Functions of the urinary system include
A)regulating blood pressure.B)excreting waste products.C)secreting a hormone that stimulates production of red blood cells.D)maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance and pH.E)all of the above
Which of the following is the smallest unit of the urinary system capable of forming urine?
Feedback: A nephron and collecting duct is the smallest unit capable of forming urine.
vBlood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves enter and exit the kidney through what structure?
Of the layers of tissue that surround the kidney, which layer is a fibrous connective tissue?
The layer of fatty tissue that surrounds the renal capsule
cushions the kidney from mechanical shock.
The layer that holds the kidney in place within the abdominal cavity is called the
The inner region of the kidney that appears to contain striated triangles (i.e. the renal pyramids) is called the
Feedback: The inner region of the kidney that appears to contain striated triangles (i.e. the renal pyramids) is called the renal medulla.
Nephrons are found running through which two layers of the kidney?
Feedback: Nephrons run through the cortex and medulla.
The apexes of the renal pyramids are called renal
In addition to the blood vessels, the nephron consists of two other principal parts, the ______ where the fluid is filtered and a ______ into which the filtered fluid passes.
glomerulus; renal tubule
The _____ drains blood from the glomerular capillaries.
Feedback: The efferent arteriole drains blood from the glomerulus.
Which of the following descend into the medulla?
loop of Henle
Trace the flow of filtrate formation to urine in the renal pelvis.
glomerulus-glomerular capsule-proximal tubules-loop of Henle-distal tubules-collecting duct-renal pelvis
What are the cells called that wrap pedicels around the glomerular capillaries?
Feedback: Podocytes wrap pedicels around the glomerular capillaries.
Which of the following does NOT contain a smooth muscle layer?
Feedback: Kidneys do not contain a layer of smooth muscle.
The kidney lies on the dorsal wall of the ______ cavity.
The most superficial covering of the urinary bladder on the posterior and inferior surface is the
Feedback: The outermost layer or covering of an organ is the adventitia.
What is the principal function of the ureter?
transport urine from the renal pelvis into the urinary bladder
Urine moves down the ureters by way of
hydrostatic pressure.B)gravity.C)peristaltic contractions.D)All the above.
What structure receives urine flowing down the ureters?
The small tube leading from the floor of the urinary bladder to the exterior of the body is the
What is the terminal portion of the urinary system?
The urinary bladder
A)contains no smooth muscle.B)varies in size depending on how full it is.C)has a capacity of approximately 10 ml.D)Both B and C.
The small triangular area in the floor of the urinary bladder that does not expand much during filling is the
Feedback: The small triangular area in the floor of the urinary bladder that does not expand much during filling is the trigone.
Which of the following is composed of skeletal muscle?
Feedback: The external urethra sphincter is composed of skeletal muscle.
In the male what functions does the urethra serve?
discharge of semen and urine
How much blood enters the renal arteries per minute?
Feedback: Blood flow through the renal arteries is cardiac output (5600 ml/min) x 21 % = approximately 1200 ml/min.
Where does the first step in the production of urine occur?
In the kidneys, the largest volume of water reabsorption occurs in which of the following?
A large amount of passive water reabsorption follows active Na+ reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubules.
In the kidneys, the largest volume of glucose reabsorption occurs in which of the following?
Feedback: The largest volume of glucose reabsorption occurs in the proximal tubules.
Which of the following determines the rate of chloride reabsorption in the kidney?
Feedback: The negatively charged ions are passively reabsorbed down an electrical gradient created by movement of positively charged ions, especially sodium ions.
There are three basic renal processes for urine formation. Which of the following is NOT one of these processes?
In glomerular filtration, what is the normal value for net filtration pressure?
Feedback: Net filtration pressure is the difference between the forces favoring filtration (50 mm Hg) and forces opposing the filtration (40 mm Hg).
Which of the following filtered substances is NOT present in normal urine?
Feedback: Glucose in the urine (glycosuria) is a clinical sign of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus.
Filtration of blood in the glomeruli is promoted by
Feedback: Hydrostatic pressure forces plasma out of the glomerular capillaries and into Bowman's capsule to form filtrate.
