chapter 27, 28

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reproductive system and pregnancy human development
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1

The primary function of the uterus is to:

receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized ovum.

2

Human egg and sperm are similar in that

they have the same number of chromosomes

3

All of the following can be considered male secondary sex characteristics except the

development of testes as opposed to ovaries.

4

Effects of estrogen include:

growth of the breasts at puberty.

5

Which of the following occurs as a result of undescended testes?

Inadequate or nonviable sperm will be produced

6

Normally menstruation occurs when:

blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease.

7

Which of the following will occur after ovulation?

The endometrium enters its secretory phase

8

Which of the following is a correct statement about uterine tubes

The infundibulum is the funnel-shaped region near the ovary

9

All of the following statements referring to the uterine cycle are true except:

FSH and LH directly promote development of the uterine endometrium.

10

The sperm's acrosome ____________________.

contains enzymes .The enzymes allow the sperm to penetrate the egg.

11

Which cell type is actually ovulated from the ovary

Secondary oocyte

12

Ovulation in a typical or "average" cycle usually occurs on day ____________________.

14

13

Milk ejection or let-down reflex is stimulated by which of the following hormones associated with pregnancy?

oxytocin

14

Which of the following is a highly unlikely method of producing a child?

ectopic implantation

15

The umbilical arteries carry:

waste products to the placenta.

16

Select the correct statement about fertilization

millions of sperm cells are destroyed by the vagina's acidic environment.

17

Following fertilization the zygote goes through a rapid period of cell divisions called ____________________.

cleavage/This results in the blastocyst, which has many smaller cells.

18

The hormone that induces labor and controls labor via a positive feedback mechanism is ____________________.

oxytocin/This hormone is produced in the mother's hypothalamus

19

Implantation of the blastocyst begins ____________________.

6-7 days after ovulation.

20

Match the reproductive hormone with the correct characteristic.

Testosterone – Produced by interstitial cells

GnRH – Produced in the hypothalamus

FSH – Stimulates oogenesis directly on follicle cells

Progesterone – Produced during the second half of ovarian cycle

LH – Directly stimulates interstitial cells in males,

21

Correctly match the following.

LH surge – Causes ovulation

Estrogen – Causes growth spurt at puberty

Testosterone – Responsible for sex drive in females

Progesterone – Promotes secretory phase of uterine cycle

22

Match the structures with their functions

Oxytocin – Causes contraction of uterus near the end of pregnancy

Estrogen – Rises throughout pregnancy

Relaxin – Causes pelvic ligaments and pubic symphysis to become more flexible

hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) – Lets the corpus luteum know you are pregnant

Progesterone – Quiets the uterus during pregnancy

23

Explain the function of the myometrium and endometrium.

The myometrium plays an active role during childbirth when it contracts rhythmically to force the baby out of the mother's body. The endometrium is the innermost lining of the uterus where the embryo implants and stays for the rest of its development.

24

What signals the corpus luteum to continue producing hormones if the oocyte is fertilized

Once the embryo has implanted, it sends out its own hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin, which stimulates the corpus luteum to maintain and even increase its hormone production.

25

What is the physiological importance of the fact that the male testes descend to reside in the scrotal sac?

The male testes descend into the scrotal sac so that a fairly constant intrascrotal temperature is maintained. Failure of the testes to descend results in sterility, because production of viable spermatozoa requires a temperature several degrees lower than normal body temperature.