Module homework 2

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1

Fungi are particularly adept at infecting

Plants

2

Carriers

May have a persistent infection and may be a source of infection

3

Enzymes act on ______ to generate _______

Substrates, products

4

Glycolysis

Is also known as the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway

5

Enzymes act as

Catalysts

6

The ability to exist as either a trophozite or a cyst is characteristic of many

Protozoa

7

Members of the Archaea typically thrive in conditions of excessive

Heat, acidity, alkalinity, and salinity

8

Which of the following microbes is important to cheese making

Lactic acid bacteria and propionibacterium

9

Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria

Do not produce oxygen as a by-product and may obtain electrons from H2S

10

If reasonably pure preparations of a virus were available, the number of virus present may be determined by

Electron microscopy

11

Fleas

May transmit yersinia pestis

12

Why is it virtually impossible to stamp out a disease caused by a zoonotic virus

You'd have to drive the organism out to do so.

many vector organisms have multiple stages of their life cycle that can carry a zoonotic virus, which complicates controlling the vector-borne transmission

many viruses transmitted in this manner may utilize more than one vector organism

many zoonotic viruses may be able to reside in more than one host organism, complicating control measures

13

The genomes of free- living spirochetes are larger than those living in animal host. Why might this be

Free- living spirochetes will need genes to code for additional proteins to synthesize or obtain their own food from the environment around them. Parasitic spirochetes obtain nutrients from the animal host, and may not need to move towards those nutrients.

14

Which is true of competitive inhibition

Substrate and inhibitor both bind to the active site and sulfa antibiotic is a competitive inhibitor

15

Which type of phosphorylation does not require a membrane

Substrate level phosphorylation

16

Which of the following are obligate intracellular parasites

Chlamydia and Rickettsia

17

Specialized transduction

Involves the transfer of few specific genes, utilizes a defective virus and only involves genes near the viral DNA integration site

18

Pediculus humanus

Only uses humans as a host and can transmit a bacterial disease

19

Coccidioidomycosis is

A fungal disease and caused by Coccidioides sp.

20

Fermentation is sometimes used as a means of slowing food spoilage. Why would fermentation lead to this outcome

Fermentation will lead to production of acidic by-products, dropping the pH of the food below a level that bacteria can tolerate

21

Oxygen serves as the terminal electron acceptor in

Aerobic respiration

22

During penetration of E. coli by the T4 phage

The tail acts as a "hypodermic needle" injecting the phage DNA into the cell

23

Luminescence

is catalyzed by luciferase

may be controlled by quorum sensing

may be produced by bacteria

24

Organisms that may cause red tide are

Dinoflagellates

25

Streptococcus pyogenes

Is beta-hemolytic

26

The name given to the reaction involving addition of electrons or hydrogen atoms to a compound is termed

Reduction

27

One of the greatest causes of human deaths through time has been due to

Plasmodium spp.

28

Haustoria

Are specialized hyphae used by parasitic fungi

29

Deuteromycetes has been further classified using

rRNA analysis

30

Complex structures called fruiting bodies are a characteristic of

Myxobacteria

31

Prions are

An infectious protein

32

Why is it not surprising that AIDS patients frequently suffer a viral-induced tumor

HIV genomes intergrate into the host cell chromosomes. This intergration might result in loss of control of the cell cycle ( also known as cancer)

33

Fungi that are important for fermentation of fruits

Are yeast

are facultative anaerobes

grow well at acid pH

secrete enzymes that degrade organic molecules

34

The best known chronic infection involves

Hepatitis B

35

The family to which the Rhinovirus belongs is the

Picornaviridae

36

The formation of citric acid from oxaloacetic acid and an acetyl group begins

The Kreb cycle

37

How could heavily fertilized lawns contribute to cyanobacterial blooms in lakes and oceans

Run off from the lawns will get into the water system, leading to large amounts of nitrogen that can be used by cyanobacteria in water systems

38

Retroviruses are unique in that they

Use RNA as a template to make DNA

39

Proton motive force

Is used to synthesize ATP and is used to drive flagella rotation

40

In the phototrophic production of energy, the oxygen originates from

Water

41

After growth in tissue culture, the infected cells lyse and the virus may be harvested from

The Lysate,the liquid supernatant after centrifugation

42

The enveloped viruses typically obtain their envelope

From the host plasma membrane and as they exit the host

43

Organisms that typically produce colonies with a fried egg appearance are the

Mycoplasma

44

Coenzymes are derivatives of

Vitamins

45

Pseudomonas

Are resistant to many disinfectants and antimicrobials and are mostly harmless except for the opportunistic P. aeruginosa

