At the conclusion of meiosis in plants, the end products are always
Which of the following is the correct sequence during the alternation
of generations life cycle in a flowering plant?
A) sporophyte → meiosis → gametophyte → gametes → fertilization → diploid zygote
B) sporophyte → mitosis → gametophyte → meiosis → sporophyte
C) haploid gametophyte → gametes → meiosis → fertilization → diploid sporophyte
D) sporophyte → spores → meiosis → gametophyte → gametes
E) haploid sporophyte → spores → fertilization → diploid gametophyte
Based on studies of plant evolution and anatomy, which flower part is
least likely to have evolved from a leaf?
All of the following floral parts are involved in pollination or
fertilization except the
Which of the following is the correct order of floral organs from the
outside to the inside of a complete flower?
A) petals → sepals → stamens → carpels
B) sepals → stamens → petals → carpels
C) spores → gametes → zygote → embryo
D) sepals → petals → stamens → carpels
E) male gametophyte → female gametophyte → sepals → petals
A perfect flower is fertile, but may be either complete or
incomplete. Which of the following correctly describes a perfect
A) It has no sepals.
B) It has fused carpels.
C) It is on a dioecious plant.
D) It has no endosperm.
E) It has both stamens and carpels.
The male wasp, Campsoscolia ciliata, transfers pollen from one orchid
to another orchid of the same species. What "reward" does
the male wasp receive from the orchid plants for helping with the
A) a supply of energy-rich nectar
B) volatile chemical hormones that help the male wasp find a sexually receptive female
C) no reward; the male wasp is deceived by the flower shape and odor
D) successful copulation with the flower
E) a store of nectar that the wasp can use in time of famine
At the conclusion of meiosis in plants, the end products are always
Which of the following is true in plants?
A) Mitosis occurs in gametophytes to produce gametes.
B) Meiosis occurs in sporophytes to produce spores.
C) The gametophyte is within the flower in angiosperms.
D) Mitosis occurs in gametophytes to produce gametes, and meiosis occurs in sporophytes to produce spores.
E) Mitosis occurs in gametophytes to produce gametes, meiosis occurs in sporophytes to produce spores, and the gametophyte is within the flower in angiosperms.
Which of the following are true of most angiosperms?
A) They have a triploid endosperm within the seed.
B) They have an ovary that becomes a fruit.
C) They have a small (reduced) sporophyte.
D) They have a triploid endosperm within the seed and an ovary that becomes a fruit.
E) They have a triploid endosperm within the seed, an ovary that becomes a fruit, and a small (reduced) sporophyte.
The ovary is most often located on/in the
Microsporangia in flowering plants are located in the
In some angiosperms, other floral parts contribute to what is
commonly called the fruit. Which of the following fruits is derived
mostly from an enlarged receptacle?
All of the following are primary functions of flowers except
A) pollen production.
D) egg production.
E) sexual reproduction.
Meiosis occurs within all of the following flower parts except the
A) are perfect.
B) are complete.
C) produce pollen.
D) are found only on dioecious plants.
E) develop into fruits.
In flowering plants, pollen is released from the
E) pollen tube.
Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in a pollen
A) sporangia → meiosis → two haploid cells → meiosis → two pollen grains per cell
B) pollen grain → meiosis → two generative cells → two tube cells per pollen grain
C) two haploid cells → meiosis → generative cell → tube cell-fertilization → pollen grain
D) pollen grain → mitosis → microspores → meiosis → generative cell plus tube cell
E) microsporocyte → meiosis → microspores → mitosis → two haploid cells per pollen grain
Which of the following occurs in an angiosperm ovule?
A) An antheridium forms from the megasporophyte.
B) A megaspore mother cell undergoes meiosis.
C) The egg nucleus is usually diploid.
D) A pollen tube emerges to accept pollen after pollination.
E) The endosperm surrounds the megaspore mother cell.
Where and by which process are sperm cells formed in plants?
A) meiosis in pollen grains
B) meiosis in anthers
C) mitosis in male gametophyte pollen tube
D) mitosis in the micropyle
E) mitosis in the embryo sac
In which of the following pairs are the two terms equivalent?
B) embryo sacfemale gametophyte
C) endospermmale gametophyte
E) microsporepollen grain
Which of the following is the male gametophyte of a flowering plant?
