The Heart: Anatomy & Physiology Flashcards


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1

Name for the circuit that transports blood to and from the lungs

Pulmonary Circulation

2

Name for the circuit that transports blood to and from the body

Systemic Circulation

3

Arteries that come off the Aorta right behind aortic valve and it's function

Right Coronary - gives blood to the right ventricle

Left Coronary - gives blood to the left ventricle

4

Since the left ventricle is so much bigger, the Left main coronary artery divides into:

Circumflex - does the back of the left ventricle

Anterior descending (LAD) - does the anterior and lateral portion of left ventricle

5

Double lined connective tissue bag containing the heart

Pericardium

6

Pericardium is made up of what 2 layers that are separated by a space

Parietal layer and Visceral layer

7

Outside layer of the pericardium
(pericardial space is in between, filled with pericardial fluid)

Parietal layer

8

Inner most layer of pericardium that is on heart
(also called the epicardium)

Visceral layer

9

3 layers of the heart muscle wall

Epicardium - outer layer

Myocardium - thick middle layer

Endocardium - inner layer

10

Systole is the _____________ phase.

Contracting phase

11

Diastole is the ___________ phase.

Non contracting phase, filling

12

Names given to the wall that is shared by the two pumps

Intertribal Septum - between Right and Left atrium

Interventricular septum - between Right and Left
ventricles

13

Right atrium flows into the right ventricle through the

Tricuspid Valve

14

Right ventricle flows into the Pulmonary Artery through the

Pulmonic Valve

15

Left atrium flows into the left ventricle through the

Mitral Valve

16

Left ventricle flows into the Aorta through the

Aortic Valve

17

The blood is returned to the heart via

Large veins

18

The blood is taken away from the heart via

Large arteries

19

Brings blood back from the body to the right atrium

Inferior and Superior vena cava

20

Brings blood back to the left atrium

Pulmonary veins

21

Takes blood away from the right ventricle

Pulmonary Artery

22

Takes blood away from the left ventricle

Aorta

23

3 factors that regulate stroke volumn

Preload
Contractility
Afterload

24

The amount of blood in pumping chamber before it contracts
(also called End diastolic volumn)

Preload

25

How hard ventricle is trying to pump the blood

(effected by ANS, disease, medications)

Contractility

26

The resistance to blood being pumped out of the chamber

Afterload

27

The circulation is divided into 2 parts:

(named for the location the blood is pumped)

Pulmonary and Systemic Circulations

28

The heart is located in the

Mediastinum

29

Membrane that surrounds and protects the heart

Pericardium

30

Right and left ventricals seperated internally by the

Interventricular septum

31

Right and left atriums seperated internally by the

Interatrial septum

32

Of the four chambers, which has the highest workload and thickest wall

Left ventricle

33

Dense connective tissue that surrounds the valves of the heart

Fibrous skeleton of the heart

34

Amount of blood ejected by a ventricle during each systole

Stroke volumn (SV)

35

Difference between a person's maximum cardiac output and his cardiac output at rest

Cardiac reserve

36

Heart rate is effected by

Nervous system and hormones in the body

37

Cardiac muscle is very similar to skeletal muscle in that is has

Sarcomeres

38

Cardiac muscle is different in that it has

Gap junctions on cell membrane on intercalated discs
(allows action potential to be passed directly from cell to cell)

39

The fastest areas in the heart are called

Pacemakers

40

Passes the action potential throughout the heart

Electrical conduction system

41

This wave is due to the depolarization of the atrium

P wave

42

This wave is due to the depolarization of the ventricle

QRS complex

43

This is the time period between the beginning of the P wave and the beginning of the QRS.

-time when atria contracts

PR interval

44

Time period from end of QRS until beginning of the T wave

-time when ventricle contacts

ST segment

45

This is where a portion of the atria other than the SA node triggers a wave

-comes early, P wave looks different from the normal P wave seen in other beats, QRS will look the same

PAC Premature Atrial contraction

46

This is where a portion of the ventricle triggers a full wave

-QRS will be big and odd looking and appear different from all other EKG beats

PVC Premature Ventricular contraction

47

Here the PR interval is longer than normal

-about 4 boxes
-all P waves have a QRS after them

1st Degree heart block

48

There are 2 types of 2nd degree heart block:

-some P waves will not have a QRS after them

Mobitz and Wenckebach

49

2nd degree heart block where the PR interval is consistant

Mobitz

50

2nd degree heart block where the PR interval is changing

Wenkebach

51

What constitutes 3rd degree heart block

-aka complete heart block

there is no relationship between the P waves and the QRS

52

The functions of the blood:

Transportation
Regulation
Protection
Coagulation

53

Temperature of the blood:

38C or 100.4F (higher than cells)

54

The pH of the blood: L

7.35 - 7.45 (slightly alkaline)

55

The normal blood volume for an adult is about:

5L

56

The blood is generally divided into 2 parts:

Plasma Component 55%

Formed elements 45%

57

The Plasma Component is made up of what?

-(know the %)

Water 91.5%
Proteins 7.0%
Others 1.5%

58

The Formed elements are made up of what?

RBC
WBC
Platelets

59

These cells fight infection, stress, and inflammation:

-know the 2 types

White Blood cells (WBC)

-Wander
-Fixed

60

The term that describes how WBC can be attracted

Chemotaxes

61

Fragments of megakaryocytes

-small, no nucleus
-plug holes, stop damage to pipes

Platelets

62

3 Granular leukocytes

Eosinophils
Basophils
Neutrophils

63

2 Agranular leukocytes

Lymphocyte
Monocyte

64

The body has a 3 phase response to a hole in a blood vessel

1. Vascular spasm
2. Platelet plug
3. Clotting

65

Damage to blood vessel wall causes the smooth muscle of the vessel to contract,

decreases blood flow thru vessel,

lasts minutes to hour

Vascular Spasm

66

acts as an enzyme and splits Prothrombin into Thrombin

Prothrominase

67

Thrombin acts as an enzyme to split

Fibrogen

68

stabilizes the platelet plug

Fibrin

69

activates tissue factors outside the blood

Extrinsic pathway

70

activates from plasma factors inside the blood

Intrinsic pathways

71

Synthesis blood cells occurs in Red bone marrow

Hemopoiesis

72

Shows response of the body to anemia

RBC - Reticulocyte

73

Band is precursor, body being overwhelmed by infection

WBC: Neutrophil

74

Natural antithrombin, prevent Thrombin from clotting

Heparin

75

3 types of blood vessels

Arteries
Capillaries
Veins

76

Arteries start off ______ and as they move away from the heart get ______.

start large and get smaller

77

Veins start off _______ and get ______ larger as they get closer to the heart

tiny and grow larger

78

Which are the thickest of the walls of the blood vessel?

Arteries, Cappillaries, or veins

Arteries, due to pressure from pumping action of heart

79

Lack of perfusion due to lack of pumping

Cardiogenic Shock

80

Which ion is important in the clotting process

Calcium

81

Blood is returned to the heart from the veins via 2 mechanisms

1. Skeletal muscles contract, squeezing blood through vein

2. Respiratory pump, as pressure in chest goes down on inspiration, blood is drawn into chest through the veins

82

Endothelium changes in different typs of Capillaries

Continuous- only opening is intercellular cleft

Fenestrated- pores (small holes)

Sinusoids- wider, more winding (big holes)

83

2 ways capillary sphincter controls flow into capillary, sphincter muscles relax or contract, open or close

1. local chemical help dictate vasomotion

2. NS controls vasomotor (brain can order open or close)