chp. 28

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Campbell Biology
Chapter 28
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1

________ is the informal name of the group of mostly unicellular eukaryotes

Protista

2

Protists constitute a ________ group, and Protista is no longer valid as a kingdom

Paraphyletic

3

Protists are eukaryotes and thus have _______ and are more complex than prokaryotes

organelles

4

Most protists are ________, but there are some colonial and multicellular species

unicellular

5

Protists exhibit more structural and _______ _______ than any other group of eukaryotes

Functional diversity

6

_________, the most nutritionally diverse of all eukaryotes, include:

Photoautotrophs

Heterotrophs

Mixotrophs

Protists

7

type of Protist that contains chloroplasts.

Photoautotrophs

8

type of Protist that absorb organic molecules or ingest larger food particles.

Heterotrophs

9

type of Protist that combines photosynthesis and heterotrophic nutrition.

Mixotrophs

10

Protists can reproduce _________ or __________.

asexually, sexually

11

The plastid-bearing lineage of protists evolved into:

red and green algae

12

On several occasions during eukaryotic evolution red and green algae underwent __________ ___________, in which they were ingested.

(slide 8)

secondary endosymbiosis

13

(Five Supergroups of Eukaryotes)

incldues protists with modified mitochondria and protists with unique flagella.

Excavata

14

(Group under Excavata)

-derives energy anaerobically, for example, by glycolysis.

-has t wo equal-sized nuclei and multiple flagella.

Diplomonads

15

Diplomonads are often parasites, for example, ______ ________- parasite of mammal intestinal tract.

Giardia intestinalis

16

( Group under Excavata)

-have flagella and undulating plasma membrane

-Include Trichomonas vaginalis, the pathogen that causes yeast infections in human females.

Parabasalids

17

...

Undulating Membrane

18

(Group under Excavata)

___________ is a diverse clade that includes predatory heterotrophs, photosynthetic autotrophs, and pathogenic parasites.

Euglenozoa

19

The Euglenozoa clade includes the __________ and _________.

kinetoplastids and euglenids

20

The main feature distinguishing the Euglenozoans as a clade is a spiral or _______ ____ of unknown function inside their flagella.

crystalline rod

21

______________ have a single mitochondrion with an organized mass of DNA called a kinetoplast.

Kinetoplastids

22

The parasitic Kinetoplastids _________ causes sleeping sickness (spread of tsetse fly).

Trypanosoma

23

________ have one or two flagella that emerge from a pocket at one end of the cell.

Euglenids

24

____________ may have originated by secondary endosymbiosis.

Chromalveolata

25

Some data suggest that the clade Chromalveolata is ___________ and originated by a secondary endosymbiosis event.

monophyletic

26

The ____________ clade is controversial and includes the alveolates and stramenopiles.

Chromalveolata

27

Members of the clade ________ have membrane-counded sacs ( alveoli) just under the plasma membrane.

Alveolata

28

____________ includes the dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, and ciliates.

Alveolata

29

_____________ are a diverse aquatic group of marine and freshwater photoautotrophs and heterotrophs.

each has a characteristic shape that in many species in reinforced by internal plates of cellulose.

Dinoflagellates

30

Dinoflagellate blooms are the cause of toxic "___ ____"

red tides

31

___________ are parasites of animals and some cause serious human diseases.

Apicomplexans

32

One end of the Apicomplexans, the _______, contains a complex of organelles specialized for penetrating a host.

apex

33

Most Apicomplexans have sexual and asexual _______ that require two or more different host species for completion.

stages

34

the Apicomplexan ____________ is the parasite that causes malaria. it requires both mosquitos and humans to complete its life cycle.

Plasmodium

35

________, a large varied group of protists, are named for their use of cilia to move and feed.

they have large micronuclei and small micronuclei.

Ciliates

36

Ciliates genetic variation results from __________, in which two individuals exchange haploid micronuclei.

conjugation

37

Conjugation is a sexual process, and is separate from reproduction, which generally occurs by ________ _______.

binary fission

38

The clade _________ includes several groups of heterotrophs as well as certain groups of algae (autotrophs)

Most have a "hairy" flagellum paired with a "smooth" flagellum.