46

Enzymes speed up reactions by

Lowering activation energy

47

Lyme disease is transmitted by

Ticks

48

A temperate phage

May be lysogenic and enters a lysogenic or lytic life cycle shortly after entering the host cell

49

Relatively little is known about many obligate anaerobes. Why might this be

It's much harder to provide the right atmospheric environment to cultivate obligate anaerobes, so it's Ben harder to study them

50

Environmental factors that may affect enzyme activity include

Temperature, pH, and salt

51

The pH at which most fungi thrive is

5.0

52

Algae are important environmentally as

Major producers of oxygen

53

Prions

Are made of protein only

54

Enzymes that function inside a cell are

Endoenzymes

55

A student argued that aerobic and anaerobic respiration should produce the same amount of energy. He argued that both processes are essentially the same-only the terminal electron acceptor is different. What's wrong with this argument

Not all electron acceptors are the same-some are closer in terms of electronegativity to their high-energy electron carrier molecules (NADH) than others. The amount of energy that can eventually be obtained is directly proportional to the degree of difference in electronegativity between the high energy electron carrier and the eventual terminal electron acceptor. The greater the difference, the greater the energy obtained. Oxygen typically has the highest electron affinity of the terminal electron acceptor utilized.

56

The small , Non-protein molecules that can be readily seperated from an enzyme and are responsible for transfer of atoms from one molecule to another are referred to as

Coenzymes

57

Lice and mites

May both be seperated by personal contact

58

Pyuvate can be metabolized along two major routes. They are

Fermentation and respiration

59

Which of the following structures would be the best choice as a biological indicator to test autoclave operations

Endospores formed by Geobacillus (Bacillus) stearothermophilus

60

Trepenoma and borrelia

Are spirochetes

61

Resistance of some animals to certain viral diseases is based on

Lack of specific receptors on the host cells

62

Streptomyces

Resemble fungi in their pattern of growth and produce a number of antibiotics

63

In which stage of aerobic respiration is water produced

Electron transport system

64

Endospores

Are a dormant form of a bacterium and are formed by members of medically relevant groups of bacteria

65

The changes that occur in virally infected cells are characteristic for a particular virus and are referred to as the

Cytopathic effect

66

How many carbon dioxide molecules are produced by the complete breakdown of one glucose molecule

6

67

Sexual reproduction in algae utilizes meiosis that results in the production of

Gametes with half the amount of DNA as in the parental cells

68

Each of the following statements about chemoorganotrophs is true except

They may use photophosphorylation to produce ATP

69

Biosynthetic reactions that require energy for the conversion of molecular subunits into larger molecules are called

Anabolic reactions

70

When glucose is broken down by glycolysis during bacterial fermentation, what is the net production of ATP

2ATP

71

The group of fungi in which sexual reproduction has not been observed is

Deuteromycetes

72

Each FADH2 from the Kreb cycle enters the electron transport system and gives rise to ___ ATP

2

73

Clostridium,Lactobacillus, and propionibacterium all

Oxidize organic compounds and use organic compounds as terminal electron acceptors

74

Glycolysis

Uses 2 ATP, produces 4 ATP, without oxygen

75

In the electron transport system

NADH donates electrons "upstream" of where FADH2 donates electrons

76

The electron transport system

Requires a membrane and generates a concentration gradient of protons

77

Each of the following are electron carriers except

FADP

78

Anoxygenic phototrophs

Use hydrogen sulfide or organic compounds as a source of electrons

79

The site in a photosynthetic eukaryotic cell where photosynthesis occurs is the

Chloroplast

80

Which of the following is not a process that regenerates ATP

Reductive phosphorylation

81

Prions affect the

Nervous system

82

Archaea are typically found living in extreme environments. An exception to this are the

Methanogens

83

Comparatively greater energy is released when

Oxygen is the final electron acceptor

84

Protozoan classification used to be based on their means of

Locomotion

85

The term " precurser metabolite " refers to molecules that

Are used in biosynthesis

86

Allosteric enzymes

Have an additional binding site that is involved in regulating enzyme activity

87

A student complains that it makes no sense to worry about coli form bacteria in water, since we naturally possess harmless coli forms in our intestines anyway. Why do regulatory agencies worry about coliform bacteria in water supplies, then

