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Microbiology
Chapter 5
Microbiology 205 Fall 2012, Chapter 5
updated 9 years ago by jenkarmata
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1

-Catabolic & Anabolic Reactions-

Metabolism:

the sum of the chemical reactions in an organism

2

-Catabolic & Anabolic Reactions-

Catabolism:

provides energy & building blocks for anabolism

3

-Catabolic & Anabolic Reactions-

Anabolism:

uses energy & bulilding blocks to build large molecules

4

-Catabolic & Anabolic Reactions-

What is a METABOLIC PATHWAY?

It is a sequence of enzymatically catalyzed chemical reactions in a cell.

5

-Catabolic & Anabolic Reactions-

What determines metabolic pathways?

They are determined by enzymes.

6

-Catabolic & Anabolic Reactions-

Enzymes are encoded by

genes

7

-Collision Theory-

Collision theory

states that chemical reactions can occur when atoms, ions, & molecules collide

8

-Collision Theory-

Activation energy

is needed to disrupt electronic configurations

9

-Collision Theory-

Reaction rate

is the frequency of collisions w/enough energy to bring about reaction.

10

______ rate can be increased by enzymes or by increasing temperature or pressure

Reaction

11

-Collision Theory-

Reaction rate can be increased by __a__ or by increasing __b__ or __c__

a- enzymes
b- temperature
c- pressure

12

-Enzyme Components-

Biological catalysts

Specific for a chemical reaction; not used up in that reaction.

13

-Enzyme Components-

Apoenzyme:

Protein

14

-Enzyme Components-

Cofactor:

Nonprotein component

* Coenzyme organic cofactor

15

-Enzyme Components-

Holoenzyme:

Apoenzyme plus cofactor

16

Important Coenzymes

1. NAD+
2. NADP+
3. FAD
4. Coenzyme A

17

-Important Coenzymes-

Coenzymes with out the "H" hydrogen means

Low energy

18

-Enzyme Classification-

Oxidoreductase:

oxidation-reduction reactions

19

-Enzyme Classification-

Transferase:

transfer functional groups

20

-Enzyme Classification-

Hydrolase:

Hydrolysis

21

-Enzyme Classification-

Lyase:

removal of atoms without hydrolysis

22

-Enzyme Classification-

Isomerase:

rearrangement of atoms

23

-Enzyme Classification-

Ligase:

joining of molecules; uses ATP

24

Factors infuencing enzyme activity

* Temperature
* pH
* Substrate concentration
* Inhibitors

25

-Factors infuencing enzyme activity-

Temperature & pH denature proteins

26

Enzyme activity temperature

35° to 37°

27

Enzyme activity pH levels

between 4-6

* Peaks at 5

28

What two enzymes are best known to kill bacteria?

Sulfanilamide & PABA

29

-Ribozymes-

RNA that cuts & splices RNA

30

-Oxidation-Reduction Reactions-

Oxidation:

Removal of electrons

31

-Oxidation-Reduction Reactions-

Reduction:

Gain of electrons

32

-Oxidation-Reduction Reactions-

Redox reaction:

An oxidation reaction paired w/a reduction reaction

33

-Oxidation-Reduction Reactions-

In biological systems, the electrons are often

associated with hydrogen atoms

34

-Oxidation-Reduction Reactions-

Biological oxidations are often

dehydrogenations

35

-The generation of ATP-

ATP is generated by the phosphorylation of ADP

36

-Substrate-level Phosphorylation-

Energy from the transfer of a high-energy PO-4 to ADP generates ATP

37

-Oxidative phosphorylation-

____________ from transfer of electrons (oxidation) of one compound to another (reduction) is used to generate ATP in the electron transport chain

Energy released

38

-Oxidative phosphorylation-

Energy released from transfer of electrons (oxidation) of one compound to another (reduction) is used to ______________________________

generate ATP in the ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN

39

-Respiration & Fermentation-

Respiration- the final electron acceptor is

Oxygen

40

Fermentation doesn't need _______

Oxygen

* but it could occur

41

-The Electron Transport Chain-

A series of carrier molecules that are, in turn, oxidized & reduced as....

electrons are passed down the chain

42

-The Electron Transport Chain-

Energy released can be used to produce ATP by

chemiosmosis

43

-A Summary of Respiration-

Aerobic respiration:

the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is molecular oxygen

44

-A Summary of Respiration-

Anaerobic respiration:

the final electron acceptor in the elecron transpor chain is NOT oxygen

45

-A Summary of Respiration-

Anaerobic respiration-

yields less energy than aerobic respiration because only part of the Krebs cyle operates under anaerobic conditions

46

-Carbohydrate Catabolism-
PATHWAY EUKARYOTE PROKARYOTE
Glycolysis Cytoplasm Cytoplasm
Intermediate step Cytoplasm Cytoplasm
Krebs cycle Mitochondria matrix Cytoplasm

ETC Mitochondrial inner Plasma
membrane membrane

-Carbohydrate Catabolism-
PATHWAY EUKARYOTE PROKARYOTE
Glycolysis Cytoplasm Cytoplasm
Intermediate step Cytoplasm Cytoplasm
Krebs cycle Mitochondria matrix Cytoplasm

ETC Mitochondrial inner Plasma
membrane membrane

47

-Carbohydrate Catabolism-

How many ATPs are produced in eukaryotes?

36

48

-Fermentation-

Any _____ of food by microorganisms (general use)

spoilage

49

-Fermentation-

Any process that produces __a____ beverages or __b___ dairy products

a- alcoholic

b- acidic

50

-Fermentation-

Any large-scale microbial process occurring with or without ______

air

51

-Fermentation-

*Scientific Definition:

*Releases energy for oxidation of organic molecules
*Does not require oxygen
*Does not use the Krebs cycle or ETC
*Uses an ORGANIC MOLECULE AS THE FINAL ELECTRON ACCEPTOR.

52

-Fermentation-

Alcohol fermentation:

produces ethanol +CO2

53

-Fermentation-

Lactic acid fermentation:

produces lactic acid

54

-Lactic acid-

Homolactic fermentation:

produces lactic acid only

55

-Lactic acid-

Heterolactic fermentation:

produces lactic acid & other compounds

56

~Detecting amino acid catabolizing enzymes in the lab~

Yellow means

acid

57

~Detecting amino acid catabolizing enzymes in the lab~

Fushia (purple ish) means

Basic

58

~Chemotrophs~

* Use energy from chemicals
* Chemoheterotroph (dwell on us, have capsules & spores and are hard to kill & cause problems)
* Energy is used in anabolism

59

What has CAPSULES & SPORES & ARE HARD TO KILL?

Chemoheterotrophs

60

Aerobic respiration's final acceptor is

0¸ (Oxygen)

61

Anaerobic respiration's final acceptor is

NO3¯ & SO4²¯

62

Fermentation's final acceptor is

Organic compound