The male wasp, Campsoscolia ciliata, transfers pollen from one orchid
to another orchid of the same species. What "reward" does
the male wasp receive from the orchid plants for helping with the
A) a supply of energy-rich nectar
B) volatile chemical hormones that help the male wasp find a sexually receptive female
C) no reward; the male wasp is deceived by the flower shape and odor
D) successful copulation with the flower
E) a store of nectar that the wasp can use in time of famine
Which of the following best describes the ploidy level of a
fertilized embryo sac?
A) All cells are diploid.
B) All cells are triploid.
C) All cells are polyploid.
D) The ploidy level varies among species.
E) There are haploid, diploid, and triploid cells.
When comparing the mature seeds of a pine tree to an apple tree,
which of the following is a correct statement?
A) The developmental sequences postfertilization are identical.
B) Both contain triploid tissue.
C) The nutritive tissues are both haploid.
D) Only the apple seed has a diploid seed coat.
E) Both contain haploid and diploid tissues.
A mature, unfertilized ovule in an angiosperm is the result of
A) a single meiotic division.
B) a single mitotic division.
C) both meiotic and mitotic divisions.
D) mitosis from the megaspore mother cell.
E) differentiation from the suspensor tissues.
At the conclusion of meiosis in plants, the end products are always
Which of the following is the correct sequence during the alternation
of generations life cycle in a flowering plant?
A) sporophyte → meiosis → gametophyte → gametes → fertilization → diploid zygote
B) sporophyte → mitosis → gametophyte → meiosis → sporophyte
C) haploid gametophyte → gametes → meiosis → fertilization → diploid sporophyte
D) sporophyte → spores → meiosis → gametophyte → gametes
E) haploid sporophyte → spores → fertilization → diploid gametophyte
Which of the following is true in plants?
A) Mitosis occurs in gametophytes to produce gametes.
B) Meiosis occurs in sporophytes to produce spores.
C) The gametophyte is within the flower in angiosperms.
D) Mitosis occurs in gametophytes to produce gametes, and meiosis occurs in sporophytes to produce spores.
E) Mitosis occurs in gametophytes to produce gametes, meiosis occurs in sporophytes to produce spores, and the gametophyte is within the flower in angiosperms.
Which of the following are true of most angiosperms?
A) They have a triploid endosperm within the seed.
B) They have an ovary that becomes a fruit.
C) They have a small (reduced) sporophyte.
D) They have a triploid endosperm within the seed and an ovary that becomes a fruit.
E) They have a triploid endosperm within the seed, an ovary that becomes a fruit, and a small (reduced) sporophyte.
Based on studies of plant evolution and anatomy, which flower part is
least likely to have evolved from a leaf?
All of the following floral parts are involved in pollination or
fertilization except the
The ovary is most often located on/in the
Microsporangia in flowering plants are located in the
All of the following are primary functions of flowers except
A) pollen production.
D) egg production.
E) sexual reproduction.
Meiosis occurs within all of the following flower parts except the
Which of the following statements regarding flowering plants is
A) The sporophyte is the dominant generation.
B) Female gametophytes develop from megaspores within the anthers.
C) Pollination is the placing of pollen on the stigma of a carpel.
D) The food-storing endosperm is derived from the cell that contains two polar nuclei and one sperm nucleus.
E) Flowers produce fruits within the ovules.
Which of the following types of plants are incapable of
In flowering plants, pollen is released from the
E) pollen tube.
In the life cycle of an angiosperm, which of the following stages is
B) generative nucleus of a pollen grain
C) polar nuclei of the embryo sac
E) both megaspore and polar nuclei
Where does meiosis occur in flowering plants?
D) pollen tube
E) megasporocyte and microsporocyte
Which of the following is a correct sequence of processes that takes
place when a flowering plant reproduces?
A) meiosis → fertilization → ovulation → germination
B) fertilization → meiosis → nuclear fusion → formation of embryo and endosperm
C) meiosis → pollination → nuclear fusion → formation of embryo and endosperm
D) growth of pollen tube → pollination → germination → fertilization
E) meiosis → mitosis → nuclear fusion → pollen
Which of the following is incorrectly paired with its life-cycle
C) embryo sacgametophyte
Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in a pollen
A) sporangia → meiosis → two haploid cells → meiosis → two pollen grains per cell
B) pollen grain → meiosis → two generative cells → two tube cells per pollen grain
C) two haploid cells → meiosis → generative cell → tube cell-fertilization → pollen grain
D) pollen grain → mitosis → microspores → meiosis → generative cell plus tube cell
E) microsporocyte → meiosis → microspores → mitosis → two haploid cells per pollen grain
Which of the following occurs in an angiosperm ovule?
A) An antheridium forms from the megasporophyte.
B) A megaspore mother cell undergoes meiosis.
C) The egg nucleus is usually diploid.
D) A pollen tube emerges to accept pollen after pollination.
E) The endosperm surrounds the megaspore mother cell.
Where and by which process are sperm cells formed in plants?
A) meiosis in pollen grains
B) meiosis in anthers
C) mitosis in male gametophyte pollen tube
D) mitosis in the micropyle
E) mitosis in the embryo sac
Which of the following is the male gametophyte of a flowering plant?