Small proteins, like albumin, that pass into the filtrate from the glomerulus are usually reabsorbed by
Feedback: Small proteins, like albumin, that pass into the filtrate from the glomerulus are usually reabsorbed by endocytosis.
The concentration of solutes in tubular fluid is greatest in
the loop of Henle.
Which of the following would pass from the glomerulus to Bowman's capsule most easily?
Feedback: The smaller size of glucose allows it to pass from the glomerulus to Bowman's capsule the easiest.
Normally most filtered bicarbonate ions are reabsorbed in the
Feedback: The reabsorption of most bicarbonate ions occurs in the proximal tubule.
The reabsorption of glucose and amino acids is mediated by
A)facilitated diffusionB)symtransportC)antiportD)Both A and B.
What solutes contribute to the osmotic pressure of interstitial fluid in the renal medulla?
)NaClB)ureaC)uric acidD)both A and B
Which of the following is derived from amino acids and can be found in urine?
Feedback: Urea is a metabolic breakdown product of proteins and amino acids.
The kidney secretes a hormone that triggers a cascade that regulates blood Na+ and blood pressure. It is called
Feedback: Renin is manufactured by the kidney's juxtaglomerular cells in response to reduced blood pressure.
The kidney has a built-in system to maintain a stable glomerular filtration rate and compensate for moderate changes in systemic arterial pressure for a short period of time. What is the name of this system?
Urine that is hypotonic to blood plasma are produced when
Feedback: Hypotonic urine occurs when blood electrolyte levels are low, blood volume is high, and levels of antidiuretic hormone are low.
Angiotensinogen is produced by the
Feedback: Angiotensinogen is a plasma protein produced by the liver.
Vasopressin (ADH) acts at the level of the basolateral membrane in the distal tubules and _____________.
How do diuretics affect the urine?
increase the urine flow
How can you tell if your patient has diabetes insipidus?
A)very dilute urineB)extreme thirstC)decrease in ADHD)all the above
The most common cause of glucose in the urine is untreated diabetes mellitus, in which the
Feedback: The most common cause of glucose in the urine is untreated diabetes mellitus, in which the transport maximum for glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubule is exceeded.
If the level of aldosterone in the blood increases, then
more potassium is excreted in the urine.
If a substance is readily filtered but not reabsorbed or secreted its renal clearance rate
Feedback: If a substance is filtered but not reabsorbed or secreted its renal clearance rate equals the GFR.
Renal threshold equals
Feedback: Renal threshold equals plasma concentration at which reabsorption mechanisms are saturated and the molecule appears in urine.
If a substance has exceeded its transport maximum (Tmax) in the kidney tubules, it is likely that
Feedback: If a substance has exceeded its transport maximum (Tmax) in the kidney tubules, it is likely that the concentration of the substance in the blood would become unusually high.
The reason insulin is used to determine glomerular filtration rate is because it is
Feedback: Inulin is filtered, but neither secreted nor reabsorbed.
Which of the following is not a characteristic of substances that are used to measure plasma clearance?
Feedback: In plasma clearance, substances must not be metabolized by the kidneys.
Which of the following may occur in patients with severe diabetes mellitus?
Tubular load for glucose may exceed tubular maximum for glucose.
A bladder containing _____ml of urine could be close to bursting point in an average-sized human.
What is the term for elimination of urine from the urinary bladder?
What are some common constituents of kidney stones (renal calculi)?
Feedback: Kidney stones contain uric acid, calcium, and magnesium.
Which of the following would increase the frequency of peristaltic contractions in the ureters?
Feedback: Parasympathetic stimulation causes increased peristalsis in the ureters.
At about what volume of urine does the bladder create strong action potentials to be sent to the spinal cord and a sensation of discomfort?
500ml of urine
Which of the following areas of the brain are involved with the voluntary initiation of micturition?
Pyelonephritis relates to which of the following?
Feedback: Pyelonephritis is an inflammation of the renal pelvis.
Cystitis relates to which of the following?
Feedback: It is an inflammation of the urinary bladder.