Acquisition of Skill

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1

The Performance of any motor skill is influenced by characteristics of:

a) The performer

b) The environment

c) The skill itself

d) All of the above

d) All of the above

2

If a motor skill requires the use of large musculature and does not require precision of movement for successful performance, then the skill would best be classified as a:

a) Fine motor skill

b) Gross motor skill

c) Discrete motor skill

d) Open motor skill

b) Gross motor skill

3

Which of the following skills is a discrete motor skill?

a) Riding a bicycle

b) Swimming the crawl stroke

c) Steering a car on a highway

d) Striking a typewriter key

d) Striking a typewriter key

4

Shifting from second to third gear in a car is an example of which type of motor skill?

a) Open motor skill

b) Fine motor skill

c) Serial motor skill

d) Continuous motor skill

c) Serial motor skill

5

Motor skills that require the performance to initiate a specific action on an object according to the object's motion are best categorized as:

a) Open motor skills

b) Closed motor skills

c) Discrete motor skills

d) Continuous motor skills

a) Open motor skills

6

Which term is sometimes used anonymously with the term closed motor skills?

a) Other-paced motor skills

b) Externally-paced motor skills

c) Forced-paced motor skills

d) Self-paced motor skills

d) Self-paced motor skills

7

Gentile's taxonomy of motor skills includes which of the following factors as part of the "environmental context" dimension?

a) Inter-trial variability

b) Object location

c) Object orientation

d) Body transport

a) Intertrial variability

8

Which of the following skill category distinctions if popular in textbooks related to methods of teaching motor skills?

a) Gross vs. fine motor skills

b) Discrete vs. continuous motor skills

c) Open vs. closed motor skills

d) Stability vs. transport motor skills

c) Open vs. closed motor skills

9

Returning a serve on tennis is an example of which of the following types of motor skills?

a) Self-paced motor skill

b) Open motor skill

c) Closed motor skill

d) Stationary motor skill

b) Open motor skill

10

According to Gentile's taxonomy of motor skills, which of the following describes the least complex skill?

a) Regulatory conditions stationary; object manipulated

b) Regulatory conditions in motion; object manipulated

c) Regulatory conditions stationary; no object manipulated

d) Regulatory conditions in motion; no object manipulated

c) Regulatory conditions stationary, no object manipulation

11

Riding a surfboard on multiple waves would be classified in Gentile's taxonomy as:

a) Stationary environment, inter-trial variability, body transport

b) Stationary environment, inter-trial variability, body stability

c) In motion environment, inter-trial variability body transport

d) In motion environment, inter-trial variability, body stability

c) In motion environment, inter-trial variability, body transport

12

A softball player throws pitches to a stationary, cardboard cut-out of a batter. The environment context for the pitcher is:

a) Stationary with inter-trial variability

b) Stationary with no inter-trial variability

c) In-motion with inter-trial variability

d) In-motion with no inter-trial variability

b) Stationary with no inter-trial variability

13

Based on Gentile's Taxonomy, to simulate the regulatory conditions involved in the game of softball, a coach would have players:

a) Hit a ball from a stationary tee

b) Hit balls pitched by a pitching machine

c) Hit balls pitched by a live pitcher

d) Practice swinging without a bat and a ball

c) Hit balls pitched by a live pitcher

14

The term ability refers to:

a) How well a person performs a skill

b) An individual capacity that underlies performance

c) How quickly a skill can be learned

d) Probability for high level of performance

b) An individual capacity that underlies performace

15

The general motor ability hypothesis proposes that individuals have:

a) One motor ability that determines a person's potential to perform motor skills

b) One motor ability that predicts how well a person will perform specific skills

c) Many specific motor abilities that are highly related to each other

d) Many specific motor abilities that are independent of each other

c) Many specific motor abilities that are highly related to each other

16

The ability to make skillful hand movements to manipulate objects is known as:

a) Arm-hand coordination

b) Limb coordination

c) Finger dexterity

d) Manual dexterity

d) Manual dexterity

17

According to Fitts and Posner, the learner moves through three stages when learning a motor skill. These are the cognitive, the associative, and the:

a) Fixated

b) Diversified

c) Verbal

d) Autonomous

d) Autonomous

18

Gentile's learning stages model indicates that in the first stage of learning, the learner must learn to discriminate between which two types of environmental context conditions?

