Brain and Behavior Chp 14

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1

Brain imaging research has shown that activity in the ______ is reduced in individuals with dyslexia.
A) left temporoparietal cortex
B) left occipital cortex
C) right frontal cortex
D) right temporoparietal cortex

A

2

______ is probably the most common learning disability.
A) Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder
B) Autism
C) Dyslexia
D) Dyscalculia

C

3

______ is a change in an organism’s behavior as a result of experience.
A) Learning
B) Memory
C) Cognition
D) All of the answers are correct.

A

4

______ is a change in the ability to recall or recognize previous experience.
A) Learning
B) Memory
C) Reasoning
D) All of the answers are correct

B

5

Last year, every time John watched a football game at his friend’s house, he drank beer. Now, whenever John watches a football game, he finds himself craving beer. This is an example of:
A) Pavlovian (classical) conditioning.
B) operant conditioning.
C) fear conditioning.
D) the successful use of beer commercials during football games.

A

6

A stimulus followed by food, followed by salivation, is a learning paradigm called:
A) Pavlovian conditioning.
B) classical conditioning.
C) respondent conditioning.
D) All of the answers are correct.

D

7

In a conditioning experiment Andrew hears a tone just prior to receiving a puff of air to his eye that causes an eye blink response. In this experiment the tone is the ____, the puff of air to the eye is the ______ and the eye blink is the ______.
A) unconditioned stimulus; conditioned stimulus; unconditioned response
B) conditioned stimulus; unconditioned stimulus; unconditioned response
C) unconditioned stimulus; conditioned stimulus; conditioned response
D) conditioned response, conditioned stimulus; unconditioned stimulus

B

8

Pavlovian conditioning is controlled by circuits in the:
A) frontal cortex.
B) thalamus.
C) brainstem.
D) cerebellum.

D

9

Eye-blink conditioning is an example of:
A) respondent conditioning.
B) instrumental conditioning.
C) operant conditioning.
D) fear conditioning.

A

10

Eye-blink conditioning involves neural circuits in the:
A) cerebellum.
B) amygdala.
C) orbital frontal cortex.
D) occipital lobe.

A

11

Fear conditioning involves neural circuits in the:
A) hypothalamus.
B) amygdala.
C) frontal lobe.
D) cerebellum.

B

12

Once Melissa was trapped in an elevator all alone for almost 3 hours when the power went out. Now whenever she gets near an elevator, she freezes up and starts gasping for air as if she cannot breathe. This is an example of:
A) classical conditioning.
B) operant conditioning.
C) fear conditioning.
D) respondent conditioning.

D

13

Fear conditioning is controlled by the ______, and Pavlovian conditioning is mediated by the ______.
A) hypothalamus; cerebellum
B) brainstem; basal ganglia
C) amygdala; basal ganglia
D) amygdala; cerebellum

D

14

You are in a crowded supermarket with your 4-year-old nephew. When you are in the candy aisle, he asks you for a chocolate bar. You initially refuse, saying that it is not good for him to eat candy. He begins to cry and whine loudly. Embarrassed by all the attention you are attracting, you buy him the chocolate bar to stop him from crying. Now every time you go to the store, your nephew whines until you buy him something. This is an example of:
A) operant conditioning.
B) fear conditioning.
C) classical conditioning.
D) respondent conditioning.

A

15

Pressing a bar to obtain food is an example of:
A) respondent conditioning.
B) classical conditioning.
C) instrumental conditioning.
D) amygdala conditioning.

C

16

Instrumental conditioning circuits are found:
A) in the amygdala.
B) in the cerebellum.
C) throughout the brain.
D) in the frontal cortex.

C

17

Implicit memory has been demonstrated in:
A) verbal tasks.
B) motor tasks.
C) neither verbal tasks nor motor tasks.
D) both verbal tasks and motor tasks.

D

18

Which of the following is not an example of implicit memory?
A) You have not been on a bicycle for almost 10 years, but you can still ride one.
B) You have learned to associate a tone with a puff of air to your eye that causes an eye blink.
C) You figured out a word in your crossword puzzle more quickly because you overheard
someone say the word this morning at work, even though you do not remember actually
hearing it.
D) You remember the day that your coach taught you how to properly catch a baseball.

D

19

Amnesiacs generally lose the ability to do:
A) explicit and implicit memory tasks.
B) explicit memory tasks.
C) implicit memory tasks.
D) any verbal-content tasks but not motor tasks.

