Campbell Biology: Bio II Test 3 Prep Flashcards


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Campbell Biology
Chapters 31, 35-37
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biology ii, science, life sciences, biology
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1

If all fungi in an environment that perform decomposition were to suddenly die, then which group of organisms should benefit most, due to the fact that their fungal competitors have been removed?
A) plants
B) protists
C) prokaryotes
D) animals
E) mutualistic fungi

Answer: C

2

When a mycelium infiltrates an unexploited source of dead organic matter, what are most likely to appear within the food source soon thereafter?
A) fungal haustoria
B) soredia
C) fungal enzymes
D) increased oxygen levels
E) larger bacterial populations

Answer: C

3

Which of the following is a characteristic of hyphate fungi (fungi featuring hyphae)?
A) They acquire their nutrients by phagocytosis.
B) Their body plan is a unicellular sphere.
C) Their cell walls consist mainly of cellulose microfibrils.
D) They are adapted for rapid directional growth to new food sources.
E) They reproduce asexually by a process known as budding.

Answer: D

4

What do fungi and arthropods have in common?
A) Both groups are commonly coenocytic.
B) The haploid state is dominant in both groups.
C) Both groups are predominantly heterotrophs that ingest their food.
D) The protective coats of both groups are made of chitin.
E) Both groups have cell walls.

Answer: D

5

Fossil fungi date back to the origin and early evolution of plants. What combination of environmental and morphological change is similar in the evolution of both fungi and plants?
A) presence of "coal forests" and change in mode of nutrition
B) periods of drought and presence of filamentous body shape
C) predominance in swamps and presence of cellulose in cell walls
D) colonization of land and loss of flagellated cells
E) continental drift and mode of spore dispersal

Answer: D

6

The vegetative (nutritionally active) bodies of most fungi are
A) composed of hyphae.
B) referred to as a mycelium.
C) usually underground.
D) Three of these responses are correct.
E) Two of these responses are correct.

Answer: D

7

Immediately after karyogamy occurs, which term applies?
A) plasmogamy
B) heterokaryotic
C) dikaryotic
D) diploid

Answer: D

8

In most fungi, karyogamy does not immediately follow plasmogamy, which consequently
A) means that sexual reproduction can occur in specialized structures.
B) results in multiple diploid nuclei per cell.
C) allows fungi to reproduce asexually most of the time.
D) results in heterokaryotic or dikaryotic cells.
E) is strong support for the claim that fungi are not truly eukaryotic.

Answer: D

9

Which process occurs in fungi and has the opposite effect on a cell's chromosome number than does meiosis I?
A) mitosis
B) plasmogamy
C) crossing over
D) binary fission
E) karyogamy

Answer: E

10

Which of the following statements is true of deuteromycetes?
A) They are the second of five fungal phyla to have evolved.
B) They represent the phylum in which all the fungal components of lichens are classified.
C) They are the group of fungi that have, at present, no known sexual stage.
D) They are the group that includes molds, yeasts, and lichens.
E) They include the imperfect fungi that lack hyphae.

Answer: C

11

Which of these paired fungal structures are structurally and functionally most alike?
A) conidia and basidiocarps
B) sporangia and hyphae
C) soredia and gills
D) haustoria and arbuscules
E) zoospores and mycelia

Answer: D

12

You are given an organism to identify. It has a fruiting body that contains many structures with eight haploid spores lined up in a row. What kind of a fungus is this?
A) zygomycete
B) ascomycete
C) deuteromycete
D) chytrid
E) basidiomycete

Answer: B

13

Which of the following has the least affiliation with all of the others?
A) Glomeromycota
B) mycorrhizae
C) lichens
D) arbuscules
E) mutualistic fungi

Answer: C

14

In both lichens and mycorrhizae, what does the fungal partner provide to its photosynthetic partner?
A) carbohydrates
B) fixed nitrogen
C) antibiotics
D) water and minerals
E) protection from harmful UV

Answer: D

15

Lichens are symbiotic associations of fungi and
A) mosses.
B) cyanobacteria.
C) green algae.
D) Three of these responses are correct.
E) Two of these responses are correct.

