Chapter 13

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Microbiology
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1

Infection

Occurs when pathogens enter and multiply in body tissues

2

Infectious disease

Caused by microorganisms or their products

3

Normal flora

Resident, indigenous, normal microflora

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Endogenous infectious agents

Arise from microbes that are the patient's own normal flora

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The human body typically begins to be colonized by its normal flora...

During, and immediately after birth

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Resident flora are found...

On/in the skin, mouth, nasal passages, and large intestine

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Resident flora of the skin

Staphlococcus, Corynebacterium, Micrococcus, Mycobacterium

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Resident flora of intestines

Bacteroides

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Resident flora of mouth, large intestine, and from puberty to menopause, the vagina

Lactobacillus

10

Most common resident flora of mouth surfaces

Streptococcus

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Resident flora that produces beneficial body products, including vitamin K and several other vitamins

Large intestine

12

Virulence factors

Capsules, exoenzymes, endotoxin, exotoxin

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STORCH

Represents most common infections of the fetus and neonate

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Examples of exoenzymes

Microbial hyaluronidase, coagulase, and streptokinase

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Exotoxins

Are proteins

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Enterotoxins

Are virulence factors, toxins that target the intestines, proteins, exotoxins

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Fimbraie

Adherence to substrate

18

Capsules

Antiphagocytic factor

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Leukocidins

Damage WBCs

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Hemolysins

Damage RBCs

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Period of invasion

Specific signs and symptoms are seen and the pathogen is at peak activity

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The time from when pathogen first enters the body and begins to multiply, until symptoms first appear

Incubation period

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Prodromal Stage

Initial, brief period of early, general symptoms such as fatigue and muscle aches

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Mixed infection

Several agents established at infection site

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Acute infection

Rapid onset of severe, short-lived symptoms

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Local infection

Pathogen remains at or near entry site

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Toxemia

Pathogen's toxins carried by the blood to target tissues

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Symptom

The subjective evidence of disease sensed by the patient

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Sign

The objective, measurable evidence of disease evaluated by an observer

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Inflammation

Local edema, swollen lymph nodes, fever, soreness, and abscesses

31

Immunology

The study of frequency and distribution of a disease in a defined population