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1

In the stages of change model, behavioural change is viewed as a process with individuals at various levels of motivation or stages for ‘readiness’ to change.

--

True

False

True

2

Which concept is the upstream approach in health promotion most closely related to?

Tertiary prevention.

Secondary prevention.

The biomedical model.

Primary prevention.

Primary prevention.

3

Point epidemics and clustering are examples of disease occurrence according to:

person.

time.

place.

...

4

The Trans theoretical/Stages of Change Model can be used to explain or predict changes in health behaviour?

True

False

True

5

A disadvantage of surveys / questionnaires is:

they can only collect qualitative data.

they rarely provide a 100% response rate.

they can only collect quantitative data.

they are relatively expensive to undertake.

...

6

What would be the most effective use of additional government funding to reduce health inequities for a population in a local urban community in Australia?

Providing more hospital beds; smaller staff to patient ratios; reduction of waiting lists for surgical procedures.

Increasing funding for training of health professionals and creation of more health jobs.

Funding package for primary healthcare allowing all general practitioners to bulk bill patients.

Education and retraining packages for unemployed people.

Education and retraining packages for unemployed people.

7

What document established a common framework for enhancing global health status through the adoption of a Primary Health Care (PHC) policy?

The Alma Ata Declaration.

International Declaration of Human Rights.

Healthy Cities Framework.

The Ottawa Charter.

The Alma Ata Declaration.

8

Classify the following determinants according to whether they are upstream, midstream or downstream.

Beliefs and values systems.

Upstream.

Midstream.

Downstream.

Upstream.

9

The fourth stage in Prochaska and DiClemente’s (Trans theoretical/Stages of Change Model) model is “ready to change”.

True

False

...

10

What is the deadline to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)?

2015.

2020.

2025.

2015.

11

Which of the following underpins contemporary health promotion practice?

The social model of health.

The reductionist approach to health.

The biomedical approach of health.

The pathogenic approach to health.

The social model of health.

12

How can Non-Government Organisation (NGO’s) reduce the impact of chronic diseases on the health system?

By transporting the aged to health care services.

By subsidising disease specific medicines (such as insulin for diabetics).

By increasing the number of trained health professionals in the workforce.

By assisting the aged to remain in their own homes.

...

13

What happens to INCIDENCE if behavioural risk factors are reduced in the population (e.g. the effect of alcohol curfews on assault and associated harm)?

Incidence decreases.

No change.

Incidence increases.

...

14

Classify the following HEALTH PROMOTION STRATEGIES / INTERVENTIONS according to whether they are downstream, midstream or upstream health promotion interventions in relation to the public health issues surrounding gender equality / bullying / mental health.

Vic Health’s ‘Stand Up’ workplace training program that promotes workplace equality.

Upstream.

Midstream.

Downstream.

Upstream.

15

Classify the following HEALTH PROMOTION STRATEGIES / INTERVENTIONS according to whether they are downstream, midstream or upstream health promotion interventions in relation to the public health issues surrounding gender equality / bullying / mental health.

Media that challenges harmful gender stereotypes.

Upstream.

Midstream.

Downstream.

Upstream.

16

Provision of condoms to individuals is what kind of intervention:

structural intervention.

biomedical intervention.

environmental intervention.

behavioural intervention.

behavioural intervention.

17

The following refers to the number of years that a person is expected to live, at any particular year:

life expectancy.

maternal mortality.

infant mortality.

life expectancy.

18

Correctly select ONE (1) of the following AUSTRALIAN government ‘tiers’ responsible for MANAGING HEALTH PROMOTION – including a focus on physical activity, nutrition, tobacco, drugs and alcohol and injury prevention at school.

Local.

State/territory.

Federal/national.

...

19

What happens to PREVALENCE if behavioural risk factors are reduced in the population (e.g. the effect of alcohol curfews on assault and associated harm)?

No change.

Prevalence increases.

Prevalence decreases.

...

20

Classify the following determinants according to whether they are upstream, midstream or downstream.

Behavioural determinants of health.

Upstream.

Midstream.

Downstream.

Midstream.

21

In general, at the time of colonisation, accounts from early British and European explorers show that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples:

suffered from a range of lifestyle-related diseases.

were physically inactive and suffered from malnutrition.

were fairly disease-free, fit and healthy.

had the same health status as they do now.

...

22

Health promotion includes the alleviation of:

causative factors.

physical symptoms and causative factors.

illness.

pain.

physical symptoms.

...

23

The criteria used to determine Australia’s priority health issues are:

cost to individual and communities, mortality rates and social justice principles.

priority population groups, life expectancy and social justice principles.

social justice principles, potential for prevention and morbidity rates.

social justice principles, priority population groups and prevalence of condition.

social justice principles, potential for prevention and morbidity rates.

24

Correctly select ONE (1) of the following AUSTRALIAN government ‘tiers’ responsible for MANAGING BABY HEALTH CLINICS AND IMMUNIZATION.

Local.