Not all coliforms are harmless and symbiotic with human beings. Some may carry genes/proteins that can make them dangerous to humans. It's best to keep coliform OUT of our drinking water, since it's difficult to identify which ones might be harmless and which ones might be harmful

88

Fungi are important because of their ability to

Help many plants grow

cause disease in plants

make certain foods and beverages

spoil food

89

Spongiform encephalopathy occurs in

Humans

cattle

sheep

90

The readily usable energy currency of cells is

ATP

91

Viruses may not be cultivated in

Blood agar

92

How do anoxygenic phototrophs benefit from possessing accessory pigments that allow light to be harvested at deeper areas of a fluid environment

This allows even anaerobic microbes to conduct photosynthesis, as they can harvest light energy in the deeper areas where oxygen won't be present, use wavelengths of light not absorbed (filtered out) by the photosynthetic organisms closer to the surface of the fluid, and don't have to compete with other cells that utilize oxygen in the upper levels for the scarce nutrients in the fluid environment

93

Dimorphic fungi

May grow as mycelia or yeast and are often associated with disease in humans

94

Most enzymes function best at

Slightly above pH 7 and low salt concentration

95

Many spirochetes are difficult to cultivate, so their classification is based on their

Morphology and ability to cause disease

96

Viroids characteristically are composed of

ssRNA

97

The most common starting pathway for the breakdown of sugars is

Glycolysis

98

Substrate level phosphorylation occurs in

Glycolysis and Kreb cycle

99

The use of the suffix "ase" on a word denotes an

Enzyme

100

Bacteria that may form endospores include

Clostridium and bacillus

101

Which of the following colonize the vagina during childbearing years

Lactobacilli

102

The correct order for the stages of a phage infection is

Attachment, penetration, transcription, replication of nucleic acid and protein, assembly, release

103

Helicobacter pylori

Inhabit the stomach

104

In the case of T-even phages, the burst size is about

200 per host cell

105

The principal sites of amphibolic interaction occur during

Glycolysis and Kreb cycle

106

Cells degrade sugar largely to

Gain energy

107

The filamentous phages all contain

Single-stranded DNA

108

Lactic acid bacteria such as lactococcus

Are obligate fermenters

109

Which of the following processes generates the greatest amount of energy

Aerobic respiration

110

Mycoplasma

Lack peptidoglycan, are the smallest free-living organism and have sterols in their membranes

111

Gonyaulax

Produces a non-protein neurotoxin and is a dinoflagellate

112

Exergonic reactions

Occur when there is more free energy in the reactants than the products

113

Tapeworms

Do not have a digest system and may be transmitted by eating undercooked meat

114

Concerning catabolism and anabolism

The intermediates of one serve as the reactants in the other and the energy gathered in one is utilized in the other

115

Animal viruses are divided into a number of families whose names end in

Viridae

116

Viroids cause disease in

Plants

117

Which are true of coenzymes

They are organic molecules

they transfer atoms from one molecule to another

they may bind to a number of different enzymes

they are synthesized from vitamins

118

The Gram-positive rod that is also acid fast and is human pathogen is

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

119

Fungi are important in

Food production

food spoilage

production of antibiotics

disease of plants

120

Reticulate and elementary bodies are two forms of

Chlamydia

121

In bacterial cells, when glucose is completely oxidized by all the pathways of aerobic cellular respiration, what is the maximum number of ATP

38 ATP

122

The concentration of virus that infects or kills 50% of the host cells is referred to as the

LD 50 and ID 50-

123

As the electron transport carriers shuttle electrons, they actively pump _____ into the outer membrane compartment setting up a concentration gradient called the proton motive force.

Hydrogen ions

124

Fermentation

Uses an organic molecule as the final electron acceptor

125

Fungal diseases are generally referred to as

Mycoses

126

Which are true regarding organic acids

They are weak acids

they are often involved in metabolic reactions

they often exist in the ionized form at the near-neutral pH found in a cell.

pyruvate and pyruvic acid refer to different forms of the same substance

127

What part of the attached bacteriophage enters through the host cell wall

The nucleic acid

128

The step involving ATP p, hexokinase and the phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate is

An example of substrate level phosphorylation

129

Cells taken from a tumor

May be used to grow viruses and can be cultivated in vitro indefinitely

130

Is antigenic shift alone likely to lead to influenza pandemics

Perhaps but it would most likely be a mixture of antigenic shift and drift that would result in a pandemic strain

131

Nematodes

Are roundworms and are found in the gastrointestinal tract or the blood