B

20

Another term for implicit memory is:
A) skill.
B) working memory.
C) declarative memory.
D) episodic memory.

A

21

Another word for explicit memory is:
A) reference.
B) skill.
C) habit.
D) episodic memory.

D

22

Which of the following terms is used instead of implicit memory?
A) nonassociative memory
B) episodic memory
C) elaboration
D) working memory

A

23

Which of the following terms is used instead of explicit memory?
A) skill
B) representational memory
C) reference memory
D) habit memory

B

24

Explicit memory is to implicit memory as:
A) skill is to fact.
B) conscious is to unconscious.
C) semantic is to episodic.
D) reference is to working.

B

25

Which of the following would be regarded as examples of explicit learning?
A) Pavlov’s classical conditioning
B) Thorndike’s instrumental learning
C) Skinner’s operant learning
D) None of the answers is correct.

D

26

Implicit memory relies on:
A) top-down processing.
B) data-driven processing.
C) bottom-up processing.
D) both top-down and data-driven processing.

D

27

Explicit memory relies mainly on ______ processes, and implicit memory relies mainly on ______ processes.
A) bottom-up; top-down
B) automatic; voluntary
C) top-down; bottom-up
D) reflexive; cognitive

C

28

Which of the following structures play an important role in short-term memory or temporary memory?
A) temporal lobes
B) frontal lobes
C) occipital lobes
D) parietal lobes

B

29

The temporal lobes are critical for ______, and the frontal lobes are important for ______.
A) short-term memory; long-term memory
B) verbal memory; visual memory
C) long-term memory; short-term memory
D) implicit memory; explicit memory

C

30

Martin and colleagues showed subjects black-and-white line drawings of objects and asked them to generate words denoting either colors of the objects or actions of the objects. While subjects were doing the task, positron emission tomography (PET) scans were recorded. The researchers found activation in the _____ when recalling the colors of the objects and activation in the ______ when recalling the actions associated with the objects:
A) temporal lobes; occipital lobes.
B) frontal lobes; temporal lobes.
C) temporal lobes; parietal and frontal lobes.
D) temporal and frontal lobes; parietal lobes

C

31

In your text, the patient K.C. is described as someone who sustained serious traumatic brain injury in a motorcycle accident. Among his deficits was the fact that:
A) he could not play chess.
B) his short-term memory was impaired.
C) he could no longer remember his birthday.
D) he could not recall any personally experienced events.

D

32

A patient who sustained a brain injury in a mountain biking accident has a peculiar memory deficit. He has normal working memory and good long-term memory. However, he is completely unable to remember any personal events in his life, such as his college graduation or his birthday party from less than a week ago. You suspect that he may have damage to his:
A) temporal lobes.
B) cerebellum.
C) frontal lobes.
D) parietal lobes.

C

33

Karl Lashley is remembered for his discovery:
A) of operant conditioning.
B) of the localized nature of memory.
C) that memory loss was a function of the size of a lesion on the brain, not the location.
D) that the temporal lobes are the location of memory.

C

34

Karl Lashley’s failure to impair explicit memory following brain lesions in experimental animals was probably because:
A) he never lesioned the medial temporal lobes.
B) he used the wrong kind of animals.
C) he used primarily implicit memory tests.
D) he never lesioned the medial temporal lobes, and he used primarily implicit memory tes

D

35

H. M., the memory patient described in your text, underwent:
A) bilateral removal of the frontal lobes.
B) bilateral removal of the temporal lobes.
C) removal of the left temporal lobe.
D) removal of the left frontal lobe.

B

36

Which of the following was largely unaffected after the memory patient H. M.’s surgery?
A) implicit memory
B) verbal memory
C) explicit memory
D) visuospatial memory

A

37

The patient J. K. had Parkinson’s disease. He showed a deficit in:
A) verbal memory.
B) visuospatial memory.
C) implicit memory.
D) explicit memory.

C

38

A patient named Boswell was described in your text as having severe amnesia—both for events prior to and after his illness—while maintaining implicit memory. His brain damage included the:
A) medial temporal cortex.
B) basal ganglia.
C) sensory cortex.
D) motor cortex.

