chapter 21 immune system Flashcards
A "nonself" substance that can provoke an immune response is called a(n) __________.
Active artificially acquired immunity is a result of __________.
a)contact with a pathogen
b)injection of an immune serum
c)antibodies passed on from mother to fetus through the placenta
e)antibodies passed on from mother to baby through breast milk
Complement proteins work by __________.
a)forming pores in the membranes of target cells
b)creating an impermeable barrier
c)phagocytosis of target cells
e)neutralization of antigens
Cytotoxic T cells kill target cells __________.
a)through insertion of perforins into the target's membrane
b)through injection of tumor necrosis factor
c)by releasing oxidizing agents
d)by secreting antibodies
e) by phagocytosis
Lymphocytes that develop immunocompetence in the thymus are __________.
Saliva and lacrimal fluids contain this enzyme that destroys bacteria.
This immune cell is able to respond quickly after any subsequent encounter with the same antigen.
b)helper T cell
These molecules are secreted by leukocytes and macrophages and result in a fever.
This type of disease results from the inability of the immune system to distinguish self- from nonself-antigens.
When a localized area exhibits increased capillary filtration, hyperemia, and swelling, it is an indication that __________.
a)an immune response is underway
b)inflammation is occurring
c)antigens are present
d)antibodies are phagocytizing target cells
e)fever is developing
Which cell does NOT have a direct role in phagocytosis?
Which cells stimulate both arms of the immune response?
c)killer T cells
d)helper T cells
Which nonspecific defense cells specialize in attacking cancer cells and virus-infected cells?
c)natural killer cells
e)helper T lymphocytes
Which of the following is a nonspecific barrier defense?
b)natural killer cells
Which statement below is characteristic of a secondary humoral response?
a)It occurs only in the spleen.
b)It results in less memory cell circulation.
c)It triggers fever.
d)It results in less antibody secretion.
e)It occurs much more rapidly than a primary response.
Which type of molecule is produced by virus-infected cells to communicate to noninfected cells the presence of a virus?
Which of the following is NOT a surface barrier to pathogen influx?
a)saliva and tears
Which of the following is NOT one of the cardinal signs of inflammation?
The process that begins when a helper T cell binds to
a class II MHC protein on a displaying cell is known as __________.
b)T cell proliferation
All of the following are examples of autoimmune disorders, EXCEPT __________.
e)systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Which of the following is NOT an innate defense mechanism of the body?
Which of the following steps is the first step in an inflammatory response?
a)release of leukocytosis-inducing factor
b)adhesion of the neutrophil's cell-adhesion molecules to antigen
In the respiratory burst, __________ are released, which have a potent cell-killing ability.
d)platelet-derived growth factors
Leukotrienes cause __________.
a)dilation of the small blood vessels in an injured area
b)apoptosis of cells
c)neutrophils to migrate to an area of inflammation
d)the release of digestive enzymes outside the cell
Toll-like receptors are found on __________.
Interferons can be used to treat all of the following, EXCEPT __________.
All of the following are functions of interferons, EXCEPT that __________.
a)they only occur naturally
b)they interfere with viral replication in affected cells
c)they mobilize natural killer cells
d)they are not virus-specific
Which of the following minerals needed for bacterial reproduction do both the liver and spleen sequester during a fever?
Which hypersensitivity is caused by T lymphocytes?
Without __________ there is no adaptive immune response.