State/territory.

Federal/national.

...

25

Classify the following HEALTH PROMOTION STRATEGIES / INTERVENTIONS according to whether they are downstream, midstream or upstream health promotion interventions in relation to the public health issues surrounding gender equality / bullying / mental health.

Gender inclusive sporting and recreation environments.

Upstream.

Midstream.

Downstream.

Upstream.

26

ONE (1) of the major criticisms of health education is:

the over-emphasis on individual responsibility and potential ‘victim-blaming’.

the implications for preventative medicine and the care of the individual.

the over-emphasis on group responsibility at the expense of the individual.

its vulnerability to political and community influences and environments.

it relates to healthy public policy and the development of individual issues.

...

27

Classify the following determinants according to whether they are upstream, midstream or downstream.

Biological determinants of health.

Upstream.

Midstream.

Downstream.

...

28

Which of the following behaviour change theories includes relapse as a normal part of the learning process?

Health Belief Model.

Diffusion of Innovations.

Stages of Change.

Social Learning Theory.

Stages of Change.

29

A rate is a type of ratio that:

a.

has time as a component.

b.

is used to measure risks associated with exposure.

c.

both a and b.

c.

both a and b.

30

Healthy public policy is defined as:

consideration of health in all areas of policy.

policies that are formed by the Department of Health.

policies that enable the reduction of ill-health.

policies that protect us all.

consideration of health in all areas of policy.

31

What is EQUITY in health terms?

The equal distribution of health status.

The fair distribution of health status.

Health status based on what people deserve.

Health status based on genetic predisposition.

The fair distribution of health status.

32

Healthcare that is freely available to all members of the community is known as:

primary healthcare.

universal healthcare.

equitable healthcare.

culturally responsive healthcare.

universal healthcare

33

Classify the following HEALTH PROMOTION STRATEGIES / INTERVENTIONS according to whether they are downstream, midstream or upstream health promotion interventions in relation to the public health issues surrounding gender equality / bullying / mental health.

Standardised risk assessment by community services.

Upstream.

Midstream.

Downstream.

Midstream.

34

Classify the following determinants according to whether they are upstream, midstream or downstream.

Socioeconomic status.

Upstream.

Midstream.

Downstream.

Upstream.

35

According to the United Nations, Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) report, what is the criteria for extreme poverty?

Less than $1.25.

Less than $1 a day.

Less than $1.50.

$1 a day.

Less than $1.25.

36

What document outlined the World Health Organisations (WHO's) international strategy for implementing a Primary Health Care (PHC) approach to achieve 'health for all' in the world?

a.

The Ottawa Charter.

b.

The Alma Ata Declaration.

c.

International declaration of Human Rights.

d.

Healthy Cities Initiative.

...

37

Correctly select ONE (1) of the following AUSTRALIAN government ‘tiers’ responsible for MANAGING MEDICARE.

Local.

State/territory.

Federal/national.

Federal/national.

38

Disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is:

the sum of potential life and income lost due to disability.

the sum of years of potential life lost due to premature morbidity and the years of productive life lost due to disability.

the sum of years of potential life lost due to premature mortality and the years of productive life lost due to disability.

the sum of income lost to a family unit following death or disability of a family member.

the sum of years of potential life lost due to premature mortality and the years of productive life lost due to disability

39

Classify the following determinants according to whether they are upstream, midstream or downstream.

Food security – availability of adequate nutrition.

Upstream.

Midstream.

Downstream.

Upstream.

40

Genetic determinants are important factors impacting on individual health and they will continue to be important because:

nearly every disease has a genetic element in its natural history.

nearly every disease has constitutive and/or acquired genetic components.

nearly every disease has a chromosomal abnormality as part of its natural history.

nearly every disease has a chromosomal component that causes lots of diseases.

very few diseases have a genetic element in their natural history.

nearly every disease has constitutive and/or acquired genetic components.

41

Correctly select ONE (1) of the following AUSTRALIAN government ‘tiers’ responsible for MANAGING HEALTH PROTECTION. This includes environmental health, drugs and poisons Disease prevention – examples include surveillance, health education, immunisation, STI [sexually transmitted infections] and cancer screening.

Local.

State/territory.

Federal/national.

State/territory.

42

The following term denotes the number of cases of a disease diagnosed at any time during the person’s lifetime:

point prevalence.

lifetime prevalence.

period prevalence.

lifetime prevalence

43

The social categorisation of people as men or women, and the social meaning and beliefs about sexual differences is a determinant of health.

True

False

...

44

The second stage in Prochaska and DiClemente’s (Trans theoretical/Stages of Change ) model is “comtemplation”.

True

False

True

45

To ‘effect changes on physical, social & economic environment, not individual AND to enable choice of healthier lifestyle’ - best describes which health promotion model?

The societal model.

The behaviour change model.

The behaviour change model.

The medical model.

The societal model.