Answer: E

16

Which of the following best describes the physical relationship of the partners involved in lichens?
A) Fungal cells are enclosed within algal cells.
B) Lichen cells are enclosed within fungal cells.
C) Photosynthetic cells are surrounded by fungal hyphae.
D) The fungi grow on rocks and trees and are covered by algae.
E) Algal cells and fungal cells mix together without any apparent structure.

Answer: C

17

In what structures do both Penicillium and Aspergillus produce asexual spores?
A) asci
B) zygosporangia
C) rhizoids
D) gametangia
E) conidiophores

Answer: E

18

Which of the following cells or structures are associated with asexual reproduction in fungi?
A) ascospores
B) basidiospores
C) zygosporangia
D) conidiophores
E) ascocarps

Answer: D

19

The photosynthetic symbiont of a lichen is often
A) a moss.
B) a green alga.
C) a brown alga.
D) an ascomycete.
E) a small vascular plant.

Answer: B

20

Which of the following conditions is caused by a fungus that is accidentally consumed along with rye flour?
A) ergotism
B) athlete's foot
C) ringworm
D) candidiasis (Candida yeast infection)
E) coccidioidomycosis

Answer: A

21

All fungi share which of the following characteristics?
A) symbiotic
B) heterotrophic
C) flagellated
D) pathogenic
E) act as decomposers

Answer: B

22

Which description does not apply equally well to both sexual and asexual spores?
A) have haploid nuclei
B) represent the dispersal stage
C) are produced by meiosis
D) upon germination, will subsequently undergo S phase and mitosis

Answer: C

23

Rose-picker's disease is caused by the yeast, Sporothrix schenkii. The yeast grows on the exteriors of rose-bush thorns. If a human gets pricked by such a thorn, the yeasts can be introduced under the skin. The yeasts then assume a hyphal morphology and grow along the interiors of lymphatic vessels until they reach a lymph node. This often results in the accumulation of pus in the lymph node, which subsequently ulcerates through the skin surface and then drains.

82) Say S. schenkii had initially been classified as a deuteromycete. Asci were later discovered in the pus that oozed from an ulcerated lymph node, and the spores therein germinated, giving rise to S. schenkii yeasts. Which two of these are conclusions that make sense on the basis of this information?

1. S. schenkii produces asexual spores within lymph nodes.
2. S. schenkii should be reclassified.
3. S. schenkii continues to have no known sexual stage.
4. The hyphae growing in lymphatic vessels probably belonged to a different fungal species.
5. S. schenkii yeasts belonging to two different mating strains were introduced by the same thorn prick.

A) 1 and 3
B) 1 and 5
C) 2 and 3
D) 2 and 5
E) 4 and 5

Answer: D

24

What are the sporangia of the bread mold Rhizopus?
A) asexual structures that produce haploid spores
B) asexual structures that produce diploid spores
C) sexual structures that produce haploid spores
D) sexual structures that produce diploid spores

Answer: A

25

Asexual reproduction in yeasts occurs by budding. Due to unequal cytokinesis, the "bud" cell receives less cytoplasm than the parent cell. Which of the following should be true of the smaller cell until it reaches the size of the larger cell?
A) It should produce fewer fermentation products per unit time.
B) It should produce ribosomal RNA at a slower rate.
C) It should be transcriptionally less active.
D) It should have reduced motility.
E) It should have a smaller nucleus.

Answer: A

26

Which structure is incorrectly paired with its tissue system?
A) root hairdermal tissue
B) palisade parenchymaground tissue
C) guard celldermal tissue
D) companion cellground tissue
E) tracheidvascular tissue

Answer: D

27

Which of the following is derived from the ground tissue system?
A) root hair
B) cuticle
C) periderm
D) pith
E) phloem

Answer: D

28

Which part of a plant absorbs most of the water and minerals taken up from the soil?
A) taproots
B) root hairs
C) the thick parts of the roots near the base of the stem
D) storage roots
E) sections of the root that have secondary xylem

Answer: B

29

Which of the following would not be seen in a cross-section through the woody part of a root?
A) sclerenchyma cells
B) parenchyma cells
C) sieve-tube elements
D) root hairs
E) vessel elements

Answer: D

30

Which of the following is derived from the ground tissue system?
A) root hair
B) cuticle
C) periderm
D) pith
E) phloem

