Human Nutrition - An overview of nutrition
Give several reasons (and examples) why people make the food choices that they do
- Personal preference
- Cultural or religious beliefs
- Social iterations (holidays, etc)
- Food availability, convenience & the economy
- Emotional comfort
- Body weight & image
- Political views/environmental concerns
- The nutrition & health benefits
What is a nutrient?
A nutrient is a substance that provides nourishment essential for the maintenance of life and for growth
Name the six classes of nutrients found in foods.
- Lipids (fat)
Which of the six classes of nutrients are inorganic and which are organic? What is the significance of thedistinction
Inorganic nutrients are Minerals & Water, they do not contain carbon
Organic nutrients are Carbohydrates, Lipids (fat), Proteins & Vitamins, they are more complex & all contain carbon, an element found in all living things.
What is an essential nutrient?
Are nutrients food must supply to the human body.
'needed from outside the body'
Which nutrients yield energy & how much energy do they yield per gram?
Carbohydrates, fat & proteins are energy yielding nutrients
- carbohydrates yields 17 kilo-joules per gram
- protein yields 17 kilo-joules per gram
- fat yields 37 kilo-joules per gram
Describe how alcohol resembles nutrients. Why is alcohol not considered a nutrient?
Alcohol is not considered a nutrient because it interferes with the growth, maintenance and repair of the body, but it does yield energy when metabolized in the body.
What is the study of nutrition? And what types of research studies & methods are used in acquiring nutrition information.
The science of nutrition is the study of the nutrients & other substances in foods & the body's handling of them.
Types of research
- Epidemiological studies
- Laboratory-based studies
- Human intervention or clinical trials
What are the NRV? Who developed the NRV? To whom do they apply? And how are they used?
NRV = Nutrient Reference Values
Highly qualified scientists developed NRV
They apply to all healthy people
Are used to define the amounts of energy, nutrients, other dietary components & physical activity that best supports health.
What are they categories of the Nutrient Reference Values (NRV)?
- EAR (Estimated Average Requirement)
- RDI (Recommended Dietary Intake)
- AI (Adequate Intake)
- EER (Estimated Energy Requirement)
- UL (Upper Level of Intake)
What is EAR?
Estimated Average Requirement
A daily nutrient level estimated to meet the requirements of half the healthy individuals in a particular life stage & greater group
What is RDI?
Recommended Dietary Intake
The average dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97-98%) healthy individuals in a particular life stage & gender group
What is AI
The average daily nutrient intake level based on observed or experimentally - determined approximations
Used when an RDI cannot be determined
What is EER?
Estimated Energy Requirement
The average dietary energy intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult of defined age, gender, weight, height & level of physical activity, consistent with good health
What is UL?
Upper Level of Intake
The highest average daily nutrient intake level likely to pose no adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population.
What is malnutrition?
the lack of proper nutrition,cause by not having enough to eat, not eating enough of the right things, or being unable to use the food that one does eat.
What is under-nutrition?
the outcome of insufficient food intake and repeated infectious diseases.
What is over-nutrition?
the over-consumption of nutrients & food to the point at which health is adversely affected.
What are the four methods used to detect energy & nutrient?
- Historical information
- Anthropometric data
- Physical examinations
- Laboratory tests
When people eat the foods typical of their families or geographic region, their choices are influenced by:
- ethnic heritage or tradition
- personal preference
b. ethnic heritage or tradition
Nutrients the human body must obtain from the diet because they cannot be made internally are called:
- conditionally essential nutrients
- organic nutrients
- essential nutrients
- non-essential nutrients
c. essential nutrients
The inorganic nutrients are:
- proteins and fats
- vitamins and minerals
- minerals and water
- vitamins and proteins
c. minerals and water
The energy-yielding nutrients are:
- fats, minerals and water
- minerals, proteins and vitamins
- carbohydrates, fats and vitamins
- carbohydrates, fats and proteins
d. carbohydrates, fats and proteins
Studies of populations that reveal correlations between dietary habits and disease incidence are:
- clinical trials
- epidemiological studies
- laboratory studies
- case-control studies
b. epidemiological studies
An experiment in which the researchers know who is receiving the treatment but the subjects do not is known as:
- single blind
- double blind
- double control
- placebo control
a. single blind
Historical information, physical examinations, laboratory tests and anthropometric measures are:
- techniques used in diet planning
- steps used in the scientific method
- approaches used in disease prevention
- methods used in a nutrition assessment
d. methods used in a nutrition assessment
A deficiency caused by an inadequate dietary intake is a(n):
- overt deficiency
- covert deficiency
- primary deficiency
- secondary deficiency
c. primary deficiency
Behaviors such as smoking, dietary habits, physical activity and alcohol consumption that influence the development of disease are known as:
- chronic causes
- preventive agents
- risk factors
- disease descriptors
c. risk factors