anterior pituitary gland is also called the
Which of the following events could be a result of damage to the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system?
decreased secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone
Secretion of many anterior pituitary hormones is controlled by other hormones from the
Anterior pituitary cells called mammotropes (lactotropes) secrete ________ which stimulates milk production in lactating women
Anterior pituitary cells called mammotropes (lactotropes) secrete ________ which stimulates milk production in lactating women
consists of nerve tissue, and is an extension of the hypothalamus?
From its point of secretion until it reaches its target cells, TRH is found in or passes through which structures?
hypothalamus, hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal vessels, anterior pituitary
The sella turcica is the location of which gland?
The hormone ADH is produced by cells whose bodies are in the ____, but it is actually released or secreted in the _____.
hypothalamus; posterior pituitary
If the hypothalamus fails to secrete GnRH, the effect would be
hyposecretion of pituitary gonadotropins
Osmoreceptor cells in the hypothalamus are involved in the secretion of
Releasing and inhibiting hormones are produced by the
hypothalamus to control the anterior pituitary
The term gonadotropins refers to this pair of hormones
FSH and LH
Which hormone is required for ovulation and formation of the corpus luteum
LH stands for luteinizing hormone. LH is required for ovulation and formation of the corpus luteum.
Which hormone stimulates its target cells to divide, increases their rate of protein synthesis, decreases their use of glucose and increases their use of fats
Growth hormone (GH) stimulates its target cells to divide, increases their rate of protein synthesis, decreases their use of glucose and increases their use of fats.
Which stimulus would increase the rate of growth hormone secretion
Stress increases the release of GHRH in the hypothalamus and GH in the anterior pituitary.
ADH is also called vasopressin because at high concentrations it causes
constriction of blood vessels
ADH is secreted in response to
increased osmotic pressure of the body fluids
Which hormone is sometimes given to women to induce (start) labor?
Oxytocin is sometimes given to women to induce (start) labor.
The primary action of antidiuretic hormone, also called vasopressin, is to
promote the retention of water by the kidneys.
Which of these is NOT a function of one or both of the pituitary gonadotropins?
stimulate milk production in the mammary gland
A hormone that stimulates the secretion of other hormones from other endocrine cells is called a
A hormone that stimulates the secretion of other hormones from other endocrine cells is called a tropic hormone.
All of the following pituitary gland hormones are tropic except
Diabetes mellitus is due to
Diabetes mellitus can be due to low levels of circulating insulin.
GnRH directly stimulates the release o
Elevated levels of which of the following hormones could cause a goiter?
Hypersecretion of which of the following hormones causes increased metabolic rate, sensitivity to heat, weight loss, and protruding eyes?
Hypersecretion of thyroid hormones causes increased metabolic rate, sensitivity to heat, weight loss, and protruding eyes.
The normal histological structure of which endocrine gland consists of small, spherical structures whose walls are made of one layer of cuboidal cells?
The thyroid gland consists of small, spherical structures (follicles) whose walls are made of one layer of cuboidal cells. The follicles are filled with thyroglobulin.
Which hormone is released in response to high blood calcium levels?
Calcitonin, secreted by the thyroid gland, is released in response to high blood calcium levels.
Lack of iodine in the diet causes decreased production of which hormone?
What is the function of thyroglobulin?
Thyroglobulin helps to synthesize and store thyroid hormones. The root "thyro" refers to the thyroid gland.
The thyroid gland is located
inferior to the larynx and anterior to the trachea.
Some people are born with extra parathyroid glands. This will most likely cause
Parathyroid hormone raises blood calcium levels by, among other things, taking it away from bone tissue.
Hypoparathyroidism causes hypocalcemia.
Which of the following statements concerning the effect of hormones on bones is NOT correct?
The incorrect statement is: Parathyroid hormone increases bone density and bone mass.
Which hormone is correctly matched with the cell type or location from which it is secreted?
Parafollicular cells secrete calcitonin.
The stimulus for release of PTH is
The stimulus for release of PTH is low calcium levels in the blood. PTH increases the activity of osteoclasts which breakdown the bone matrix to release calcium.
The primary effect of T3 and T4 is to
The thyroid hormones affect nearly all cells of the body by increasing metabolism.
Which of these is not involved in regulating blood calcium?
Which hormone helps with temperature homeostasis by causing increased body heat production in cold weather?
Thyroid hormone raises the metabolic rate and helps with temperature homeostasis by causing increased body heat production in cold weather.
The effect of hyposecretion of thyroid hormone during infancy is
The effect of hyposecretion of thyroid hormone during infancy is abnormal bone development and irreversible brain damage.
Which symptoms would be present in a case of aldosterone hyposecretion
The site of action of aldosterone is on the kidney tubules. Aldosterone hyposecretion would result in low blood sodium and high blood potassium levels.
Which endocrine gland is located just superior to the kidney?
"Reno" means "kidney." The adrenal gland is located just superior to the kidney.
The hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla have the same effects as the
Norepinephrine is secreted by the adrenal cortex and used as a neurotransmitter by postganglionic cells of the sympathetic nervous system.
Which of these hormones is not secreted by the adrenal cortex?
The adrenal cortex secretes only steroid hormones and does not secret norepinephrine.
Which of the following hormones helps to maintain blood glucose levels by stimulating gluconeogenesis?
Cortisol stimulates gluconeogenesis.
Which endocrine disorder is correctly matched with its cause?
Addison's disease leads to hyposecretion of adrenal cortex hormones.
Which hormone is closely associated with the body's response to stress?
