Obesity is most clearly linked to which of the following cancers?
Regarding the connection between methods of cooking meat and the risk of cancer, which of the following statements is true?
Pot-roasting and stewing produces carcinogens known to cause cancer in animals.
Consumption of rare meat is a recognized risk factor for gastrointestinal cancer.
Individuals have genetic differences in enzymes that influence the activation of carcinogens.
Microwaving inactivates carcinogens that form in protein foods during cooking.
Some evidence suggests which of the following vegetables are specifically protective against cancer?
corn and peas
Brussels sprouts and broccoli
bean sprouts and water chestnuts
green beans and spinach
Which of the following foods is likely to be well received by a cancer client with mouth ulcerations?
hot tomato soup
bread pudding with raisins
In caring for a client in protective isolation, which of the following gifts should the nurse intercept and refer to the dietitian?
hamburger and French fries
cream of asparagus soup
praline pecan fudge
Which of the following food items act as lubricants for the person with swallowing difficulty?
butter, cheese sauce, and gravy
vegetable soup, lasagna, and pickled beets
creamed herring, sauerkraut, and fruit cocktail
chicken gumbo soup, spaghetti with meat sauce, and milk toast
Before a chemotherapy treatment, a client tells the nurse that one of his or her favorite foods is carrot cake and asks if he or she can have some after receiving treatment. The best response by the nurse is to:
ask the family to bring in the cake
suggest waiting to see how he or she feels after treatment
refer the client to the dietitian
tell the client that the cake contains too many empty kilocalories and he or she should eat something that provides balanced nutrition
Which of the following items or practices is associated with the development of cancer?
low alcohol intake
excessive intake of fatty fish
low-temperature cooking of meat
consumption of pickled and smoked foods
Vitamin ______ is thought to protect against cancer development because of its role in cell differentiation of epithelial tissue.
A client asks for advice before implementing a dietary restriction that a recent study suggested would help to prevent cancer. Which of the following statements should underlie the nurse's response?
If the result was statistically significant, the behavior should be recommended.
The applicability of the result would be valid if the client is similar to the subjects in the study.
If the study analyzed biological measures of success, the results should be safe to implement.
It is rare that the result of a single study is an adequate reason to radically change a person's behavior.
The wasting that occurs in some cancer clients is attributed to:
alteration in the body's metabolism produced by the tumor
poor appetite and taste changes
inability to absorb nutrients due to intestinal pressure
the treatments given
To maximize food intake when a cancer client suffers from nausea and vomiting, the nurse should:
administer antiemetic and analgesic drugs as needed
distract the client after eating with mild exercise
give liberal amounts of liquids with meals
tempt the client with his or her favorite foods
White blood cells that recognize foreign material such as cancer cells as “non-self” are:
Cooking beef or pork in a microwave oven or in ______ may help to minimize metallic tastes.
a pressure cooker
a tabletop broiler
Wasting of the body seen in some chronic diseases such as AIDS, cancer, malaria, and tuberculosis is called:
The term for cancer of the epithelial tissue, such as the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, is:
Which of the following items is suggested for a client with a poor appetite as an additive to increase the nutritional value of regular foods?
dry skim milk
A nursing intervention that may help increase the food intake for a client receiving chemotherapy is:
distracting the client with television during meals
doubling the dose of antiemetics when the client feels nauseous
scheduling meals for least-nauseous times of the day
serving foods the client considers favorites
A client has read about the links between fat and an increased incidence of cancer of various organs. The client asks for help in choosing dietary practices to minimize personal risk. Which of the following is the best advice to give the client?
“Avoid all consumption of animal flesh.”
“Limit servings of meat to 3 to 5 ounces twice a day.”
“Moderate total energy intake as well as fat intake to control body weight.”
“Select as many foods containing fat substitutes as possible.”
The first step in the evolution of a normal cell to a cancer cell in which a gene is altered by some force or agent is ______.
Megestrol is a drug given to cancer clients for its ______ action.
To lessen the bitter taste of meat that clients with cancer sometimes report, it may help to serve the meat ______.
at room temperature
at body temperature
The second step in the evolution of a normal cell to a cancer cell, which may take 30 years to develop, is ______.
