Acid, base, salt, and water balance Flashcards


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created 7 years ago by JorDan_Reynolds
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biology 176
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1

Which cells of the kidney are the most important for regulation of pH of body fluids?

a. Intercalated cells

b. Principal cells

c. DCT cells

d. Glomerular podocytes

e. PCT cells

f. podocytes

g. macula densa cells

a. Intercalated cells

2

Which protein is the main protein buffer in blood plasma?

a. Calmodulin

b. Fibrin

c. Hemoglobin

d. Complement

e. Albumin

e. Albumin

3

An illness causes Doug to experience severe diarrhea and an accompanying loss of bicarbonate-rich secretions. How can this metabolic acidosis be compensated?

a. vasoconstriction

b. hypoventilation

c.increased respiratory rate and depth

d.enhanced sodium ion loss in urine

e. increased renin secretion

c.increased respiratory rate and depth

4

Insufficient parathyroid hormone production in the body could result in ________.

a.kidney stones

b.muscle twitching

c. diarrhea

d.muscle weakness

e.cardiac arrhythmia

b.muscle twitching

5

Mary finds that she regularly retains water at a certain point in the menstrual cycle. Which of the following is chemically similar to aldosterone, and like aldosterone, enhances NaCl reabsorption in the renal tubules?

a. luteinizing hormone

b. follicle-stimulating hormone

c. testosterone

d. progesterone

e. estrogen

e. estrogen

6

What part of the brain is considered to be the thirst center?

a. Brain stem

b. Cerebrum

c. Midbrain

d. Hypothalamus

e. Thalamus

d. Hypothalamus

7

Which of the following is a common cause of respiratory acidosis?

a. Loss of bicarbonate ions due to renal dysfunction

b. Loss of acid due to vomiting

c. Hyperventilation due to pulmonary disease

d. Hypoventilation due to emphysema

e. All of these are correct

f. none of these are correct

d. Hypoventilation due to emphysema

8

Which of the following chemicals is considered to be a volatile acid?

a. bicarbonate

b. Calmodulin

c. Carbon dioxide

d. Carbonic acid

e. Oxygen

f. Hemoglobin

d. Carbonic acid

9

Which of the following is the most common cause of metabolic alkalosis?

a. hypertension

b. Cancer

c. Pneumothroax

d. Vomiting

e. Hemorrhage

f. Diabetes

d. Vomiting

10

The regulation of potassium balance ________.

a. is not linked to sodium balance

b. involves aldosterone-induced secretion of potassium

c. is accomplished mainly by hepatic mechanisms

d. includes renal secretion, but never absorption

b. involves aldosterone-induced secretion of potassium

11

Inadequate exhalation of carbon dioxide can cause

a. Respiratory compensation

b. Blood pH to drop

c. Metabolic alkalosis

d. Alkalosis

e. Unequal distribution of water

b. Blood pH to drop

12

In partial compensation

a. pH is greater than 5.5

b. pH is brought into the normal range

c. pH is lower than 2.5

d. systemic arterial blood is higher than 9.5

e. systemic arterial blood is still lower than 7.35

e. systemic arterial blood is still lower than 7.35

13

Metabolic reactions can produce

a. Nonvolatile acids

b. Ca+

c. HCO3 -

d. Volatile bases

e. H+

a. Nonvolatile acids

14

Most of the phosphate in a body is present as

a. Carbohydrates

b. Plasma membranes

c. Lipids

d. Calcium phosphate salt

e. DNA

d. Calcium phosphate salt

15

The Na+ level in blood is controlled by

a. potassium

b. ATP production

c. Glucagon

d. Aldosterone

e. Insulin

f. Krebs cycle

g. rennin

d. Aldosterone

16

Annie has just eaten a large order of heavily salted French fries, some pickled eggs, and some cheese. How will consuming this much salt affect her physiology?

a.It will cause a prolonged increase in the osmolality of the blood.

b.There will be a temporary increase in blood volume.

c.She will experience hypotension.

d. There will be a shift in the pH of her body fluids to the higher side of the pH scale.

b.There will be a temporary increase in blood volume.

17

In intracellular fluid the most abundant cation is:

a. Cl -

b. HCO3 -

c. HPO4 2-

d. K+

e. Na+

d. K+

18

In intracellular fluid the most abundant anion is

a. HPO4 2-

b. Cl -

c. Na+

d. HCO3 -

e. K+

a. HPO4 2-

19

A decline in angiotensin II levels does NOT result in

a. Increased GFR

b. Increased Calcium reabsorption

c. Reduced water reabsorption by the kidneys

d. Reduced Na+ and Cl - reabsorption by the kidneys

e. Increased urine output

e. Increased urine output

20

Blood analysis indicates a low pH, and the patient is breathing rapidly. Given your knowledge of acid-base balance, which of the following is most likely?

a. respiratory acidosis

b.metabolic acidosis

c.metabolic alkalosis

d.respiratory alkalosis

e. none of the choicesf. all of the choices

b.metabolic acidosis

21

Which of the following is NOT a disorder of water balance?

a. hypotonic hydration, in which sodium content is normal but water content is high

b.edema or tissue swelling, which is usually due to an increased capillary hydrostatic pressure

c.excessive hydration due to excess atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion

d.excess water in interstitial spaces due to a low level of plasma proteins

c.excessive hydration due to excess atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion

22

Which of the following statements is true regarding fluid shifts?

a.Electrolytes are not as important as proteins in regulating fluid shifts in the body.

b.Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes and therefore have the greatest ability to cause fluid shifts.

c.Nonelectrolytes are the controlling factor in directing fluid shifts.

d.There are always more positive electrolytes than negative in a solution; it is therefore impossible to follow fluid shifts.

b.Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes and therefore have the greatest ability to cause fluid shifts.

23

Which of the following is NOT a chemical buffer system?

a. bicarbonate

b. phosphate

c. protein

d. nucleic acid

d. nucleic acid

24

What hormone reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasoconstriction and sodium ion and water retention?

a. thyroxine

b. renin

c.antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

d. aldosterone

e.atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

e.atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)