Answer: D

31

Which of the following is incorrectly paired with its structure and function?
A) sclerenchymasupporting cells with thick secondary walls
B) peridermprotective coat of woody stems and roots
C) pericyclewaterproof ring of cells surrounding the central stele in roots
D) mesophyllparenchyma cells functioning in photosynthesis in leaves
E) ground meristemprimary meristem that produces the ground tissue system

Answer: C

32

Which part of a plant absorbs most of the water and minerals taken up from the soil?
A) taproots
B) root hairs
C) the thick parts of the roots near the base of the stem
D) storage roots
E) sections of the root that have secondary xylem

Answer: B

33

Land plants are composed of all of the following tissue types except
A) mesodermal.
B) epidermal.
C) meristematic.
D) vascular.
E) ground tissue.

Answer: A

34

Vascular plant tissue includes all of the following cell types except
A) vessel elements.
B) sieve cells.
C) tracheids.
D) companion cells.
E) cambium cells.

Answer: E

35

________ is to xylem as ________ is to phloem.
A) Sclerenchyma cell; collenchyma cell
B) Apical meristem; vascular cambium
C) Vessel element; sieve-tube member
D) Cortex; pith
E) Vascular cambium; cork cambium

Answer: C

36

Which of the following cells transport sugars over long distances?
A) parenchyma cells
B) collenchyma cells
C) sclerenchyma cells
D) tracheids and vessel elements
E) sieve-tube elements

Answer: E

37

CO₂ enters the inner spaces of the leaf through the
A) cuticle.
B) epidermal trichomes.
C) stoma.
D) phloem.
E) walls of guard cells.

Answer: C

38

Which of the following cells transport sugars over long distances?
A) parenchyma cells
B) collenchyma cells
C) sclerenchyma cells
D) tracheids and vessel elements
E) sieve-tube elements

Answer: E

39

Which of the following have unevenly thickened primary walls that support young, growing parts of the plant?
A) parenchyma cells
B) collenchyma cells
C) sclerenchyma cells
D) tracheids and vessel elements
E) sieve-tube elements

Answer: B

40

Which of the following are most responsible for supporting mature, nongrowing parts of the plant?
A) parenchyma cells
B) collenchyma cells
C) trichomes
D) tracheids and vessel elements
E) sieve-tube elements

Answer: D

41

All of the following cell types are correctly matched with their functions except
A) mesophyll–photosynthesis.
B) guard cell–regulation of transpiration.
C) sieve-tube member–translocation.
D) vessel element–water transport.
E) companion cell–formation of secondary xylem and phloem.

Answer: E

42

Vascular plant tissue includes all of the following cell types except
A) vessel elements.
B) sieve cells.
C) tracheids.
D) companion cells.
E) cambium cells.

Answer: E

43

Which cells are no longer capable of carrying out the process of DNA transcription?
A) tracheids
B) mature mesophyll cells
C) companion cells
D) meristematic cells
E) glandular cells

Answer: A

44

Choose the option that best describes the relationship between the cell wall thickness of parenchyma cells versus sclerenchyma cells.
A) The cell walls of parenchyma cells are thinner than those of sclerenchyma cells.
B) The cell walls of parenchyma cells are thicker than those of schlerenchyma cells.
C) The cell walls of both types of cells are roughly equal.
D) The thickness of the cell walls for both types of cells is too variable for a comparison to be made.

Answer: A

45

The vascular bundle in the shape of a single central cylinder in a root is called the
A) cortex.
B) stele.
C) endodermis.
D) periderm.
E) pith.

Answer: B

46

Compared to most animals, the growth of most plants is best described as
A) perennial.
B) weedy.
C) indeterminate.
D) derivative.
E) primary.

Answer: C

47

A vessel element would likely lose its protoplast in which section of a root?
A) zone of cell division
B) zone of elongation
C) zone of maturation
D) root cap
E) apical meristem

Answer: C

48

Gas exchange, which is necessary for photosynthesis, can occur most easily in which leaf tissue?
A) epidermis
B) palisade mesophyll
C) spongy mesophyll
D) vascular tissue
E) bundle sheath

Answer: C

49

Plants contain meristems whose major function is to
A) attract pollinators.
B) absorb ions.
C) photosynthesize.
D) produce more cells.
E) produce flowers.

