Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology: The Brain and Cranial Nerves Flashcards
The major region of the brain responsible for conscious thought processes, sensations, intellectual functions, memory, and complex motor patterns is the:
The cerebrum of the adult brain ultimately forms from the:
The slender canal that connects the third ventricle with the fourth ventricle is the:
aqueduct of Sylvius
Mechanical protection for the brain is provided by:
the bones of the skull
Which of the following structures does not provide protection and shock absorption for the brain?
the carotid arteries and jugular veins
Which of the following statements about the choroid plexus is (are) correct?
a. It consists of specialized ependymal cells that produce CSF.
b. Its product, CSF, has a composition distinctly different from that of blood.
c. It can be found in the third ventricle, lateral ventricles, and fourth ventricle.
All Three a,b,and c
Monitoring the composition of the CSF and removal of waste products from the CSF occurs in the:
Why might damage to the pons be sufficient to cause death?
The pons contains the pneumotaxic and apneustic centers.
The cardiovascular centers and the respiratory rhythmicity centers are located in the:
In the medulla oblongata, the relay stations along sensory or motor pathways consist of the:
nucleus gracilis and nucleus cuneatus
The pons links the cerebellum with the:
a. brain stem
c. spinal cord
All Three, A, B, and C
Excess cerebrospinal fluid is returned to the venous circulation by:
diffusion across the arachnoid villi
Coordination and refinement of learned movement patterns at the subconscious level are performed by the:
The corpora quadrigemina of the mesencephalon are responsible for processing:
visual and auditory sensations
The epithalamus, thalamus, and hypothalamus are anatomical structures of the:
Relay and processing centers for sensory information are found in the:
The sea horse–like structure in the limbic system responsible for storage and retrieval of new long-term memories is the:
The functional role of the limbic system serves to identify its role as a:
Assume that as you are taking this practice exam, you are concentrating and giving it your full attention. If you were connected to an EEG at this moment, what type of brain waves would it record?
The masses of gray matter that lie within each cerebral hemisphere deep to the floor of the lateral ventricle are the:
The neurons in the primary sensory cortex receive somatic sensory information from:
touch, pressure, pain, taste, and temperature receptors
The somatic motor association area is responsible for the:
coordination of learned motor responses
Which of the following facial nerves does not supply the tongue?
vagus nerves (X)
Pyramidal cells are cortical neurons that:
direct voluntary movements
A loud noise produces a tympanic reflex that results in:
reduced movement of auditory ossicles
The versatility of the brain to respond to stimuli is greater than that of the spinal cord because of:
the number of neurons and complex interconnections between the neurons
The mesencephalon, or midbrain, processes:
visual and auditory information and generates involuntary motor responses
An individual with a damaged visual association area:
can see letters clearly but cannot recognize or interpret them
The three major groups of axons that comprise the central white matter are:
association, commissural, and projection fibers
Which of the following statements about the basal nuclei is false?
a. They provide general pattern and rhythm for established movements.
b. They initiate skeletal movements such as walking and stopping.
c. They adjust muscle tone in the appendicular skeleton to set body position during movement.
d. They include the caudate nucleus, lentiform nucleus, globus pallidus, and putamen.
IT IS false - They initiate skeletal movements such as walking and stopping.All the others are true.
David hears a strange noise at his back door late one night. It sounds like someone is trying to break into his home. He automatically goes into a "fight or flight" response. What part of the limbic system helps control the flight-or-flight response?
The mamillary bodies in the floor of the hypothalamus contain motor nuclei that control the reflex movements involved with:
chewing, licking, and swallowing
Hypothalamic or thalamic stimulation that depresses reticular formation activity in the brain stem results in:
generalized lethargy or actual sleep
The pineal gland, an endocrine structure that secretes the hormone melatonin, is found in the:
The pulvinar nuclei of the thalamus integrate:
sensory information for projection to the association areas of the cerebral cortex
The part(s) of the diencephalon responsible for coordination of activities of the central nervous system and the endocrine system is (are) the:
The hypothalamus produces and secretes the hormones:
ADH and oxytocin
The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus:
The nerve fiber bundles on the ventrolateral surfaces of the mesencephalon are the:
The effortless serve of a tennis player is a result of establishing:
cerebellar motor patterns
Which of the following statements about a subdural hemorrhage is true?
A break in a vein may cause blood to flow to the meningeal layer of the dura mater and down to the arachnoid layer.
The centers in the pons that modify the activity of the respiratory rhythmicity center in the medulla oblongata are the:
apneustic and pneumotaxic centers
A buildup of CSF in the cranial cavity can lead to:
a. enlargement of the cranium in infants.
b. "water on the brain" or hydrocephaly.
c. compression of brain tissue and impairment of neural function.
All three are correct. A,B, and C
Which of the following supply fresh blood, with oxygen and nutrients, to the brain?
internal carotid and vertebral arteries
Neural tissue in the CNS is isolated from the general circulation by the:
The CSF reaches the subarachnoid space via:
three holes in the fourth ventricle
The blood-brain barrier remains intact throughout the CNS, except in:
portions of the hypothalamus and the choroid plexus
The central white matter of the cerebrum is found:
beneath the neural cortex and around the cerebral nuclei
If visual information has been processed in Jennifer's right visual association area and impulses are then sent to her right prefrontal cortex to be used in decision making, which type of white fiber carries the information to her prefrontal cortex?
What is the effect on the right eye when a bright light is shown into the left eye?
The consensual light reflex will occur.
For more hints. Use all of the resource files you are given in your course.