A

39

The ______ is the final stop in a major pathway leading from the cortex to the hippocampus.
A) perirhinal cortex
B) parahippocampal cortex
C) entorhinal cortex
D) orbitofrontal cortex

C

40

The three cortical regions, in addition to the hippocampus and amygdala, that take part in explicit memory are the:
A) entorhinal, parahippocampal, and occipital cortices.
B) entorhinal, perirhinal, and parahippocampal cortices.
C) frontal, perirhinal, and entorhinal cortices.
D) parietal, perirhinal, and parahippocampal cortices.

B

41

Which of the following areas is most likely involved in visuospatial memory?
A) basal ganglia
B) parahippocampal region
C) perirhinal region
D) limbic region

B

42

Which of the following areas first shows cell death in Alzheimer’s disease?
A) hippocampus
B) entorhinal cortex
C) perirhinal cortex
D) parahippocampal cortex

B

43

Neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are often found in patients with:
A) herpes encephalitis.
B) Huntington’s disease.
C) Parkinson’s disease.
D) Alzheimer’s disease.

D

44

Recent research has suggested that Alzheimer’s disease may be due to:
A) genetic defects.
B) poor diet.
C) a series of microbleeds in the brain.
D) exposure to carbon monoxide.

C

45

Alzheimer’s disease:
A) can be positively diagnosed only at autopsy.
B) is characterized by cortical plaques.
C) is associated with a loss of cholinergic cells in the basal forebrain.
D) All of the answers are correct.

D

46

Which of the following areas is most likely to play a role in visual object memory?
A) parahippocampal region
B) limbic lobe
C) perirhinal region
D) basal ganglia

C

47

In recent studies the hippocampus has been implicated in:
A) memory for faces.
B) visual object memory.
C) memory for places.
D) verbal memory.

C

48

Monkeys with perirhinal lesions are impaired at ______ , and monkeys with hippocampal lesions are impaired at _____.
A) object position tasks; visual recognition tasks
B) visual recognition tasks; object position tasks
C) spatial learning; verbal learning
D) visual recognition; episodic memory

B

49

Sherry and colleagues have found that birds that cache food for the winter:
A) have a hippocampal formation that is more than twice as large as one would expect, given the size of the bird.
B) have hippocampal formations that are the same size as those of other birds.
C) have a hippocampal formation that is more than ten times as large as one would expect, given
the size of the bird.
D) have smaller hippocampal formations than those of birds that do not cache.

A

50

Maguire and colleagues found that London taxi drivers ______ than controls.
A) had larger frontal lobes
B) had a larger anterior hippocampus
C) had a larger posterior hippocampus
D) had a larger parietal cortex

C

51

If shown a series of photographs in a specific order, patients with ______ would not be able to remember the photographs or the order they were presented in, and patients with ______ would remember the photographs but would not be able to remember the order they were presented in.
A) frontal lobe damage; medial temporal lobe damage
B) medial temporal lobe damage; parietal lobe damage
C) medial temporal lobe damage; frontal lobe damage
D) frontal lobe damage; parietal lobe damage

C

52

The frontal lobe appears to be involved in:
A) spatial memory.
B) memory for faces.
C) verbal memory.
D) memory for the temporal order of events

D

53

If a monkey has to remember the position of a light for a delay period after the light goes out, neurons in the ______ fire to help the monkey retain a memory trace.
A) hippocampus
B) prefrontal cortex
C) inferior temporal cortex
D) occipital cortex

B

54

If a monkey is trained to remember the position of a light after it goes out, the activity of neurons in the prefrontal cortex will:
A) increase if the monkey forgets the position of the target.
B) decrease if the monkey correctly remembers the position of the target.
C) decrease if the monkey forgets the position of the target.
D) not fire differentially to correct or incorrect responses.

C

55

In monkeys, cells in the prefrontal cortex will fire during a:
A) delayed-alternation task.
B) delayed-matching-to-sample task.
C) delayed-response task.
D) All of the answers are correct.

D

56

Patients with Korsakoff’s syndrome usually have:
A) a thiamine deficiency.
B) atrophy of the frontal lobes.
C) a deficit in implicit memory only.
D) a thiamine deficiency and atrophy of the frontal lobes.

D

57

Patients with Korsakoff’s syndrome often have damage to:
A) the medial thalamus.
B) the mammillary bodies.
C) both the medial thalamus and the mammillary bodies.
D) the hippocampus.

C

58

Patients with Korsakoff’s syndrome have problems with:
A) explicit memory.
B) implicit memory.
C) both explicit and implicit memory.
D) only autobiographical memories.

