Foundations of Biology Final Test 3

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1

Which of these can lead to activation of the brain’s reward system?

  1. Deceased inhibition of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons
  2. Increased dopamine secretion by VTA neurons
  3. Blocked dopamine reuptake from synaptic clefts of the reward pathway
  4. Decreased dopamine secretion by VTA neurons
  5. Increased dopamine reuptake from synaptic clefts of reward pathway

1, 2, or 3

2

Inebriated people have difficulty touching their noses with their eyes closed. Which part of the brain has been most impaired to bring about this difficulty?

Cerebellum

3

Arousal and sleep are controlled by the part of the brain called the

reticular formation

4

The formation of the fertilization membrane and the slow block to polyspermy are dependent on

the entrance of calcium ions into the egg

5

In the developing frog embryo, most of the yolk is ____.

Located near the vegetal pole

6

Assume that a single IPSP has a negative magnitude of -0.5 mV at the axon hillock, and that a single EPSP has a positive magnitude of +0.5 mV. For a neuron with an initial membrane potential of -70 mV, the net effect of the simultaneous arrival of six IPSPs and two EPSPs would be to move the membrane potential to

-72 mV

7

The embryonic structure which give rise to the human spinal cord is the

Neural tube

8

What is the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the brain?

Glutamate

9

This disorder of the nervous system is characterized by psychotic episodes in which patients have a distorted perception of reality

Schizophrenia

10

The point of connection between two communicating neurons is called

The synapse

11

Bottlenose dolphins can swim while sleeping, rising to the surface to breathe air on a regular basis. They can do this because

They alternate which half of their brains is asleep and which half is awake

12

Neurotransmitters that are classified as inhibitory, are expected to

Cause hyperpolarization of the membrane

13

The division of the nervous system that have antagonistic or opposing actions are

Sympathetic and parasympathetic

14

Two primary factors in shaping the polarity of the body axes in chick embryos are

Gravity and pH

15

The sodium-potassium pump of neurons trasports

3 Na+ out of the cell and 2 K+ into the cell

16

If a baseball player gets hit on the back of the head, which part of his brain is likely to be injured?

the primary visual cortex

17

The archenteron of the developing sea urchin eventually develops into the

Digestive tract

18

In multiple sclerosis the myelin sheaths around the axons of the brain and spinal cord are damaged and demyelination results. How does this disease manifest at the level of action potential?

I) Action potentials move in the opposite direction on the axon

II) Action Potentials move more slowly along the axon

III) No action potentials are transmitted.

Only II

19

If a patient has an injury in the brain stem, which of the following would be observed?

An inability to regulate respiration rate (i.e. the respiratory cycle)

20

Thalidomide, now banned for use as a sedative in pregnancy, was used in the early 1960s by many women in their first trimester of pregnancy. Some of these women gave birth to children with arm and leg deformities, suggesting that the drug most likely influenced ____.

Morphogenesis

21
card image

For the following questions (21 & 22), refer to the graph of an action potential in Figure 1 and use the letters to indicate your answer.

The minimum graded depolarization needed to operate the voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels is indicated by the letter

A

22
card image

For the following questions (21 & 22), refer to the graph of an action potential in Figure 1 and use the letters to indicate your answer.

The membrane potential is closest to the equilibrium potential for potassium at the letter

D

23

Which of the following activities would be associated with the parasympathetic division of the nervous system?

rest and Digestion

24

In some rare salamander species, all individuals are females. Reproduction relies on those females having access to sperm from males of other species. However, the resulting embryos receive no genetic contribution from the males. In this case, the sperm appear to be used only for ___.

Egg activation

25

The human knee-jerk reflex requires an intact

spinal cord

26

Preparation for the fight-or-flight response includes activation of the ___ nervous system

Sympathetic

27

Refer to the diagram below to answer the following question. If an amphibian zygote is manipulated so that the first cleavage plane fails to divide the grey crescent, then

Only the daughter cell with the grey crescent will develop normally

28

In an egg cell treated with EDTA, a chemical that binds calcium and magnesium ions, the

Fertilization envelope would not be formed

29

Assume that excessive consumption of ethanol increases the influx of negative chloride ions into “common sense” neurons whose action potentials are needed for you to act appropriately and not harm yourself or others. Thus, any resulting poor decisions associated with ethanol ingestion are likely due to

Decrease membrance depolarization of "common sense" neurons

30

What structural adaptations in chickens allows them to lay their eggs in arid environments rather than in water?

Amnion

31

Forming new memories is strikingly disrupted after damage of which of the following

Hippocampus

32

Which of the following shows a brain structure CORRECTLY paired with one of its primary functions?

frontal lobe -> decision making

33

An amino acid neurotransmitter that operates at inhibitory synapses in the brain is

GABA

34

Patients with damage to Wernicke’s area have difficulty ___.

Understanding language

35

A Toxin that binds specifically to voltage-gated sodium channels in axons would be expected to

Prevent the depolarization phase of the action potential

36

The “threshold” potential of a membrane

Is the minimum depolarization needed to operate the voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels

37

Contact of a sperm with signal molecules in the coat of an egg causes the sperm to undergo

The acrosomal reaction

38

Use the following information to answer questions 40 & 41. Long term potentiation refers to a lasting increase in the strength of synaptic transmission, and it has been proposed to be one of the underlying physiological mechanisms of memory

Which of the following receptors is directly involved in such strengthening of synapses?

