chapter 16 endocrine system Flashcards


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1

Which of the following is NOT a major endocrine organ, but produces hormones in addition to its major function?

A)kidneys

B)pancreas

C)thymus

D)pituitary

A

2

Steroid hormones influence cellular activities by __________. activating G proteins

A)using calcium ions as a second messenger

B)activating cyclic AMP located inside the cell

C)binding to DNA and forming a gene-hormone complex

D)activating cyclic AMP located outside the cell

C

3

Sympathetic nerve stimuli are responsible for the release of __________.

A)estrogen

B)insulin

C)thyroid hormone

D)epinephrine

E)aldosterone

D

4

The chemical classification of hormones does NOT include __________.

A)steroid hormones

B)amino acid-based hormones

C)protein-based hormones

D)cholesterol-containing hormones

E)glucose-containing hormones

E

5

The metabolic rate of most body tissues is controlled directly by __________.

A)FSH

B)TSH

C)ACTH

D)TH

E)ADH

D

6

The secretion of parathyroid hormone is a good example of __________.

A)hormonal stimuli

B)pituitary gland stimuli

C)hypothalamic stimuli

D)humoral stimuli

E)neural stimuli

D

7

The stimulus for producing insulin is __________.

A) low blood glucose concentration

B) low blood amino acid concentration

C) low blood fatty acid concentration

D) low glycogen concentration

E) high blood glucose concentration

E

8

The transcription of new messenger RNA is a function of __________.

A) pancreatic hormones

B) catecholamines

C) pituitary gland hormones

D) posterior pituitary hormones

E) steroid hormones

E

9

Which of the following elements is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormone?

A) iron

B) sulfur

C) copper

D) zinc

E) iodine

E

10

The hypophyseal portal system transports releasing and inhibiting hormones from the hypothalamus to the __________.

A)parathyroid glands

B)adrenal glands

C)thyroid gland

D)ovaries

E)anterior pituitary gland (adenohypophysis)

E

11

Which of the following signals would affect local cells by releasing chemicals into the extracellular fluid?

A)autocrine

B)neural

C)endocrine

D)paracrine

D

12

Which of the following is the property in which a hormone CANNOT exhibit its full effect without another hormone?

A)permissiveness

B)assertiveness

C)antagonism

D)synergism

A

13

Which of the following is NOT synthesized in the pituitary gland?

A)TSH

B)ADH

C)LH

D)PRL

E)FSH

B

14

Which of the following organs is considered a neuroendocrine organ?

A) adrenal cortex

B)pituitary

C)hypothalamus

D)pancreas

C

15

Eicosanoids are not true hormones because they __________.

A)don't have target organs

b)mediate inflammatory reactions

c)they act locally, not on distal organs as do true hormones

d)are lipid in nature

C

16

How do protein kinases affect enzymes?

A)They increase the secretion of an enzyme.

b)They increase the release of an enzyme.

c)They add a phosphate group (phosphorylation) to the enzyme.

D)They break down the enzyme.

C

17

The "hormone response element" is located on the cell __________.

a) RNA

b)enzymes

c)membrane

d)DNA

d

18

The binding of a steroid hormone to its receptor would lead to the __________.

a) direct activation of enzymes in the cell

b)direct activation of second-messenger agents in the cell

c)transcription of the DNA for the gene that is "turned on" by this event

d) formation of cAMP

c

19

Water-soluble hormones exhibit the shortest __________.

a)molecule

b)activation time

c)chain of amino acids

d)half-life

d

20

The normal endocrine controls can be directly overridden by the __________ system.

a)reproductive

b)nervous

c)circulatory

d)digestive

b

21

Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a prohormone for __________.

a)thyroxin

b)growth hormone

C)insulin

d)ACTH

d

22

Excess growth hormone would cause all the following EXCEPT __________.

a)suppression of cancer

b)giantism in children

c)diabetes

d)acromegally in adults

a

23

Hypersecretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) can occur in all of the following situations EXCEPT __________.

a)after general anesthesia

b)ectopic ADH secretion by pulmonary cancer

c)after neurosurgery

d)damage to the pineal gland

d

24

Iodination of thyroid hormones is mediated by __________.

a)peroxidase enzymes

b)the Golgi apparatus

c)lysosomes in the cell

d)colloid endocytosis

a

25

A congenital condition that includes mental retardation, short disproportional body size, and a thick tongue and neck is caused by __________.

a)deficiency of thymosin

b)excess of synthetic growth hormone

c)deficiency of thyroxin

d)insulin deficiency

c

26

Osteitis fibrosa cystica is caused by __________.

a)an increase in calcitonin

b)an increase in ADH

c)an increase in the parathyroid hormone

d)an increase in the growth hormone in an adult

c

27

Insulin enhances the membrane transport of glucose in all of the following tissues EXCEPT __________.

a)skeletal muscle

b) the myocardium

c)the brain

d) adipose tissue

c

28

Resistin, an insulin antagonist, is a hormone produced by the __________.

a)heart

b)hypothalamus

c)adipose tissue

d)liver

c

29

Which of the following hormones does the skin produce?

a)erythropoietin

b)melatonin

c)cholecalciferol

d)renin

c

30

Somatostatin secreted by the pancreas is considered paracrine because it acts on __________.

a)the cells that secrete it

b)cells other than those that secrete it

c)distant target organs

d)the hypothalamus to inhibit or activate the secretion of other hormones

b