What type of signal is long-lasting and works at night?
What type of signal is brief and can work among obstructions at night?
What type of signal is fast and requires daylight with no obstructions?
An unlearned behavior directly linked to a stimulus that is carried to completion once initiated and is essentially unchangeable is ___.
B.a conditioned response
C.a fixed action pattern
D.one that requires parental teaching
E.not species specific
Upon returning to its hive, a European honeybee communicates to other worker bees the presence of a nearby food source it has discovered by _____.
A.performing a round dance
B.vibrating its wings at varying frequencies
C.performing a waggle dance
A cage containing male mosquitoes has a small earphone placed on top, through which the sound of a female mosquito is played. All the males immediately fly to the earphone and go through all of the steps of copulation. What is the best explanation for this behavior?
A.Copulation is a fixed action pattern, and the female flight sound is a sign stimulus that initiates it.
B.The sound from the earphone irritates the male mosquitoes, causing them to attempt to sting it.
C.Through classical conditioning, the male mosquitoes have associated the inappropriate stimulus from the earphone with the normal response of copulation.
D.The reproductive drive is so strong that when males are deprived of females, they will attempt to mate with anything that has even the slightest female characteristic.
A stickleback fish will attack a fish model as long as the model has red coloring. What animal behavior idea is manifested by this observation?
Which of the following experiments best addresses the hypothesis that moths stop flying in response to high-intensity bat sounds?
A.Isolate and characterize the neurons that control flight muscle.
B.Observe responses of moths to bats in nature.
C.Put bats and moths in an enclosure and make detailed observations of predator-prey interactions.
D.Play prerecorded high-intensity bat sounds to flying moths.
Scientists believe that the direction birds go when migrating is
guided in part by _____.
I) the stars in the night sky
II) the Sun during the day
III) the magnetic field of the Earth
D.I, II, and III
Which of the following examples describes a behavioral pattern that results from a proximate cause?
A.A cat kills a mouse to obtain nutrition.
B.A male sheep fights with another male because it helps to improve its social position.
C.A goose squats and freezes motionless to escape a predator.
D.A female bird lays its eggs because the amount of daylight is decreasing slightly each day.
The proximate causes of behavior are interactions with the environment, but behavior is ultimately shaped by _____.
B.the nervous system
During a field trip, an instructor touched a moth resting on a tree trunk. The moth raised its forewings to reveal large eyespots on its hind wings. The instructor asked why the moth lifted its wings. One student answered that sensory receptors had fired and triggered a neuronal reflex culminating in the contraction of certain muscles. A second student responded that the behavior might frighten predators. Which statement best describes these explanations?
A.The first explanation refers to proximate causation, whereas the second refers to ultimate causation.
B.The first explanation is correct, but the second is incorrect.
C.The first explanation is testable as a scientific hypothesis, whereas the second is not.
D.Both explanations are reasonable and simply represent a difference of opinion.
Behaviors are diverse and important for survival and reproduction. Some behaviors are learned, such as the species-specific song of a yellow warbler which is different from the song of a blue-winged warbler. Other behaviors are innate, such as a female cat in heat urinating more often and in many places to attract a mate or honeybees do a "dance" that indicates the distance and direction of a food source when they return to their hive. Which of the following statements supports the idea that behaviors are important in survival and therefore affect natural selection?
A.Learned behaviors may not necessarily increase fitness. Baby warblers can learn the song of another species.
B.Innate behaviors are the result of selection for individual survival and reproductive success.
C.Both innate and learned behaviors are entirely based on genes inherited from parents.
D.All behaviors are survival mechanisms that increase reproductive fitness by increasing mutation rates.
In testing a hypothesis that "territorial defense in European robins is a fixed action pattern that is released by the sight of orange feathers," researchers found that robins defended their territory by attacking anything that was of similar size and had an orange patch. What experiment would you perform next to determine that the color initiated the defense response?
A.Repeat the experiment by using a model of a robin that had an orange patch that was twice the size of a normal patch.
B.Repeat the experiment by using a model of a robin that was twice the size of a normal robin but with a small orange patch.
C.Repeat the experiment by removing the patch completely.
D.Repeat the experiment using a blue patch instead of an orange patch.
You observe a large black bird with a shiny black crest engaging in courtship behavior with a little brown bird. It would be reasonable to hypothesize that this is an example of _____.
B.mating with the wrong species
You discover a rare new bird species, but you are unable to observe its mating behavior. You see that the male is large and ornamental compared with the female. On this basis, you can probably conclude that the species is _____.
Fred and Joe, two unrelated, mature male gorillas, encounter one another. Fred is courting a female. Fred grunts as Joe comes near. As Joe continues to advance, Fred begins drumming (pounding his chest) and bares his teeth. Joe then rolls on the ground on his back, gets up, and quickly leaves. This behavioral pattern is repeated several times during the mating season. Choose the most specific behavior described by this example.
D.fixed action pattern
In the figure above, which of the following conclusions is most logical based on the data?
A.After four weeks together, females with males produce mature follicles to the same extent as females without males.
B.Females produce eggs more quickly when exposed to many males than females paired with a male.
C.Females produce more eggs more quickly when exposed to breeding males.
D.All non-isolated females do just as well as isolated females.
Which of the following is not required for a behavioral trait to evolve by natural selection?
A.An individual's reproductive success depends in part on how the behavior is performed.
B.An individual's genotype influences its behavioral phenotype.
C.The behavior varies among individuals.
D.In each individual, the form of the behavior is determined entirely by genes.
E.Some component of the behavior is genetically inherited.
Although many chimpanzees live in environments containing oil palm nuts, members of only a few populations use stones to crack open the nuts. The likely explanation is that:
A.members of different populations differ in manual dexterity.
B.members of different populations have different nutritional requirements.
C.the behavioral difference is caused by genetic differences between populations.
D.the cultural tradition of using stones to crack nuts has arisen in only some populations.
E.members of different populations differ in learning ability.
The majority of young, inexperienced Western garter snakes born in the laboratory from mothers captured in coastal areas of California readily eat pieces of slug. What are plausible proximate explanations for this behavior?
A.Coastal snakes that readily eat banana slugs gain most of their calories from this prey species.
B.Coastal snakes have a genetically acquired taste for banana slugs.
C.Coastal snakes can detect odor molecules produced by banana slugs.
B & C
Graylag goslings imprint on a nearby object that moves away from them during a sensitive period in the first few hours after they hatch, and follow the object steadfastly from that time on. What is the adaptive value of this behavior?
A.This behavior is not adaptive because goslings may imprint on objects other than their parents.
B.This behavior is genetic.
C.This behavior is likely to increase gosling survival.
In cross-fostering studies, the young of one species are placed in the care of adults from another species. In broad terms, what do researchers learn from such studies?
Select all that apply.
A.Cross-fostering studies provide information about the evolutionary relationship between the two species.
B.Changes in the behavior of cross-fostered young provide information about how the social and physical environment influences behavior.
D.Cross-fostering studies provide information about the relative importance of nature and nurture in the development of a trait.
B & C