C

59

Early research with patient H. M. demonstrated that the hippocampus:
A) was the storage site for all long-term memories.
B) was the storage site for all short-term memories.
C) played a critical role in memory consolidation.
D) played no important role in memory.

C

60

Mishkin and his colleagues have hypothesized that the ______ is(are) central to implicit memory.
A) hippocampus
B) basal ganglia
C) frontal lobes
D) medial temporal cortex

B

61

According to Mishkin and colleagues, which patient group would most likely have the worst implicit memory performance?
A) patients with Parkinson’s disease
B) patients with damage to the hippocampus
C) patients with damage to the prefrontal cortex
D) patients with Alzheimer’s disease

A

62

It has been argued that emotional memory involves which of the following structures?
A) thalamus
B) hypothalamus
C) amygdala
D) thalamus and hypothalamus

C

63

Which of the following is not part of the neural circuit for emotional memories?
A) amygdala
B) basal ganglia
C) hypothalamus
D) cerebellum

D

64

Which nucleus of the amygdala is critical for creating emotional memories?
A) the central nucleus
B) the lateral nucleus
C) the basolateral nucleus
D) the dorsal nucleus

C

65

The notion that memory storage might involve changes in the structure of synapses was first put forward by:
A) Santiago Ramón y Cajal
B) Camillo Golgi
C) Donald Hebb
D) Wilder Penfield

A

66

Long-term potentiation (LTP) involves repeated:
A) high-frequency electrical stimulation resulting in a long-lasting increase in synaptic
effectiveness.
B) low-frequency electrical stimulation resulting in a long-lasting increase in synaptic
effectiveness.
C) high-frequency electrical stimulation resulting in a short-term increase in synaptic
effectiveness.
D) high-frequency electrical stimulation resulting in a long-lasting decrease in synaptic
effectiveness.

A

67

Long-term depression (LTD) involves repeated:
A) high-frequency electrical stimulation resulting in a long-lasting increase in synaptic
effectiveness.
B) low-frequency electrical stimulation resulting in a long-lasting decrease in synaptic
effectiveness.
C) high-frequency electrical stimulation resulting in a short-term decrease in synaptic
effectiveness.
D) high-frequency electrical stimulation resulting in a long-lasting decrease in synaptic
effectiveness.

B

68

During LTP_____ enters postsynaptic NMDA receptors to begin a chain of events that lead to an increase in the number of postsynaptic AMPA receptors.
A) Ca2+
B) Na+
C) Cl–
D) K+

A

69

Which neurotransmitter is needed to activate NMDA and AMPA receptors?
A) GABA
B) glutamate
C) acetylcholine
D) dopamine

B

70

For a postsynaptic NMDA receptor to be activated:
A) glutamate must bind to it.
B) the postsynaptic membrane must be depolarized.
C) glutamate must bind to it and the postsynaptic membrane must be depolarized.
D) acetylcholine must bind to it and the postsynaptic membrane must be depolarized.

C

71

For a postsynaptic AMPA receptor to become activated:
A) glutamate must bind to it.
B) the postsynaptic membrane must be depolarized.
C) glutamate must bind to it and the postsynaptic membrane must be depolarized.
D) acetylcholine must bind to it and the postsynaptic membrane must be depolarized.

A

72

Changes in dendritic morphology:
A) occur spontaneously over days or weeks.
B) indirectly represent new connections between widely separated brain regions.
C) imply the addition or subtraction of synapses.
D) imply new circuitry.

C

73

Research suggests that LTP increases synaptic effectiveness by:
A) increasing the size of axons.
B) increasing the firing rate of presynaptic neurons.
C) increasing the number of synapses on postsynaptic dendrites.
D) decreasing the amount of glutamate released by presynaptic neurons.

A

74

Bromode-oxyuridine (BrdU) experiments have found that new neurons have been generated in the adult mammalian brain. These neurons migrate to the:
A) frontal lobes.
B) olfactory bulbs.
C) hippocampus.
D) All of these answers are correct.

D

75

Woollett and Maguire conducted MRI scans on people before and after the subjects underwent training to become a London taxi driver. The results of the study demonstrated that:
A) prior to training, those who later became taxi drivers had larger hippocampi.
B) there was no correlation between succeeding or failing to become a taxi driver and the size of
the hippocampus.
C) those who became taxi drivers showed an increase in hippocampal volume from pretest to
posttest.
D) None of the answers is correct.

