Geology Flashcards


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created 7 years ago by giacometto
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1

Which of the following correctly describes the Atlantic and Pacific continental margins?

The Atlantic is a passive margin, and the Pacific is an active margin

2

Choose the true statement regarding the continental shelf.

The shelf represents the flooded portions of continents.

3

Turbidity currents travel from the shelf through __________, creating deep sea fans.

canyons

4

Relationship of volcanism and seismicity to plate tectonics:

Volcanism is primarily found at divergent and convergent plate boundaries. Most seismicity occurs along plate boundaries of all three types.

5

If the subduction angle is steep, the overriding plate may undergo __________.

subduction erosion

6

Which of the following is true regarding shallow subduction angles?

Sediment and seamounts are scraped from the downgoing plate to produce an accretionary wedge.

7

What happens as plates diverge at an oceanic ridge?

New oceanic crust and lithospheric mantle are generated by the cooling of molten rock upwelling from the mantle

8

 What two layers of the ophiolite sequence are compositionally similar, but formed in different areas with respect to the crust?

Layer 2: Basalt pillow lavas and Layer 4: gabbro

9

Which of the following contains the entire ophiolite suite, in order from the mantle to the seafloor?

mantle peridotite
gabbro
sheeted dike complex
Basaltic pillow lavas
deep-sea sediments

10

What are the features associated with a divergent boundary that is spreading quickly?

a relatively smooth swell with gentle slopes

11

Which of the following accurately compares the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and East Pacific Rise?

The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is spreading at a much slower rate than the East Pacific Rise.

12

Name the correct order of rifting events.

crustal upwarp
rift valley
linear sea
ocean

13

The Gulf of Aden represents which part of the rifting sequence?

linear sea

14

The timing of __________ and continental breakup strongly correlate.

flood basalt formation

15

What feature connects the South American Paraná and African Entedeka flood basalts?

seamount chains

16

What sequence of rocks would you expect rift valley evolution to produce, from oldest to youngest?

volcanic rocks
classic sedimentary rocks
deep sea sedimentary rocks

17

Which of the following is a true statement regarding the Farallon Plate

It was an oceanic plate that used to exist between the Pacific and North American Plates.

18

The plate boundary in the U.S. Pacific Northwest is _____, while most of the California coast is characterized by a _____ plate boundary.

convergent; transform

19

Which statement regarding Baja Mexico and the city of Los Angeles is correct?

Both are located on the Pacific Plate

20

Strike-slip faulting of the Queen Charlotte and San Andreas fault systems shows __________.

a right lateral sense of motion

21

What happened to the Farallon Plate approximately 20 million years ago?

The San Andreas and Queen Charlotte Faults were established where it was subducted beneath the North American plate

22

Which of the following scenarios could result in the development of a compressional mountain belt?

two landmasses collide

23

Which geologic features would be present in compressional mountain belts? (Note: There may be more than one answer.)

folds
intrusive igneous rocks
thrust faults

24

Which of the following rocks are characteristic of compressional mountain building?

schist

25

Using the map provided in Figure 1, in which province would the Rocky Mountains of the United States be located?

card image

young mountain belts

26

Which of the following orogenies helped to create the Appalachian Mountains?

Taconic, Acadian, and Alleghanian

27

Which event marked the creation of the supercontinent Pangaea?

The Iapetus Ocean closed during the Alleghanian Orogeny.

28

Which of the Appalachian Mountain Belt Provinces are visible in the circled area of Figure 1?

card image

Valley and Ridge

29

Which of the following geographic provinces is the newest addition to the North American continent?

Coastal Plain

30

Which mountain range marks the boundary between the Indian and Eurasian Plates?

Himalayas

31

What kind of tectonic boundary is currently responsible for creating the Himalayas?

Continent-Continent Convergent Boundary

32

What geologic features were created in the Eurasian Plate when India underthrust beneath it?

thrust faults
thicker continental crust

33

As India moves northward, China and Southeast Asia are being relocated to the east and southeast because of "escape tectonics." What feature is allowing them to "escape"?

strike-slip faults

34

When the Indian Plate collided with Eurasian Plate, why didn't it subduct?

The Indian Plate is too buoyant.
The Indian Plate is too thick.

35

A terrane is __________.

a mass of rock that formed elsewhere and was added to a continent

36

Which tectonic boundary is associated with the addition of terranes to a continent?

convergent boundary

37

What is the name of the process by which terranes are added to continents?

accretion

38

Using the map in Figure 1, determine which of the named terranes accreted earliest to North America.

card image

Yukon-Tanana

39

The map in Figure 2 is a cross-section of the North American continent 600 million years ago and after the break-up of Pangaea approximately 200 million years ago. Which material(s) had been accreted to North America as terranes?

card image

Iapetus Ocean Island Arc and sediments
the Avalon Terrane
and a remnant of Africa