a) Real vs. not real

b) Visual vs. verbal

c) Regulatory vs. non-regulatory

d) Environmental vs. internal

c) Regulatory vs. non-regulatory

19

Gentile's learning stages model indicates that in the second stage of learning, one goal of the learner is related specifically to closed skills. This goal us called:

a) Fixation

b) Diversification

c) Relevant

d) Irrelevant

a) Fixation

20

As a person practices a skill, an important change that occurs is the capability to:

a) Succeed on every attempt

b) Detect and correct errors

c) Involve more muscles in the action

d) Direct attention to individual parts of the movement

b) Detect and correct errors

21

According to Bernstein, during the early phase of skill acquisition, learner tend to:

a) Freeze degrees of freedom

b) Unfreeze degrees if freedom

c) Select efficient movement patterns

d) None of the above

a) Freeze degrees of freedom

22

If a novice and highly skilled typist were required to perform a verbal secondary task while typing on a keyboard the novice's typing performance would be:

a) More negatively influenced than the skilled typist's

b) More positively influenced than the skilled typist's

c) No different from the skilled typist's

d) Impossible to assess

a) More negatively influenced than the skilled typist's

23

Ericsson and colleagues refer to the type of practice that is essential for the attainment of expertise as:

a) Mental practice

b) Physical practice

c) Deliberate practice

d) Repetitive practice

c) Deliberate practice

24

Transfer tests in motor learning research do not assess:

a) A novel variation of the practiced skill

b) A different, although related, skill than was practiced

c) The practiced skill one day after practice ends

d) The practiced skill in a new situation

c) The practice skill one day after practice ends

25

The direction of bilateral transfer between two limbs is typically:

a) Asymmetric

b) Symmetric

c) Either symmetric or asymmetric, depending on the side dominance of the person

d) Either symmetric or asymmetric; the direction is equally distributed among the population

a) Asymmetric

26

According to Gentile, variable practice experiences for closed skills should focus on varying:

a) All aspects of the skill

b) The regulatory conditions related to the skill

c) The non-regulatory conditions related to the skill

d) No specific aspects of the skill

c) The non-regulatory conditions related to the skill

27

Degree of positive transfer is related to the:

a) Amount of practice in each of the two skills

b) Degree of similarity between the parts of the two skills

c) Degree of similarity of the performance contexts of the two skills

d) Number of component parts of the two skills

b) Degree of similarity between the parts of the two skills

28

For open skills, regulatory conditions:

a) Can change from one performance to another, but do not change during the movement execution

b) Can change from one performance to another and during the movement execution

c) Cannot change from one performance to another and do not change during the movement execution

d) Do not change from one performance to another

b) Can change from one performance to another and during the movement execution

29

Contextual interference can be considered as a continuum ranging from low to high for the amount of interference created by the practice schedule. Which of the following describes a low-to-high continuum of practice schedules?

a) Blocked-Serial-Random

b) Blocked-Random-Serial

c) Serial-Random-Blocked

d) Random-Serial-Blocked

a) Blocked-Serial-Random

30

In the study by Schendel and Hagman (1982), the machine gun assembly-disassembly skill that was shown to benefit from over-training is an example of a(n):

a) Procedural skill

b) Continuous skill

c) Dynamic skill

d) Open skill

a) Procedural skill

31

Practice schedule A involves two 1-hour practice sessions on each of three days, which schedule B involves one 1-hour practice session on each of six days. In this scenario, schedule A would be referred to as:

a) Blocked practice

b) Distributed practice

c) Massed practice

d) Random practice

c) Massed practice

32

When learning an asymmetric bimanual skill in which one limb performs a more difficult task, the preferred practice approach is to train:

