Foundations of Biology Final Test 1

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1

Which of the following have a four-chambered heart?

Birds

2

Certain Nutrients are considered "essential" in the diets of some animals because

These animals are not able to synthesis these nutrients

3

Organisms with circulating body fluid that is distinct from the fluid that directly surrounds the body's cells are likely to have a?

Closed circulatory system

4

In the digestive system, peristalsis is?

Smooth muscle contractions that move food along the esophagus

5

Carbon Dioxide levels in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid affect its pH. This enables the organism to sense a disturbance in the gas levels as...?

The medulla oblongata, which is in contact with the cerebrospinal fluid, monitors pH and uses this measure to control breathing.

6

PKU (phenylketonuria) is a hereditary condition, in which infants and young children who ingest the amino acid phenylalanine risk serious neurological damage. However, the risk of damage can be substantially reduced by the severe restriction of phenylalanine in the diet. Which of the following in the nutritional concept that forms the basis for this preventative treatment?

Essential Nutrients

7

Hypoglycemia, or low levels of glucose in the blood of a healthy human, is 'corrected" by a(n)

Increase in secretion of glucagon

8

In a cold and yet survivable environment, an ectoderm is more likely to survive an extended period of food deprivation than would an equally sized endotherm because ectoderms

invest little energy in temperature regulation

9

After surgical removal of an infected gallbladder, a person must be especially careful to restrict his or her dietary intake of?

Fat

10

Coutercurrent exchange in the fish gill helps to maximize

diffusion

11

The bile salts function in fat digestion by?

dispersing big droplets of fats to small droplets

12

The only vertebrates in which the blood flows directly from respiratory organs to body tissues without first returning to the heart are?

Fishes

13

The body's automatic tendency to maintain a constant internal environment is termed

homeostasis

14

Human red blood cells in an artery of the left arm is on its way to deliver oxygen to a cell in the thumb. To travel from the artery to the thumb and the back to the left ventricle, this red blood cell must pass through?

two capillary beds

15

An example of a properly functioning homeostatic control system is seen when?

The kidneys excrete salt into the urine when dietary salt levels rise

16

Without functioning parietal cells an individual would

not be able to initiate protein digestion in the stomach

17

The most important chemical stimuli leading to increased rate and depth of breathing is?

concentration of CO2 in the blood

18

Which common event most closely resembles negative feedback?

The furnace turns off when the temperature in the room reaches the set point

19

After ingestion, the first type of macromolecule to be enzymatically attacked in the human digestive system is?

Carbohydrates

20

In the circulatory system of humans, how is most of the carbon dioxide transported?

Bicarbonate ions in the plasma

21

Stomach acid

activates pepsinogen into pepsin

22

Which of the following organs is incorrectly paired with its function?

Large intestine and bile production

23

An example of a connective tissue is the

Blood

24

An advantage of a complete digestive system over a gastrovascular cavity is that the complete system

allows specialized functions in specialized regions

25

An increase in pH 7.2 to pH 7.4 around hemoglobin causes

an increase in the affinity of hemoglobin to bind to oxygen molecules

26

Increased levels of glucose levels in blood after a meal may trigger

insulin release from the pancreas

27
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Use the figure above to answer this question. When does contraction of the atria begin?

immediately after the P-wave

28

Digestive secretions with a pH of 2 are characteristic of the?

stomach

29

Air rushes into the lungs of humans during inhalation because

the rib muscles and diaphragm are contracted, increasing the lung volume

30

Three types of cells which are present in the gastric glands are responsible for some secretion of gastric juice. ____ cells secrete pepsinogen (an inactive form of digestive enzyme pepsin). _____ cells lubricate and protect the cells lining in the stomach. ____ cells secrete HCl

chief, mucus, parietal

31

Which of the following explains the reason that the velocity of blood blow is the lowest in capillaries?

The total cross-sectional area of the capillaries is greater than the total cross-sectional area of the arteries of any other part of the circulatory system

32

The bile salts

emulsify fats in the duodenum

33

Stomach cells are moderately well adapted to the acidity and protein-digesting activities in the stomach by having

A thick mucous secretion and active mitosis in epithelial cells

34

Why is gas exchange more difficult for aquatic animals with gild than for terrestrial animals with lungs?

water contains much less O2 than air per unit volume

35

A rabbit taken from a meadow near sea level and moved to a meadow high on a mountainside would have some trouble breathing. Why?

the partial pressure of O2 in the air at high elevations is lower than at sea level

36

Cyanide poisons mitochondria by blocking the final step in the electron transport chain. Human red blood cells placed in an isotonic solution containing cyanide are likely to?

be unaffected

37
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The Bohr shift on the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve (see figure 1 below) is produced by changes in?

pH

38

which of the following organisms breathe through tracheae?

insects

39
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Agents that help emulsify fats are produced by?

9

40
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What structures are involved in the digestion of carbohydrates?

1 and 4

41
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the thin horizontal arrows in the figure show that?

The warmer arterial blood transfers hear to the cooler venous blood

42
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What percentage of individuals in the study group had an LDL level below 100 mg/dL?

about 58%

43
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what percentage of individuals in the control group had an LDL level below 100 mg/dL?

17%

44
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Based on these two histograms what conclusion can you draw?

On average, individuals with an inactivating mutation in the PCSK9 gene have lower plasma LDL levels than wild type individuals

45
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How would you compare the risk of cardiovascular disease between the study group and the control group?

the study group has a lower risk than the control group

46
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what is the best explanation for the fact that the two histograms overlap as much as they do?

many factors in addition to PCSK9 enzyme activity affect plasma LDL levels

47
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Now consider two individuals with a plasma LDL level of 160 Mg/dL, one from the study group and one from the control group. What do you predict regarding their relative risk for cardiovascular disease?

the risk is equal because their LDL levels are the same

48

The direction of blood flow in the fish gills is opposite the direction of eater flow past the gills. Which of the following should be expected if the structural relationship represents a countercurrent exchange mechanism for O2?

A net movement of oxygen from water into blood occurs along the entire distance where blood and water are in close contact

49
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What percentage of the mouse's energy budget goes to basal metabolism?

about 25%

50
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without considering the sizes of wedges, how do three pie charts differ in which function they include?

unlike the penguin and the mouse charts the python chart included growth but does not include thermoregulation