Cortisol levels are elevated in response to stress.
The innermost layer of adrenal cortex is
Adrenal cortex is made up of three layers. The innermost layer of adrenal cortex is the zona reticularis.
The primary effect of mineralocorticoids is
The primary effect of mineralocorticoids is increased blood volume
The primary stimulus for the release of cortisol is
The primary stimulus for the release of cortisol is ACTH from the hypothalamus. ACTH stands for Adeno "corticotropic" hormone.
Which of the following hormones is NOT secreted by the pancreas?
Glucocorticoids are not secreted by the pancreas; they are secreted by the adrenal cortex. Look for a clue to the origin of these hormones in their name.
Which of the following hormones stimulates liver glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and fat breakdown?
Glucagon stimulates liver glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and fat breakdown. Both glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis lead to increased blood glucose levels.
Low blood glucose levels cause an increased secretion of
Low blood glucose levels cause an increased secretion of glucagon.
Which of the following inhibits insulin secretion?
: Hyperglycemia and somatostatin inhibit insulin secretion. (Hormone secretion may be inhibited by the opposite of the stimulus that causes its secretion.)
Which of these organs would be least affected by insulin hyposecretion?
Brain cells do not have the type of glucose transporters that are regulated by insulin.
Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus is usually caused by
failure of target cells to respond to insulin.
Which endocrine imbalance would cause hypoglycemia?
hypersecretion of insulin
In which sequence do these cause and effect events occur in someone
with diabetes mellitus?
1. Cells cannot absorb glucose.
2. Fat catabolism elevates blood ketone bodies.
3. Ketone bodies cause osmotic diuresis and ketoacidosis.
4. Cells switch to using fat and protein.
In diabetes mellitus, assuming type I, there is not enough insulin to allow all body cells to absorb the glucose they need, so they must use alternative fuels. The correct sequence is 1,4,2,3.
Primary targets for glucagon are ________ cells.
Islets of Langerhans are found in the
The pancreas is made of acinar cells and islets of Langerhans.
The stimulus for release of insulin is
The stimulus for release of insulin is increased levels of blood glucose.
If a blood test is performed immediately after eating lunch, one should expect to see an increased level of _________________ in the blood.
All of the digestive products, glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids, will be increased in the blood after a meal.
Three hours after food intake, one can expect the blood to have high levels of all of the following hormones except
Decreased levels of glucose at this time reduce the secretion of insulin.
Which of the following occurs 1 - 2 hours after a meal?
A few hours after a meal all of the above will decrease except for cortisol.
Which of the following hormones will increase in the blood when glucose levels are low?
growth hormone B)glucagon C)epinephrine D)All of the above.
Which of the following nutrients will commonly be metabolized for energy at the end of a long race?
Lipids are commonly used to make glucose for energy at the end of a long race.
Where are androgens produced in females?
Androgens are produced in the adrenal cortex in males and female
Mammary glands are targets for which of the following hormone/s?
Oxytocin is involved in milk production and prolactin plays an important role in milk expulsion.
The stimulus for the release of reproductive hormones is
The release of reproductive hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone) is under the control of LH and FSH from the anterior pituitary.
The main hormone responsible for maintaining pregnancy is
Which of the following hormones is not produced by the testes?
Which of the following statements about melatonin is correct?
The secretion of melatonin is controlled by environmental light and dark periods.
Melatonin's functions include
Melatonin's functions include inhibiting secretion of GnRH from the hypothalamus.
The thymus gland secretes a hormone that is involved in the
maturation of the immune system.
Which of the following hormones produced in the testes inhibits FSH production by the anterior pituitary?
Inhibin inhibits FSH production in the anterior pituitary.
Which of the following hormones is produced to strengthen the lining of the uterus during pregnancy?
Progesterone secretion strengthens the uterine lining during pregnancy.
Which of the following structures secrete inhibin?
Both the testes and ovaries can secrete inhibin.
Which of the following hormones secreted by the pineal body inhibits gonadotropin-releasing hormone?
Arginine vasotocin and melatonin inhibit GnRH secretion.
Which of the following is true about melatonin secretion?
Melatonin is secreted more at night and may affect sleep cycles.
Which of the following is NOT an effect of pineal body secretions?
Pineal body hormones probably do not affect appetite.
Prostaglandins are also known as
Prostaglandins are made from
Prostaglandins are made from the fatty acid, arachidonic acid
What is the chemical messenger released by the anterior pituitary that is known to have the same effect as opiate drugs and may be involved in regulating functions such as body temperature, food intake and water balance?
Beta endorphin is the chemical messenger released by the anterior pituitary that is known to have the same effect as opiate drugs and may be involved in regulating functions such as body temperature, food intake and water balance. Other members of this group are the enkephalins and dynorphins.
A deficiency of arachidonic acid would cause a deficiency of
A deficiency of arachidonic acid would cause a deficiency of prostaglandin.
Which of the following changes is not seen with aging?
No age related change in glucose levels is seen, however one sees age related development of type II diabetes.
Which of the following signals is considered a paracrine signal?
Endorphins act as paracrines to modulate pain.
Which of the following molecules bind to morphine receptors to moderate pain?
Enkephalin binds to morphine receptors to moderate pain.
Which of the following substances cause vasodilation and are associated with producing headaches?
Which of the following is true concerning hormonal levels in aging?
Some hormonal levels rise with aging, such as PTH, while most fall.
Which of the following does not decrease with age?
Elderly people may still be able to regulate blood sugar levels well.