A client has received radiation treatments to the abdomen and now suffers from diarrhea. Which of the following diet modifications is likely to help the client?
high polyunsaturated fat
A client with cancer suffers from early satiety. Which of the following interventions is recommended to increase his or her food intake?
starting total parenteral nutrition
hand-feeding the client
serving smooth, bland foods
offering six small meals
A client with cancer suffers from early satiety. Which of the following interventions should be tried first?
initiating enteral feedings
limiting milk products
offering 1 ounce of complete supplement every hour
serving nutrient-dense fluids with meals
A client with cancer has painful lesions in his or her mouth. Which of the following snack items is most likely to be well tolerated?
cream cheese on soda crackers
tiny cheese crackers
Which of the following is the best advice regarding diet and cancer prevention?
Include a beta carotene supplement in case the vitamin has been destroyed by cooking.
Select only organically grown foods.
Consume a cruciferous vegetable with every meal.
Eat a balanced, varied diet with plenty of fruits and vegetables.
Which of the following statements is correct regarding antioxidant intake and cancer?
Carotene, ascorbic acid, vitamin E, and selenium are proven to protect against cancer development.
Taking antioxidant supplements at triple the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) levels will do no harm.
No clear scientific conclusion has been reached regarding antioxidants during therapy.
Lycopene has been inversely associated with risk of lung cancer.
Commercially prepared enteral solutions are preferred to homemade feeding for cancer patients because:
The commercial products have a better taste in case vomiting follows administration.
Homemade products are more likely to plug the tubing than commercial products.
Caregivers' time can be better utilized than with blending foods and supplements.
The commercially prepared solutions are less subject to contamination than a homemade feeding.
Which of the following nursing interventions help cancer clients with anorexia maintain nutritional intake?
1. Allow person adequate time between meals to become hungry.
2. Encourage a rest period before meals.
3. Offer attractively served meals.
4. Vary supplement flavors to prevent taste fatigue.
1 and 2
1 and 4
2 and 3
3 and 4
A client would like to add vitamins A, C, and E to his or her daily intake as a cancer preventive practice and to compensate for his or her rushed lifestyle and daily consumption of fast food. Which of the following statements is the best basis for the nurse's response?
Antioxidant vitamins are known to decrease many types of cancers and have no known adverse effects.
The fat in fast food may promote increased absorption of vitamins A and E to a dangerous extent.
The concentrated amounts of vitamins in supplements are a sure means of preventing cancer.
Whole foods have been shown to be more effective than their known components in preventing cancer.
Which of the following cooking techniques may reduce carcingens in ground beef patties?
slow pan frying, frequent turning
combining liberal amounts of chopped onion with the meat before forming patties
discarding saturated fat drippings after cooking
quick grilling over high heat
If a client questions the nurse about the risk for cancer attributed to salt intake, the nurse's reply should be based on which of the following statements?
Diets containing large amounts of foods preserved by salting and pickling increase the risk of colon cancer.
No evidence suggests that moderate levels of salt used in cooking or flavoring foods affect cancer risk.
Increased desire for salt indicates a depleted state that should be remedied by eating salty foods.
None of the above are appropriate.
Diet is estimated to contribute to ______% of all human cancers.
Place the following components of the swallowing process in the correct order to combat nausea and vomiting. Begin with step 1.
1, 2, 3
2, 1, 3
2, 3, 1
3, 1, 2
Red and processed meat intake are related to increased risk of ______ cancer.
breast and bladder
colon and prostate
endometrial and ovarian
esophagus and stomach
Alcohol intake has been convincingly linked to which of the following sites of cancer occurrence?
Use of marinades is recommended in which of the following situations?
1. on grilled meats to reduce formation of heterocyclic amines (HCAs)
2. on meat to compensate for taste alterations in the cancer client
3. as salad dressings to increase kilocalorie intake
4. on sausages to reduce the amount of salt consumed
1 and 2
2 and 3
1 and 4
3 and 4
Long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is recommended in which of the following situations?
clients receiving oral chemotherapy agents
clients intolerant of oral/enteral feedings for 3 days
clients with residual gastrointestinal effects whose cancer is controlled
clients receiving radiotherapy for head and neck cancer
Providing drinking straws is most appropriate for the client with which of the following problems?