Human Anatomy & Physiology: Ch 24. Flashcards


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1

When ketone bodies are present in the blood and urine in large amounts, it usually indicates increased metabolism of _______.

Fatty Acids

2

The hormone responsible for setting basal metabolic rate is ____.

Thyroxine

3

The term metabolic rate includes ___.

The total heat produced by the body

4

True or False

Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is an antioxidant.

True

5

Many factors influence BMR. What is the most critical?

The ratio of surface area to volume (weight) of the body.

6

Which of the following factors makes it harder for an obese person to lose weight?
A) An increase in alpha receptors (the kind that favor fat accumulation) in fat cells
B) An increase in taste receptors
C) An increase in metabolism that increases the appetite
D) An increase in thyroxine levels as fat levels accumulate

A. An increase in alpha receptors (the kind that favor fat accumulation) in fat cells

7

Dietary fats are important because _____.

They help the body absorb fat-soluble vitamins.

8

A diet rich in minerals would include which of the following foods?
A) fats, sugars, and apples
B) refined cereals, grains, and rye bread
C) legumes, milk, and pork
D) eggs, bacon, and pizza

C. legumes, milk, and pork

9

Which of the following statements best describes complete protein?
A) derived from meat and fish only
B) meets all the minimum daily requirements for a healthy diet
C) derived only from legumes and other plant material
D) must meet all the body's amino acid requirements for maintenance and growth

B. must meet all the body's amino acid requirements for maintenance and growth

10

True or False

The term essential nutrient refers to the chemicals that can be interconverted in the liver so that the body can maintain life and good health.

False

11

True or False

Except for lactose and some glycogen, the carbohydrates we ingest are mainly from animals.

False

12

All of the following are considered major nutrients except
A)
vitamins.
B) carbohydrates.
C) protein.
D) lipids.

Vitmains

13

The most abundant dietary lipids are _______

Triglycerides

14

Soluble fibers are found in ______ and help to lower cholesterol.

Apples

15

Digestion of carbohydrates begins in the ____.

Mouth

16

Protein digestion starts in the ___.

Stomach

17

What are the functions of the liver?

  • Bile production and excretion
  • Excretion of bilirubin, cholesterol, hormones, and drugs
  • Metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates
  • Enzyme activation
  • Storage of glycogen, vitamins, and minerals
  • Synthesis of plasma proteins, such as albumin, and clotting factors
  • Blood detoxification and purification
18

What is the functional unit of the kidney?

The nephron

19

What is the main function of the large intestine/colon?

To reabsorb water to make a more compact waste

20

The junction at the large and small intestine is called the ____.

cecum

21

The site of electron transport is the _________________.

Mitochondrial inner membrane

22

Excess amino acids in the diet are __________.

Are oxidized for energy or converted to carbohydrates or fats.

23

True or False

Anabolism is a building process where larger molecules are built from smaller ones while catabolism is a tearing down process where complex structures are degraded to simpler ones.

True

24

Which nutrient functions as coenzymes and are needed in only small amounts?

Vitamins

25

In what organelle would you find acetyl CoA formation, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain?

Mitochondrian

26

Which of the following process takes place in the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell?
A) Glycolysis
B) Citric Acid Cycle
C) Electron Transport Chain
D) Acetyl CoA Formations

A. Glycolysis

27

What is glycolysis?

A process that splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each glucose.

28

What is the citric acid cycle?

A process that produces some ATP and carbon dioxide in the mitochondrion.

29

What is the electron transport chain?

A process that uses energy captured form electrons flowing to oxygen to produce most of the ATPs in cellular respiration.

30

What is the sequence of steps as energy is extracted from glucose during cellular respiration?

glycolysis-> acetyl CoA-> citric acid cycle-> electron transport chain

31

What is the general equation for cellular respiration?

C6H1206 + 6 O2 -> 6 CO2 + 6 H20 + ATP energy

32

In what organelle would you find acetyl CoA formation, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain?

Mitochondrion

33

What process takes place in the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell?

glycolysis

34

What term describes the breakdown of stored fats into glycerol and fatty acids?

Lipolysis

35

The body's rate of kilocalorie consumption needed to fuel all ongoing activities is called the ____.

Total metabolic rate

36

What hormone is called the "metabolic" hormone?

Thyroxine

37

During ketosis caused by inadequate ingestion of carbohydrates, _____.

the glyocgen content of the liver is reduced.

38

One of the reasons why statins are effective in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease is ______.

they decrease the incidence of cholesterol deposition in arterial walls.

39

Although both conditions share the common characteristic of elevated body temperature, hyperthermia is technically different from fever because ______.

fever is a condition in which there is a change in the body's temperature set-point

40

In the case of a person who consumes a normal, balanced diet, proteins are essential to the body for all of the following except ______

production of energy