass in the negative/ positive atom

54

what year was the neutron discovered ?

1932

55

who carried out the gold foil experiment ?

Rutherfrod

this helped discover the nucleus

( the alpha particle hit the middle and bounced all around

56

H

hydrogen

57

K

potassium

58

v

Vanadium

59

Ti

Titanium

60

Se

Selenium

61

Kr

Krpton

62

Co

Cobalt

63

Sc

Scandium

64

Ca

Calcium

65

Cr

Chromium

66

Mn

Manganese

67

Fe

Iron

68

Ni

Nickel

69

Cu

Copper

70

Zn

Zinc

71

Ga

Gallium

72

Ge

Germanium

73

As

Arsenic

74

Br

Bromine

75

Ar

Argon

76

Cl

Chlorine

77

S

Sulfur

78

P

Phosphorus

79

Si

Silicon

80

Al

Aluminum

81

Mg

Magnesium

82

Na

Sodium

83

Ne

Neon

84

F

Flourine

85

O

Oxygen

86

N

Nitrogen

87

C

Carbon

88

B

Boron

89

Be

Beryllium

90

Li

Lithium

91

He

Helium

92

Area

length x length

93

Volume

length x length x length

94

density

mass/volume = kg/m^3

95

velocity

distance/ time = m/s

96

accleration

velocity/ time = m/s^2

97

force

mass x acceleration= newtons

98

word and energy

kg x (m^2/S^2) = joule

99

power

energy/ time = watts

100

pressure

force/ area= Pascal

101

what does the atomic number represent ?

number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

102

atomic weight

the average mass of all isotopes of an element

103

isotope

atoms of same element with different mass number

104

what does M-A=N represent ?

mass- atomic number = neutrons

105

who was niels bohr ?

figured out why electrons stay away from the nucleus

106

oxidation and reduction

leo says ger

107

what is oxidation state ?

is the gain or loosing of electrons

108

who was dimitri mendelveev ?

put together the periodic table

109

who was Lothar Meyer ?

organized them into rows (periodic law) and properties of elements

110

Periodic Law

Properties of elements are periodic function of atomic number

111

What are rows called and what are columns called?

R- called period run from top to bottom (But side to side) 1 to 7

C- called groups run from left to right (down if looking for something)

112

what does group A represent ?

represents elements or main group elements

113

what does group B represent?

transitional metals

*Have roman numerals *

114

Characteristics of metal ?

Solid, shiny matter, good conductors

- tend to loose electrons (cation)

115

Characteristics of non- metals ?

Liquid, gas, dull, opaque ( not transparent)

-poor conductors

-gain electrons (Anion)

116

Characteristics of Metalloid ?

Semi metals

Semi conductors

117

How are the elements labeled by groups?

- Alkai metals (expect hydrogen)

- Alkaine metals (earth metals )

- Boron family

-Carbon family

-nitrogen Family

-Oxygen family

-Halogens

- Noble gases or inhert gases

118

What is a compound ?

two or more elements bound together producing a specify structure

119

what is Ionic compound ?

Metal with non- metal

- transfer electrons from metal to non- metal

- generally soluble in water

- high melting point

(REMEBER TICS) - TRANSFER IONIC... COVALENT SHARE

120

what is a covalent compound?

- Non-metal and non- metal

- electrons are shared

- low melting point

- low boiling point

121

how to label transitional metals

Cu copper (II)

use roman numerals

122

how to label ionic compound

-combine the two elements together

- feCl2

-shows the simplest form of ratio of ions

123

question what is the oxidation number of cr in k(2)cr (2)O (7)

(answer is 6+)

-because you have to make the whole equation equal zero.

Take the charge at normal state and mult. by how many of the element you have and then subtract or add to get your answer

124

what is the charge of

group 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8

group 1=+1

group 2=+2

group 3=+3

group 4= -4,+4

group 5=-3

group 6=-2

group 7=-1

group 8=0 they don't loose or gain electrons

125

question: the mercury content of a stream was believed to be above the minimum considered safe- 1 part per billion (ppb) by weight. An analysis indicated that the concentration was 0.68 parts per billion. What quantity of mercury in grams was present in 15.0L of the water, the density of which is 0.998 g/ml? (1ppb Hg= 1ng Hg/ 1g water)

(.998(gW/L))(15000mL)(.68gHg)/(1,000,000gW)

It's just grams of mercury per one billion grams of water. You use the density of water to multiply by the volume to find the mass of water, then multiply the ppb to cancel out the grams of water and leave you with grams of HG

126

what is the formula for Cu (I) Bromide

CuBr

127

how to label a covalent compound

-molecular compounds

-represented by molecular formula

-DO NOT reduce

128

how to table covalent compound (examples)

co

Co(2)

n(2) o(4)

Sf(6)

Co- carbon monoxide

co2- carbon dioxide

n(2) o(4)- dinitrogen tetraoxide

sF(6)- sulfur hexafluride

129

percent composition

- find the mass of each element in the problem

- multiple the mass by how many elements there are

-add up all masses

- divide one elements mass by the total and times by 100

130

what is the percent composition of cu So(4) x 5 (h2o)

total weight= 249.72 amu

%cu= 25.45

%s=12.84

%o=57.66

%h=4.04

*should equal 100 or 99.99

131

difference between empirical and molecular for c(6) H(8) 0(6)

molecular =c(6) H(8) 0(6) ( not simplified) ( Covalent)

empirical = c(3) h(4) 0(3)( Simplified) ( Ionic)

132

What is avogadro's number

6.02 x 10^23 = 1 mol

* it is important because every element represents how much atom in a certain element

* this is your conversion factor

133

what is the mass in grams for 3.20 x 10^21 atoms of Cu?

Answer= 3.20 x 10^21 x 63.55 / 6.02 x 10^23 = answer (3 sig figs)

134

what is mass of ( in grams ) of 0.150 C(3) H(8)?

answer =6.6165

135

what is the empirical formula of 40.00% carbon, 6.63% hydrogen, 53.37 oxygen ?

answer: c1 h2 01

* you might have to multiply if the number is not close to a whole number (2.33) multiply by any number to get actually numbers without decimals

136

Polyatomic Ion

OH-

Hydroxide

137

CN-

Cyanide

138

NO2 -

Nitrate

139

PO3 3-

Phosphite

140

SO4 2-

Sulfate

141

MnO4 -

Permanganate

142

CrO4 2

Chromate

143

Cr2 O2 7

Dichromate

144

CO3 -2

Carbonate

145

HCO3 -

Bicarbonate

146

NO3 -

Nitrate

147

SO3 2-

Sulfite

148

PO3- 4

Phosphate

149

NH4 +

Ammonium

150

How to convert grams to mol

Grams/ Molecule or Grams/ formula (weight)

151

to convert mol to gram

mol x formula ( weight)

152

What is the rule about rounding when trying to find CxHyOz

*You can no round if the number is 2.33, you must multiply to find a better number

153

what does one mol represent

6.02 x 1023

*Arogadro's number

154

How to convert percentage to give answer to how much of each element.

1. change the percentage

Example= 40.00 to 40.00

2. Divide by it atomic mass

3. Take the answer of all elements and divide by the smelled one

4. The division after step three is your answer

155

Mono

1

156

Di

2

157

Tri

3

158

Tetra

4

159

Penta

5

160

Hexa

6

161

Hepta

7

162

Octa

8

163

Nano

9

164

Deca

10