Which of the following is NOT a major endocrine organ, but produces hormones in addition to its major function?
Steroid hormones influence cellular activities by __________. activating G proteins
A)using calcium ions as a second messenger
B)activating cyclic AMP located inside the cell
C)binding to DNA and forming a gene-hormone complex
D)activating cyclic AMP located outside the cell
Sympathetic nerve stimuli are responsible for the release of __________.
The chemical classification of hormones does NOT include __________.
B)amino acid-based hormones
The metabolic rate of most body tissues is controlled directly by __________.
The secretion of parathyroid hormone is a good example of __________.
B)pituitary gland stimuli
The stimulus for producing insulin is __________.
A) low blood glucose concentration
B) low blood amino acid concentration
C) low blood fatty acid concentration
D) low glycogen concentration
E) high blood glucose concentration
The transcription of new messenger RNA is a function of __________.
A) pancreatic hormones
C) pituitary gland hormones
D) posterior pituitary hormones
E) steroid hormones
Which of the following elements is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormone?
The hypophyseal portal system transports releasing and inhibiting hormones from the hypothalamus to the __________.
E)anterior pituitary gland (adenohypophysis)
Which of the following signals would affect local cells by releasing chemicals into the extracellular fluid?
Which of the following is the property in which a hormone CANNOT exhibit its full effect without another hormone?
Which of the following is NOT synthesized in the pituitary gland?
Which of the following organs is considered a neuroendocrine organ?
A) adrenal cortex
Eicosanoids are not true hormones because they __________.
A)don't have target organs
b)mediate inflammatory reactions
c)they act locally, not on distal organs as do true hormones
d)are lipid in nature
How do protein kinases affect enzymes?
A)They increase the secretion of an enzyme.
b)They increase the release of an enzyme.
c)They add a phosphate group (phosphorylation) to the enzyme.
D)They break down the enzyme.
The "hormone response element" is located on the cell __________.
The binding of a steroid hormone to its receptor would lead to the __________.
a) direct activation of enzymes in the cell
b)direct activation of second-messenger agents in the cell
c)transcription of the DNA for the gene that is "turned on" by this event
d) formation of cAMP
Water-soluble hormones exhibit the shortest __________.
c)chain of amino acids
The normal endocrine controls can be directly overridden by the __________ system.
Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a prohormone for __________.
Excess growth hormone would cause all the following EXCEPT __________.
a)suppression of cancer
b)giantism in children
d)acromegally in adults
Hypersecretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) can occur in all of the following situations EXCEPT __________.
a)after general anesthesia
b)ectopic ADH secretion by pulmonary cancer
d)damage to the pineal gland
Iodination of thyroid hormones is mediated by __________.
b)the Golgi apparatus
c)lysosomes in the cell
A congenital condition that includes mental retardation, short disproportional body size, and a thick tongue and neck is caused by __________.
a)deficiency of thymosin
b)excess of synthetic growth hormone
c)deficiency of thyroxin
Osteitis fibrosa cystica is caused by __________.
a)an increase in calcitonin
b)an increase in ADH
c)an increase in the parathyroid hormone
d)an increase in the growth hormone in an adult
Insulin enhances the membrane transport of glucose in all of the following tissues EXCEPT __________.
b) the myocardium
d) adipose tissue
Resistin, an insulin antagonist, is a hormone produced by the __________.
Which of the following hormones does the skin produce?
Somatostatin secreted by the pancreas is considered paracrine because it acts on __________.
a)the cells that secrete it
b)cells other than those that secrete it
c)distant target organs
d)the hypothalamus to inhibit or activate the secretion of other hormones