Answer: D

50

When you eat Brussels sprouts, what are you eating?
A) immature flowers
B) large axillary buds
C) petioles
D) storage leaves
E) storage roots

Answer: B

51

Which of the following cell types is least likely to be capable of cell division?
A) mesophyll cell in a developing leaf
B) parenchyma cell 2 mm from the tip of a root
C) parenchyma cell in a dormant axillary bud
D) functional tracheid cell in a stem

Answer: D

52

Axillary buds
A) are initiated by the cork cambium.
B) have dormant meristematic cells.
C) are composed of a series of internodes lacking nodes.
D) grow immediately into shoot branches.
E) do not form a vascular connection with the primary shoot.

Answer: B

53

If you were to prune the shoot tips of a plant, what would be the effect on the plant and the leaf area index?
A) bushier plants; lower leaf area index
B) tall plants; lower leaf area index
C) tall plants; higher leaf area index
D) short plants; lower leaf area index
E) bushier plants; higher leaf area indexes

Answer: E

54

A plant developed a mineral deficiency after being treated with a fungicide. What is the most probable cause of the deficiency?
A) Mineral receptor proteins in the plant membrane were not functioning.
B) Mycorrhizal fungi were killed.
C) Active transport of minerals was inhibited.
D) The genes for the synthesis of transport proteins were destroyed.
E) Proton pumps reversed the membrane potential.

Answer: B

55

Photosynthesis begins to decline when leaves wilt because
A) chloroplasts within wilted leaves are incapable of photosynthesis.
B) CO2 accumulates in the leaves and inhibits the enzymes needed for photosynthesis.
C) there is insufficient water for photolysis during the light reactions.
D) stomata close, restricting CO₂ entry into the leaf.
E) wilted leaves cannot absorb the red and blue wavelengths of light.

Answer: D

56

The opening of stomata is thought to involve
A) an increase in the solute concentration of the guard cells.
B) a decrease in the solute concentration of the stoma.
C) active transport of water out of the guard cells.
D) decreased turgor pressure in guard cells.
E) movement of K+ from the guard cells.

Answer: A

57

Active transport involves all of the following except the
A) diffusion of solute through the lipid bilayer of a membrane.
B) pumping of solutes across the membrane.
C) hydrolysis of ATP.
D) transport of solute against a concentration gradient.
E) specific transport protein in the membrane.

Answer: A

58

Active transport of various materials in plants at the cellular level requires all of the following except
A) a proton gradient.
B) ATP.
C) membrane potential.
D) transport proteins
E) xylem membranes

Answer: E

59

All of the following involve active transport across membranes except
A) the movement of mineral nutrients from the apoplast to the symplast.
B) the movement of sugar from mesophyll cells into sieve-tube elements.
C) the movement of sugar from one sieve-tube element to the next.
D) the movement of K+ across guard cell membranes during stomatal opening.
E) the movement of mineral nutrients into cells of the root cortex.

Answer: C

60

Which of the following is not a function of the plasma membrane proton pump?
A) hydrolyzes ATP
B) produces a proton gradient
C) generates a membrane potential
D) equalizes the charge on each side of a membrane
E) stores potential energy on one side of a membrane

Answer: D

61

The movement of water across biological membranes can best be predicted by
A) negative charges in the cell wall.
B) prevailing weather conditions.
C) aquaporins.
D) level of active transport.
E) water potential.

Answer: E

62

Which of the following statements is false about bulk flow?
A) It is driven primarily by pressure potential.
B) It is more effective than diffusion over distances greater than 100 μm.
C) It depends on a difference in pressure potential at the source and sink.
D) It depends on the force of gravity on a column of water.
E) It may be the result of either positive or negative pressure potential.

Answer: D

63

In plant roots, the Casparian strip is correctly described by which of the following?
A) It aids in the uptake of nutrients.
B) It provides energy for the active transport of minerals into the stele from the cortex.
C) It ensures that all minerals are absorbed from the soil in equal amounts.
D) It ensures that all water and dissolved substances must pass through a cell membrane before entering the stele.
E) It provides increased surface area for the absorption of mineral nutrients.