46

Classify the following HEALTH PROMOTION STRATEGIES / INTERVENTIONS according to whether they are downstream, midstream or upstream health promotion interventions in relation to the public health issues surrounding gender equality / bullying / mental health.

Respectful Relationships education program.

Upstream.

Midstream.

Downstream.

Midstream.

47

Which of the following results of illness have indirect costs to the community?

Absenteeism, loss of potential earnings, retraining in the workplace.

Loss of potential earnings, retraining in the workplace, pharmaceutical prescriptions.

Absenteeism, education and screening, loss of potential earnings.

Loss of potential earnings, pharmaceutical prescriptions, absenteeism.

...

48

The majority of individuals attempting to quit or control their drinking or drug taking have made more than 5-10 attempts.

True

False

True

49

Classify the following HEALTH PROMOTION STRATEGIES / INTERVENTIONS according to whether they are downstream, midstream or upstream health promotion interventions in relation to the public health issues surrounding gender equality / bullying / mental health.

Apprehended violence orders (AVOs).

Upstream.

Midstream.

Downstream.

Downstream.

50

Which of the following is NOT an example of a non-governmental organization (NGO)?

National Heart Foundation.

Surf Lifesaving Newcastle.

Australian Organ Donation Register.

Diabetes Australia.

Cancer Council.

...

51

Burden of disease is:

a.

the statistical measure indicating the loss of years of healthy life through disabling disease in a specific population, as measured in disability-adjusted life years.

b.

all bio psycho social impacts of disease.

c.

financial impact of preventative interventions associated with disease and injury.

d.

all of the above.

...

52

The reduction in child mortality and to achieve universal primary education are TWO (2) of the stated goals included in:

the Millennium Development Goals.

declaration of Alma Ata.

‘Health for all by 2020’.

international declaration of human rights.

the Millennium Development Goals.

53

Correctly select ONE (1) of the following AUSTRALIAN government ‘tiers’ responsible for MANAGING COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.

Local.

State/territory.

Federal/national.

Local.

54

Perceived need is:

need perceived by a professional.

need perceived by health agency.

need perceived by government.

need perceived by a person in a community.

...

55

According to the Trans theoretical/Stages of Change Model, the progression through stages of changes must be linear.

True

False

False

56

Globalisation can be defined as:

a.

a process that marks the diffusion of commodities, ideas and economic activity around the world.

b.

global distribution of disease and disease transmission rates.

c.

the integration of world economies.

d.

all of these are considered globalisation.

e.

a and c.

a.

a process that marks the diffusion of commodities, ideas and economic activity around the world.

57

Which of the following statements is correct?

a.

Midstream factors include treatment systems, disease management and investment in clinical research.

b.

Downstream factors include lifestyle, behavioural and individual prevention programs.

c.

Upstream factors involve government policies and investment in population health research as examples.

d.

a and b.

c.

Upstream factors involve government policies and investment in population health research as examples

58

Health promotion is based on the assumption that:

a.

everyone’s health is their own business.

b.

individuals do not have a choice with regards to their own health.

c.

individuals or communities may be influenced purposefully by both knowledge base and resource availability.

d.

none of the above.

c.

individuals or communities may be influenced purposefully by both knowledge base and resource availability.

59

Which of the following does Wilkinson identify as the main determinant of relative health in a society?

Social integration.

Social inequality.

Lifestyle choices.

Work patterns.

Social integration

60

n an observational study, a relationship between consuming fast food and weight gain is observed. This means:

a.

fast food causes weight gain.

b.

fast food is associated with weight gain.

c.

fast food is correlated with weight gain.

d.

a, b and c above are correct.

e.

b and c above.

...

61

Why is NON-VICTIM BLAMING important in health promotion practice?

No-one likes to be blamed for their behaviour.

It acknowledges that health behaviour is shaped by external factors such as living conditions and life experiences.

It is part of the biomedical model.

It is not autonomous.

It acknowledges that health behaviour is shaped by external factors such as living conditions and life experiences

62

Which of the following is NOT considered to be a health promotion approach for cervical cancer?

Radiotherapy for treatment of cervical cancer.

Peer based sexual and relationship education (SRE).

Screening for cervical cancer.

Encouraging sexual partners to negotiate safer sex.

Radiotherapy for treatment of cervical cancer.

63

Demonstrating that community health programs achieved the purpose for which they were funded is done through:

a.

indicators.

b.

evaluation.

c.

research.

d.

all of the above.

b.

evaluation.

64

A World Health Organisation (WHO) movement that states governments at all levels have the responsibility to provide public policies that enable the basic conditions for healthy living of all their citizens, is known as:

the Millennium Development Goals.

the Healthy Cities Initiative.

the Ottawa Charter.

international declaration of human rights.

the Kyoto Protocol.

the Healthy Cities Initiative.

65

Correctly select ONE (1) of the following AUSTRALIAN government ‘tiers’ responsible for MANAGING THE AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF HEALTH AND WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND AGEING.

Local.

State/territory.

Federal/national.

Federal/national.