C

76

If you want to increase children’s ability to learn later in life, a good option would be to:
A) get them involved in sports.
B) teach them to play a musical instrument.
C) encourage them to read often.
D) All of the answers are correct.

D

77

Enriched environments in adult rats have been shown to increase the number of:
A) neurons.
B) synapses.
C) blood capillaries.
D) synapses and blood capillaries.

D

78

Cortical representation of motor parts (e.g., fingers):
A) is fixed during development.
B) can be altered by experience.
C) can be altered by amputation of a limb.
D) can be altered by both experience and amputation of a limb.

D

79

The phenomenon of phantom limb after amputation can most easily be explained by:
A) encroachment of the denervated cortex area by some other part of the body. Thus when that
part of the body is stimulated, the brain is tricked into thinking that the limb still exists.
B) stimulation of the nerve endings of the stump.
C) collateral stimulation of the thalamus.
D) degeneration of the cortical area representing the lost limb.

A

80

Your friend Devin (who is left-handed) has played the electric guitar for almost 20 years. If you conducted an MRI scan of Devin’s brain, you would expect to see an increase in the size of his:
A) hand region in motor cortex in the left hemisphere.
B) basal ganglia in the left hemisphere.
C) hand region in motor cortex in the right hemisphere.
D) cerebellum in the right hemisphere.

C

81

Research by Scheibel and colleagues found that dendritic branching increased in_____ in people with high levels of education.
A) Wernicke’s area
B) Broca’s area
C) the hippocampus
D) the motor cortex

A

82

A(n) ______ leads to an increase in the number of dendritic spines, and a(n) ______ leads to a decrease in dendritic spines.
A) increase in estrogen; decrease in estrogen
B) decrease in estrogen; increase in estrogen
C) increase in testosterone; decrease in testosterone D) decrease in testosterone; increase in testosterone

A

83

Prolonged exposure to the hormones called glucocorticoids:
A) increases dendritic branching in the hippocampus.
B) kills cells in the hippocampus.
C) decreases glial numbers.
D) increases spatial memory.

B

84

Neurotrophic factors:
A) reorganize neural circuits.
B) are produced by neurons.
C) are produced by glial cells.
D) All of the answers are correct.

D

85

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF):
A) increases the number of new neurons.
B) increases myelination.
C) increases the size of axons.
D) increases the number of dendrites and synapses.

D

86

One of your friends routinely uses study pills (i.e., Ritalin) to help him stay awake and pull all- nighters during exam time. Normally if he takes a small dose he is fine, but lately when he takes the same dose he gets extremely agitated and cannot sit still. The same dose is having a larger effect on him than it used to. This is an example of:
A) drug addiction.
B) tolerance.
C) behavioral sensitization.
D) withdrawal.

C

87

If rats are given cocaine for 2 weeks prior to being placed in a complex environment, there is:
A) an increase in dendritic length and dendritic spine density.
B) a decrease in dendritic length and dendritic spine density.
C) no change in dendritic length and dendritic spine density.
D) an increase in the number of new axons.

C

88

Repeated exposure to amphetamine or cocaine:
A) decreases spine density in the frontal cortex.
B) results in a lesser response over time.
C) results in a long-lasting change in the brain.
D) All of the answers are correct.

C

89

After brain damage, new connections can be encouraged by:
A) pharmacological intervention.
B) behavior therapy.
C) both behavior therapy and pharmacological intervention.
D) neither behavior therapy nor pharmacological intervention.

C

90

Administration of ______ has been shown to help improve recovery from brain injury in animals.
A) L-dopa
B) steroids
C) nerve growth factor
D) All of the answers are correct.

C

91

Transplanting brain tissue:
A) works as well as transplanting other organs.
B) effectively reverses Parkinson’s disease.
C) is especially effective in the cortex.
D) is not a very effective technique.

D

92

Brain tissue transplant has shown some promise in treating:
A) Alzheimer’s disease.
B) Huntington’s disease.
C) anterograde amnesia.
D) Parkinson’s disease.

D

93

In animal models, the administration of nerve growth factor (NGF) following a stroke has been shown to:
A) stimulate dendritic growth.
B) increase the number of new neurons.
C) have no effects on recovery.
D) decrease tissue inflammation.

A

94

Injecting epidermal growth factor into the ventricle of a live animal:
A) produces only progenitor cells.
B) will produce functional regrowth in a brain-damaged animal.
C) produces cells that eventually differentiate into neurons and glia.
D) produces only cells that turn into glia.

C