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Campbell Biology
Chapters 41, 43
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1

Osomoregulation

process of maintain water balance

2

excretion

removal of liquid waste

3

hyperosomotic

higher solute and lower free H2O

4

hyposomotic

lower solute and higher free h2O

5

osmoconformer

isnt able to cope with excessive water

6

osmoregulator

maintain of water balance

7

What happen to osmotic stress in freshwater?

organism will hyperosmotic. water stress because more in the body than out the body. excrete salts ions and large amounts of water in dilute urine

8

What cause osmotic stress in saltwater?

organism will be hyperosmotic.dissolve more solution in water. excrete small amounts of water

9

osmotic stress in terrestrial environment

water sources

- drinking water

eating

metabolism

most of water human have is from drinking from and 1/3 of water is from what you eat

10

what happen to water in terrestial organisms

loss water to the environment

11

liquid wastes

removed via process of nitrogenous wastes

12

who break down amnonia to urea

most amphibians,sharks,and some bony fishes

13

who's breakdown amnonia to uric acid

many reptiles

14

animal excretory system

none=porifera and cnidarians

protonephridia=flatworms

metanephridia= earthworms

malphigian tubules= insects, terrestrial arthopod

15

protonephridia

allows osmoregulate under lower

16

metanephridia

tubes that associated capillaries and blood vessels of earthworms and fluid can be modify. higher water balance

17

malphigian tubules

pulling water from hemolymph to nitrogenous wastes a way to regulate fluid inside the body.

18

excretory/urinary stem of vertebrates

kidney- organ of urinary system

ureter

urinary bladder(mammals only)

19

variation of urine concentration

hyposmotic=fish, amphibians, non-avian reptiles

hyperosmotic= birds and mammals

20

Why the difference?

urine concentration is less compare to blood. mammals have more concentration compare to blood so don't loss alot of water

21

mammalian urinary system

anatomy-

kidney- produce urine, conserves water, regulates pH

ureter- transport urine from kidney to bladder

urinary bladder- stores urine

urethra-transports urine from urinary bladder to outside

22

kidney:Gross Anatomy

Renal artery- bring blood in

Renal vein-bring blood out

25% of cardiac output goes to kidney

each renal prymid release one urine filled spaces

23

Mesosis 1

#1 Diploid --> 2 Haploid

Reduction in chromosome

Pro- crossing over homologous pairs

,eta- line up hortizonal

Ana- homologous pairs lined

tel- two haploid

crossing between homologous pairs of chromosomes--> increase genetic variability

24

Crossing over

occurs between homologous pairs of chromosome during Prophase 1

piece of DNA exchange between chromatids --> chiasma -->genetic recombination

humans- x-over occurs - 2 times /chromosome pair

2^23 possibility of crossing over

25

meiosis 2

no change chromosome number -> mitosis

prophase 2 -

Meta 2-lineup

ana- sister chromatid

tel-four daughter cells

26

male primary sex organs

organ- testes

function- produce spermatoga

spermatogenesis+ spermogenesis

27

semiforous tubules

where spermogenesis ishappening, can go through mitosis and mesosis most of goes through spermtogenesis basically like meiosis. where spermogenesis make its theshape.

28

hormonal regulation

hypothalamus release GnRh then travels to Ant.Pituary gland then released FSH&LH

29

Gonadotropin

influence gonad

negative feedback loop where inhibin is produce n the sperm to prevent too much

30

Female reproductive cycle

primary organ-vagina

functions- produce egg

two parts

ovarian cycle

uterine cycle

31

ovarian cycle

ovarian follicles are changing. consist of- oocyte which is surround by follicular cells.

32

associated with prometeral follicles

not active which will called primary follicles when become active. primary estrogen. ovarian cells been produce estrogen then it change

33

when we communicate, what is sent?

Nerves impulses

34

communication within an organism can happen through two ways

Electrical

Chemical

35

what is organ system ?

nervous system

36

what is neurons?

basic functional unit

3 basic properties such as axons, cell body, and dendrite

37

divisions of nervous system

  1. Central nervous system
  2. peripheral nervous system
  3. motor (efferent) division
  4. sensory (afferent) division
  5. somatic nervous system
  6. autonomic nervous system
38

Central nervous system

  • brain and spinal cord
  • integrative and control centers
39

peripheral nervous system

  • cranial nerves and spinal nerves
  • communicate between the CNS and rest of body
40

motor division

  • conduct impulses from CNS to the effectors such as muscle and glands
41

sensory division

  • somatic and viceral sensory
  • conducts impulses from receptors to the CNS
42

somatic nervous system

voluntary

conducts impulses from CNS to skeletal muscles

43

autonomic nervous system

involuntary

conducts impulses from CNS to cardiac muscles, smooth muscles, and glands

44

sympathetic division

mobilizes body system during emergency situations

45

parasympathetic division

conserves energy

promotes nonemergency functions

46

Glial cells

...

47

Myelin

formed by oligodendrocytes in CNS and Schwann cells in PNS

High lipid content

diet fat is important to early nervous system development

myelin is like rubber insulation aroun neurons

48

disease of myelin sheath

Mutliple sclerosis- oligodendrocytes and myelin sheath of CNS deteriorate. replaced by scar tissue. nerve conduction is disrupted

Tay Sachs

cause of nerve cells in CNS

49

Resting membrane potential

ions are unevenly distributed between extracellular fluid and intracellular fluid

intracellular fluid has high potassium concentration

extracellular fluid has high levels of sodium

50

action potential

  • depolarization
  • stimulus
  • rest stage
  • NA enters cell
  • -55 mv reached
  • open voltage gated channels
  • more NA into the cell
  • inside the cell is positive
51

repolarization

voltage gated, K leaves the cell

negative inside cell

NA-K pump restores memebrane potential to -70 mv

52

Synapses

neuron and another cell

neurotransmitter

when sodium goes inside the cell potential increase

53

CNS- Gray and white matter

gray matter

  • no myelin
  • has neuron cell bodies,dendrities,interneurons
  • sometimes called neurons in the brain

white matter

  • has myelinated axons
  • referred to as tracts
  • contain neuron cell bodies and glial cells
  • not contain myelin
54

spinal cord

information highway to brain and trunk/ limbs

enclosed in 3 menigeal layers

conduct sensory impulses from PNS to brain

conduct motor impulses from brain to skeletal muscles. smooth muscles. heart, glands

integration of reflexes

55

reflexes and the reflex arc

receptor

  • responds to stimulus
  • nerve impulse initiated in a sensory neuron

sensory (unipolar) neuron

  • cell body is in dorsal root ganglion
  • nerve impulses travel into spinal cord through dorsal root to posterior horn of gray matter

integration center

region of spinal cord where incoming sensory information generates outgoing motor impulse

contain interneurons

motor (multipolar) neuron

transmits nerve impulses to muscle/ gland through ventral root to spinal nerve

Effector

organ (gland or muscle) that responds to impulse from the motor neuron