C) pollen grain
D) embryo sac
Which of the following would be considered a multiple fruit?
E) corn on the cob
In flowering plants, a mature male gametophyte contains
A) two haploid gametes and a diploid pollen grain.
B) a generative cell and a tube cell.
C) two sperm nuclei and one tube cell nucleus.
D) two haploid microspores.
E) a haploid nucleus and a diploid pollen wall.
What is the difference between pollination and fertilization in
A) Fertilization precedes pollination.
B) Pollination easily occurs between plants of different species, whereas fertilization is within a species.
C) Pollen is formed within megasporangia so that male and female gametes are near each other.
D) Pollination is the transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma. Fertilization is the fusion of haploid nuclei.
E) If fertilization occurs, pollination is unnecessary.
All of the following may function in signal transduction in plants
A) calcium ions.
B) nonrandom mutations.
C) receptor proteins.
E) secondary messengers.
External stimuli would be received most quickly by a plant cell if
the receptors for signal transduction were located in the
A) plasma membrane.
B) cytoplasmic matrix.
C) endoplasmic reticulum.
D) nuclear membrane.
What would happen if the secondary messenger cGMP was blocked in the
A) Specific protein kinase 1 would be activated, and greening would occur.
B) Ca2+ channels would not open, and no greening would occur.
C) Ca2+ channels could open, and specific protein kinase 2 could still be produced.
D) No transcription of genes that function in de-etiolation would occur.
E) Transcription of de-etiolation genes in the nucleus would not be affected.
If protein synthesis was blocked in etiolated cells, what would be
necessary for the "greening" of these cells?
A) reception of light by phytochrome
B) activation of protein kinase 1 by cAMP
C) activation of protein kinase 2 by Ca2+
D) post-translational modification of existing proteins
E) 100-fold decrease in cytosolic Ca2+ levels
Plants growing in a partially dark environment will grow toward light
in a response called phototropism. Which of the following statements
is true regarding phototropism?
A) It is caused by an electrical signal.
B) One chemical involved is ethylene.
C) Auxin causes a growth increase on one side of the stem.
D) Auxin causes a decrease in growth on the side of the stem exposed to light.
E) Removing the apical meristem enhances phototropism.
Which of the following conclusions is supported by the research of
both Went and Charles and Francis Darwin on shoot responses to light?
A) When shoots are exposed to light, a chemical substance migrates toward the light.
B) Agar contains a chemical substance that mimics a plant hormone.
C) A chemical substance involved in shoot bending is produced in shoot tips.
D) Once shoot tips have been cut, normal growth cannot be induced.
E) Light stimulates the synthesis of a plant hormone that responds to light.
The ripening of fruit and the dropping of leaves and fruit are
principally controlled by
C) indole acetic acid.
E) carbon dioxide concentration (in air).
The plant hormone involved in aging and ripening of fruit is
D) abscisic acid.
When growing plants in culture, IAA is used to stimulate cell
enlargement. Which plant growth regulator has to now be added to
stimulate cell division?
B) indoleacetic acid
E) abscisic acid
How does indoleacetic acid affect fruit development?
A) by preventing pollination
B) by inhibiting formation of the ovule
C) by promoting gene expression in cambial tissue
D) by promoting rapid growth of the ovary
E) by inducing the formation of brassinosteroids
What plant hormones might be used to enhance stem elongation and fruit growth?
Auxins and gibberellins
According to the acid growth hypothesis, auxin works by
A) dissolving sieve plates, permitting more rapid transport of nutrients.
B) dissolving the cell membranes temporarily, permitting cells that were on the verge of dividing to divide more rapidly.
C) changing the pH within the cell, which would permit the electron transport chain to operate more efficiently.
D) increasing wall plasticity and allowing the affected cell walls to elongate.
E) greatly increasing the rate of deposition of cell wall material.
Which of the following hormones would be most useful in promoting the
rooting of plant cuttings?
B) abscisic acid
Both red and blue light are involved in
A) stem elongation.
C) positive phototropism.
D) tracking seasons.
E) all of the above.
The biological clock controlling circadian rhythms must ultimately
A) depend on environmental cues.
B) affect gene transcription.
C) stabilize on a 24-hour cycle.
D) speed up or slow down with increasing or decreasing temperature.
E) do all of the above.