Answer: D

64

One is most likely to see guttation in small plants when the
A) transpiration rates are high.
B) root pressure exceeds transpiration pull.
C) preceding evening was hot, windy, and dry.
D) water potential in the stele of the root is high.
E) roots are not absorbing minerals from the soil.

Answer: B

65

What is the main cause of guttation in plants?
A) root pressure
B) transpiration
C) pressure flow in phloem
D) plant injury
E) condensation of atmospheric water

Answer: A

66

What drives the flow of water through the xylem?
A) passive transport by the endodermis
B) the number of companion cells in the phloem
C) the evaporation of water from the leaves
D) active transport by sieve-tube elements
E) active transport by tracheid and vessel elements

Answer: C

67

Which of the following has the lowest (most negative) water potential?
A) root cortical cells
B) root xylem
C) trunk xylem
D) leaf cell walls
E) leaf air spaces

Answer: E

68

Water potential is generally most negative in which of the following parts of a plant?
A) mesophyll cells of the leaf
B) xylem vessels in leaves
C) xylem vessels in roots
D) cells of the root cortex
E) root hairs

Answer: A

69

Transpiration in plants requires all of the following except
A) adhesion of water molecules to cellulose.
B) cohesion between water molecules.
C) evaporation of water molecules.
D) active transport through xylem cells.
E) transport through tracheids.

Answer: D

70

What soil(s) is (are) the most fertile?
A) humus only
B) loam only
C) silt only
D) clay only
E) both humus and loam

Answer: E

71

Why does overwatering a plant kill it?
A) Water does not have all the necessary minerals a plant needs to grow.
B) Water neutralizes the pH of the soil.
C) The roots are deprived of oxygen.
D) Water supports the growth of root parasites.
E) Water lowers the water potential of the roots.

Answer: C

72

Which of the following soil minerals is most likely leached away during a hard rain?

A) Na+
B) K+
C) Ca++
D) NO₃-
E) H+

Answer: D

73

A) water and minerals through root hairs.
B) water and minerals through mycorrhizae.
C) CO₂ through stoma.
D) CO₂ and O₂ through stomata in leaves.
E) carbohydrates in the root hairs and concentration in the root cortex.

Answer: C

74

Which two elements make up more than 90% of the dry weight of plants?
A) carbon and nitrogen
B) oxygen and hydrogen
C) nitrogen and oxygen
D) oxygen and carbon
E) carbon and potassium

Answer: D

75

What is a major function of magnesium in plants?
A) to be a component of lignin-biosynthetic enzymes
B) to be a component of DNA and RNA
C) to be a component of chlorophyll
D) to be active in amino acid formation
E) to be required to regenerate phosphoenolpyruvate in C₄ and CAM plants

Answer: C

76

o the solute?
A) to keep dissolved nutrients evenly distributed
B) to provide oxygen to the root cells
C) to inhibit the growth of aerobic algae
D) to inhibit the growth of anaerobic bacteria
E) to provide CO₂ for photosynthesis

Answer: B

77

Which two elements make up more than 90% of the dry weight of plants?
A) carbon and nitrogen
B) oxygen and hydrogen
C) nitrogen and oxygen
D) oxygen and carbon
E) carbon and potassium

Answer: D

78

Nitrogen fixation is a process that
A) recycles nitrogen compounds from dead and decaying materials.
B) converts ammonia to ammonium.
C) releases nitrate from the rock substrate.
D) converts nitrogen gas into ammonia.
E) recycles nitrogen compounds from dead and decaying materials, and converts ammonia to ammonium.

Answer: D

79

Why is nitrogen fixation an essential process?
A) Nitrogen fixation can only be done by certain prokaryotes.
B) Fixed nitrogen is often the limiting factor in plant growth.
C) Nitrogen fixation is very expensive in terms of metabolic energy.
D) Nitrogen fixers are sometimes symbiotic with legumes.
E) Nitrogen-fixing capacity can be genetically engineered.

Answer: B

80

Which of the following essential nutrients plays an essential role in the opening and closing of the stomatal aperture?
A) Fe
B) Bo
C) Mg
D) H
E) K

Answer: E

81

A growing plant exhibits chlorosis of the leaves, especially the older, more mature ones. The chlorosis is probably due to a deficiency of which of the following macronutrients?

Answer: C