Stramenopila

39

_____________ include diatoms, golden algae, brown algae, and oomycetes.

Stramenopiles

40

________ include water molds, white rusts, and downy mildews.

Oomycetes

41

most Oomycetes are _________ or _______.

decomposers or parasites

42

Oomycetes have filaments called ________ that facilitate nutrient uptake.

hyphae

43

Oomycetes ecological impact can be great, as in ________ _______ causing potato blight.

Phytophthora infestans

44

_________ are unicellular algae with a unique two-part, glass-like wall of hydrated silica. the wall resists crushing pressure.

Diatoms

45

______ ______, or chrysophytes, are named for their color, which results from their yellow and brown carotenoids All golden algae are photosynthetic, and some are also heterotrophic (mixotrophic)

• Most are unicellular, but some are colonial

Golden algae

46

_______ ______ are the largest and most complex algae

All are multicellular, and most are marine

Brown algae

47

Brown algae include many species commonly called “________”

seaweeds

48

Giant seaweeds called ______ live in deep parts of the ocean

kelps

49

The algal body is plantlike but lacks true roots, stems, and leaves and is called a ______

thallus

50

The root-like _______ anchors the stem-like stipe, which in turn supports the leaflike blades

(slide 48) 

holdfast

51

The most complex life cycles include an ________ ___ ________, the alternation of multicellular haploid (gametophyte) and diploid (sporophyte) forms

Alternation of Generations

52

The diploid _________ produces haploid flagellated spores called __________.

sporophyte, zoospores

53

The zoospores develop into haploid male and female __________, which produce ________.

gametes are made for fusion.

gametophytes, gametes

54

Fertilization of gametes results in a diploid _______, which grows into a new _________.

zygote, sporophyte

55

The life cycle of the brown alga _________: an example of alternation of generations

(slide 53)

Laminaria

56

________ are a diverse group of protists defined by DNA similarities

DNA evidence supports ________ as a monophyletic clade.

Rhizarians

57

_________ move and feed by pseudopodia; some but not all belong to the clade Rhizaria

Amoebas

58

________ include radiolarians, forams ,and cercozoans

Rhizarians

59

Marine protists called ________ have tests fused into one delicate piece, usually made of silica.

Radiolarians

60

The _________ of radiolarians radiate from the central body

pseudopodia

61

_________, or forams, are named for porous, generally multichambered shells, called tests

Foraminiferans

62

__________ include most amoeboid and flagellated protists with threadlike pseudopodia but without a test.

Cercozoans

63

________ __________ is an autotroph with a unique photosynthetic structure.

Paulinella chromatophora

64

_____ algae and _____ algae are the closest relatives of land plants

the photosynthetic descendants of this ancient protist evolved into:

Red algae and green algae

65

Land plants are descended from the ______ _______.

green algae

66

__________ is the supergroup that includes red algae, green algae, and land plants.

Archaeplastida

67

___ ______ are reddish in color due to an accessory pigment called phycoerythrin, which masks the green of chlorophyll

Red algae

68

Red alga are usually ________; the largest are seaweeds (as well as brown alga)

multicellular

69

______ ______ are named for their grass-green chloroplasts, and are a paraphyletic group.

Green algae

70

The two main groups of Green algae are _________ and __________.

chlorophytes, charophyceans

71

__________ are most closely related to plan plants.

charophyceans

72
  • Most ________ live in fresh water, although many are marine
  • Others live in damp soil, as symbionts in lichens, or in snow

chlorophytes

73

________ include protists that are closely related to fungi and animals.

Uniknots

74

The supergroup Unikonta includes animals, fungi, and some protists

• This group includes two clades: the ________ and the _________ (animals, fungi, and related protists)

amoebozoans, opisthokonts

75

__________ are amoeba that have lobe- or tube-shaped, rather than threadlike, pseudopodia

Amoebozoans

76

(Some protists are parasitic)

__________ causes malaria

Plasmodium

77

(Some protists are parasitic)

_________ __________ is a dinoflagellate that causes fish kills

Pfiesteria shymwayae

78

(Some protists are parasitic)

________ _________ causes sudden oak death.

Phytophthora ramorum