a) The limb that performs the easier task first

b) The limb that performs the more difficult task first

c) Both limbs together at all times

d) a), b), and c) are appropriate

b) The limb that performs the more difficult task first

33

Research investigating the influence of the frequency of demonstrating a skill has shown that:

a) More frequency is better then less frequency

b) Less frequency is better than more frequency

c) Skill demonstrations should occur more frequently early in practice than later in practice

d) The frequency of demonstrating a skill is not an important concern

a) More frequency is better than less frequency

34

The reversion to a highly conscious form of information processing when the learner is put under pressure is referred to as:

a) Tanking

b) Reinvestment

c) Implicit learning

d) Analogy learning

b) Reinvestment

35

According to Masters, learners are more likely to perform well when put under pressure if they are encouraged to learn:

a) Implicitly

b) Explicitly

c) Via the use of movement analogies

d) A and C

d) A and C

36

Verbal cues seem to work because they:

a) Direct attention to relevant environmental context information

b) Prompt a specific sequence of movements to be performed

c) Direct attention to relevant environmental context information and prompt a specific sequence of movements to be performed

d) Influence performance in ways researchers have not yet determined

c) Direct attention to relevant environmental context information and prompt a specific sequence of movements to be performed.

37

The research procedure most commonly used to investigate attention-limit issues for motor skill learning and performance is known as the:

a) Attentional focus procedure

b) Dual-task procedure

c) Event occlusion procedure

d) Temporal occlusion procedure

b) Dual-task procedure

38

The process involved when people direct attention to specific regulatory features in the environment and/or to action preparation activities is known as attention:

a) Capacity

b) Demands

c) Focus

d) Switching

c) Focus

39

When augmented feedback tells the performer which movement characteristics produced the movement outcome, the type of augmented feedback is know as:

a) Sensory feedback

b) Augmented sensory feedback

c) Knowledge of results

d) Knowledge of performance

d) Knowledge of performance

40

If you are told "your score was 16 on that attempt," the type of augmented feedback you received is known as:

a) Sensory feedback

b) Augmented sensory feedback

c) Knowledge of results

d) Knowledge of performance

c) Knowledge of results

41

Participants who were given erroneous KR when they could have learned a task based on task-intrinsic feedback without KR:

a) Attended to the task-intrinsic feedback and ignored the erroneous KR

b) Ignored the task-intrinsic feedback and performed according to the erroneous KR

c) Attended to both the task-intrinsic feedback and erroneous KR and performed according to a mid-point between them

d) Became confused and performed rather erratically

b) Ignored the task-intrinsic feedback and performed according to the erroneous KR

42

Which of the following statement about descriptive and prescriptive verbal KP is correct?

a) Descriptive verbal KP is preferable to prescriptive verbal KP early in practice

b) Prescriptive verbal KP is preferable to descriptive verbal KP early in practice

c) Either descriptive or prescriptive verbal KP is appropriate to use early in practice

d) Neither descriptive nor prescriptive verbal KP should be used early in practice

b) Prescriptive verbal KP is preferable to descriptive verbal KP early in practice

43

When you give a person augmented feedback based on a "performance bandwidth," you give feedback only when the person's performance is:

a) Outside a specific range of correctness

b) Within a specific range or correctness

c) Outside or within a specific range of correctness

d) Correct

a) Outside a specific range of correctness

44

If video replay is used as augmented feedback for beginners, it should be used:

a) In any situation

b) Only in the presence of advanced performers

c) Only with the instructor present

d) Video replays should not be used with beginners

c) Only with the instructor present

45

If a person throws a series of 50 darts at a target that cannot be seen and is shown the results of each set of 10 throws at the end of every 10 throws, the augmented feedback technique is called the:

a) Performance-bandwidth technique

b) Averaged augmented feedback technique

c) Summary augmented feedback technique

d) Self-selected technique

c) Summary augmented feedback technique