NMDA receptors

39

Use the following information to answer questions 40 & 41. Long term potentiation refers to a lasting increase in the strength of synaptic transmission, and it has been proposed to be one of the underlying physiological mechanisms of memory

Which of the following is NOT required to activate such receptor involved in LTP ( answer from #40)

Calcium must be present

40

Given the steps shown below, which of the following is the correct sequence for transmission at a chemical synapse?

1.neurotransmitter binds with receptors associated with the postsynaptic membrane

2.Ca2+ ions rush into neuron’s cytoplasm

3.A postsynaptic potential is created in the postsynaptic membrane

4.Ligand-gated ion channels open

5. Synaptic vesicles release neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft

2,5,1,4,3

41

Action potentials are normally carried in only one direction: from the axon hillock toward the axon terminals. If you experimentally depolarize the middle of the axon to threshold, using an electronic probe, then which would occur

two action potentials will be initiated, one going toward the axon terminal and one going back toward the hillock

42

The equilibrium potential for potassium (K+) is approximately -90 mV. If only K+ channels were present in the membrane of a neuron, and they were allowed to open, what would happen?

K+ ions would diffuse to the outside until the membrane hyperpolarized to -90 mV at which point K+ would continue to diffuse equally in and out of the cell.

43

Embryonic induction, the influence of one group of cells on another group of cells, plays a critical role in embryonic development. In 1924, Hans Spemann and Hilde Mangold transplanted a piece of tissue that influences the formation of the notochord and neural tube, from the dorsal lip of an amphibian embryo to the ventral side of another amphibian embryo. If embryonic induction occurred, which of the following observations justifies the claim of embryonic induction?

The transplanted tissue induced the formation of a second notochord and neural tube on the ventral side of the developing embryo

44

In a typical motor neuron, what is the correct sequence in which these structures usually become involved in transmitting an electrical current

  1. Cell body
  2. Axon
  3. Axon hillock
  4. Dendrites
  5. Synaptic terminals

4,1,3,2,5

45

Resting potential is mostly due to ion movement through which two of the following?

  1. Na+/K+ pumps
  2. Voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels
  3. Ligand-gated Na+ and K+ channels
  4. Voltage-gated Ca^(2+) channels
  5. Na+ and K+ leak channels

1 and 5

46

A team of researchers were looking for opiate receptors in the mammalian brain. Knowing that the drug naloxone blocks the analgesic effect of opiates, they hypothesized that naloxone acts by binding tightly brain opiate receptors without activating them. The researchers added radioactive naloxone to a protein mixture prepared from rodent brains. If the mixture contained opiate receptors or other proteins that could bind naloxone, the radioactivity would stably associate with the mixture. To determine whether the binding was due to specific opiate receptors they tested other drugs, opiate and non-opiate, for their ability to block naloxone binding.

The data from this experiment are expressed using scientific notation: a numerical factor times a power of 10. Remember that a negative power of 10 means a number less than 1. For example, the concentration 10-1M (molar) can also be written as 0.1 M.

Which drugs clocked naloxone binding in this experiment?

morphine, methadone, and levorphanol only

47

A team of researchers were looking for opiate receptors in the mammalian brain. Knowing that the drug naloxone blocks the analgesic effect of opiates, they hypothesized that naloxone acts by binding tightly brain opiate receptors without activating them. The researchers added radioactive naloxone to a protein mixture prepared from rodent brains. If the mixture contained opiate receptors or other proteins that could bind naloxone, the radioactivity would stably associate with the mixture. To determine whether the binding was due to specific opiate receptors they tested other drugs, opiate and non-opiate, for their ability to block naloxone binding.

The data from this experiment are expressed using scientific notation: a numerical factor times a power of 10. Remember that a negative power of 10 means a number less than 1. For example, the concentration 10-1M (molar) can also be written as 0.1 M.

What result did the researchers obtain for atropine, in standard notation?

No effect at 0.0001 M

48

A team of researchers were looking for opiate receptors in the mammalian brain. Knowing that the drug naloxone blocks the analgesic effect of opiates, they hypothesized that naloxone acts by binding tightly brain opiate receptors without activating them. The researchers added radioactive naloxone to a protein mixture prepared from rodent brains. If the mixture contained opiate receptors or other proteins that could bind naloxone, the radioactivity would stably associate with the mixture. To determine whether the binding was due to specific opiate receptors they tested other drugs, opiate and non-opiate, for their ability to block naloxone binding.

The data from this experiment are expressed using scientific notation: a numerical factor times a power of 10. Remember that a negative power of 10 means a number less than 1. For example, the concentration 1 0 -1 M (molar) can also be written as 0.1 M .

When researchers repeated the experiment using tissue from mammalian intestinal muscles rather than brains, they found no naloxone binding. What does this result suggest about opiate receptors in mammalian intestinal muscle tissue?

There are no opiate receptors in mammalian intestinal muscle tissue