C) pollen grain
D) embryo sac
In flowering plants, a mature male gametophyte contains
A) two haploid gametes and a diploid pollen grain.
B) a generative cell and a tube cell.
C) two sperm nuclei and one tube cell nucleus.
D) two haploid microspores.
E) a haploid nucleus and a diploid pollen wall.
What is the difference between pollination and fertilization in
A) Fertilization precedes pollination.
B) Pollination easily occurs between plants of different species, whereas fertilization is within a species.
C) Pollen is formed within megasporangia so that male and female gametes are near each other.
D) Pollination is the transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma. Fertilization is the fusion of haploid nuclei.
E) If fertilization occurs, pollination is unnecessary.
The primary function of the integument of an ovule is to
A) protect against animal predation.
B) ensure double fertilization.
C) form a seed coat.
D) direct development of the endosperm.
E) produce hormones that ensure successful pollination.
What is typically the result of double fertilization in angiosperms?
A) The endosperm develops into a diploid nutrient tissue.
B) A triploid zygote is formed.
C) Both a diploid embryo and triploid endosperm are formed.
D) Two embryos develop in every seed.
E) The antipodal cells develop into the seed coat.
Which of the following is an advantage of sexual reproduction as
opposed to asexual reproduction?
A) increased genetic variation in progeny
B) enhanced mitosis
C) more stable populations
D) rapid increases in population due to high seed production
E) higher reproductive success
A seed develops from
A) an ovum.
B) a pollen grain.
C) an ovule.
D) an ovary.
E) an embryo.
A fruit is
A) a mature ovary.
B) a mature ovule.
C) a seed plus its integuments.
D) a fused carpel.
E) an enlarged embryo sac.
Double fertilization means that
A) flowers must be pollinated twice to yield fruits and seeds.
B) every egg must receive two sperm to produce an embryo.
C) one sperm is needed to fertilize the egg, and a second sperm is needed to fertilize the polar nuclei.
D) the egg of the embryo sac is diploid.
E) every sperm has two nuclei.
All of the following are plant adaptations to life on land except
A) tracheids and vessels.
B) root hairs.
D) the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis.
The ancestors of land plants were aquatic algae. Which of the
following is not an evolutionary adaptation to life on land?
A) C₃ photosynthesis
B) a waxy cuticle
C) root hairs
D) xylem and phloem
E) guard cells
Which structure or compartment is not part of the plant's apoplast?
A) the lumen of a xylem vessel
B) the lumen of a sieve tube
C) the cell wall of a mesophyll cell
D) the cell wall of a transfer cell
E) the cell wall of a root hair
Given that early land plants most likely share a common ancestor with
green algae, the earliest land plants were most likely
A) nonvascular plants that grew leafless photosynthetic shoots above the shallow fresh water in which they lived.
B) species that did not exhibit alternation of generations.
C) vascular plants with well-defined root systems.
D) plants with well-developed leaves.
E) species with a well-developed, thick cuticle.
All of the following have an effect on water potential in plants
A) physical pressure.
B) water-attracting matrices.
C) dissolved solutes.
E) DNA structure.
Which of the following statements is false about bulk flow?
A) It is driven primarily by pressure potential.
B) It is more effective than diffusion over distances greater than 100 μm.
C) It depends on a difference in pressure potential at the source and sink.
D) It depends on the force of gravity on a column of water.
E) It may be the result of either positive or negative pressure potential.
In plant roots, the Casparian strip is correctly described by which
of the following?
A) It aids in the uptake of nutrients.
B) It provides energy for the active transport of minerals into the stele from the cortex.
C) It ensures that all minerals are absorbed from the soil in equal amounts.
D) It ensures that all water and dissolved substances must pass through a cell membrane before entering the stele.
E) It provides increased surface area for the absorption of mineral nutrients.
Pine seedlings grown in sterile potting soil grow much slower than
seedlings grown in soil from the area where the seeds were collected.
This is most likely because
A) the sterilization process kills the root hairs as they emerge from the seedling.
B) the normal symbiotic fungi are not present in the sterilized soil.
C) sterilization removes essential nutrients from the soil.
D) water and mineral uptake is faster when mycorrhizae are present.
E) B and D.
The following factors may sometimes play a role in the movement of
sap through xylem. Which one depends on the direct expenditure of ATP
by the plant?
A) capillarity of water within the xylem
B) evaporation of water from leaves
C) cohesion among water molecules
D) concentration of ions in the symplast
E) bulk flow of water in the root apoplast
What drives the flow of water through the xylem?
A) passive transport by the endodermis
B) the number of companion cells in the phloem
C) the evaporation of water from the leaves
D) active transport by sieve-tube elements
E) active transport by tracheid and vessel elements
Which of the following is responsible for the cohesion of water
A) hydrogen bonds between the oxygen atoms of a water molecule and cellulose in a vessel cell
B) covalent bonds between the hydrogen atoms of two adjacent water molecules
C) hydrogen bonds between the oxygen atom of one water molecule and a hydrogen atom of another water molecule
D) covalent bonds between the oxygen atom of one water molecule and a hydrogen atom of another water molecule
E) low concentrations of charged solutes in the fluid