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1

When a fault is expressed at the

surface, it is called a __________.

fault scarp

2

The name of the site where slippage

begins and earthquake waves radiate

outward is called the __________.

hypocenter

3

If the stress applied to the rock is

greater than rock strength, what

happens?

Blocks of rock will slide relative to one

another along a fault, causing an

earthquake.

4

The hanging wall moves __________

relative to the footwall in a __________

fault.

down; normal

5

Which of the following is a

characteristic of an S wave?

"shaking" particle motion at right

angles to the direction of wave travel

6

Which of the following might be seen

where strike-slip movement has

occurred?

offset fences

7

What best describes the movement of

P waves?

compression and expansion

8

Amongst all seismic waves, surface

waves __________.

have the slowest velocity

9

The names primary and secondary

refer to ___________.

wave speed

10

Define earthquake intensity.

A qualitative measure of the amount

of ground shaking at a certain

location.

11

A smaller earthquake in Virginia was

felt over a larger distance, as

compared to a larger earthquake in

California. What is a reason this

occurred?

colder crust

12

Richter magnitude (ML) is derived

from measuring __________ and

__________, and then plotting them on

a Richter diagram.

S minus P wave time; maximum S

wave height

13

Why is moment magnitude (MW)

preferred over Richter magnitude

(ML)?

Moment magnitude measures the

total energy released during an

earthquake and can adequately

measure the energy of large

earthquakes.

14

Which of the following best describes

liquefaction?

the transformation of stable soil into

loose, liquefied material that is able to

rise toward Earth's surface

15

Describe how sand volcanoes form.

An earthquake causes loose,

saturated sandy material to liquefy,

shoot upward through fractures of a

confining unit, and eventually erupt at

the surface.

16

__________ in the sandy layer causes

the ground to subside after sand

volcanoes form.

Tighter packing

17

Structures built on __________ will

become unstable during an

earthquake.

loose, saturated sediments

18

A tsunami is caused by __________.

anything that displaces water

19

A __________ is located at a plate

boundary between a subducting slab

of oceanic crust and an overlying

plate.

megathrust fault

20

What happens to tsunami waves as

they move closer to shore?

Velocity decreases and height

increases.

21

Which of the following locations on

the Circum-Pacific Belt are likely to

generate a tsunami?

west coast of South America

22

__________ is a seismic zone that has

not produced a large earthquake for a

considerable length of time.

A seismic gap